L. G. Shirley, E. E. Arieal, G. R. Hallerman, H. C. Payson, J. R. Vivilecchia, “Advanced techniques for target discrimination using laser speckle,” Mass. Inst. Technol. Lincoln Lab. J. 5, 367–440 (1992).

G. D. Boreman, Y. Sun, A. B. James, “Generation of laser speckle with an integrating sphere,” Opt. Eng. 29, 339–342 (1990).

[CrossRef]

J. A. Fox, C. R. Gautier, J. L. Ahl, “Practical consideration for the design of CO2 lidar systems,” Appl. Opt. 27, 847–855 (1988).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

W. B. Grant, A. M. Brothers, J. R. Bogan, “Differential absorption lidar signal averaging,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1934–1938 (1988).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

N. Menyuk, D. K. Killinger, C. R. Menyuk, “Error reduction in laser remote sensing: combined effects of cross correlation and signal averaging,” Appl. Opt. 24, 118–131 (1985).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

R. E. Warren, “Effect of pulse-pair correlation on differential absorption lidar,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3472–3475 (1985).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H. Ahlberg, S. Lundqvist, M. S. Shumate, U. Persson, “Analysis of errors caused by optical interference effects in wavelength-diverse CO2 laser long-path systems,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3917–3923 (1985).

[CrossRef]

Y. Sasano, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, “Error caused by using a constant extinction/backscattering ratio in the lidar solution,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3929–3932 (1985).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. K. Killinger, N. Menyuk, “Effect of turbulence-induced correlation on laser remote sensing errors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 968–970 (1981).

[CrossRef]

F. James, M. Roos, “Errors on ratios of small number of events,” Nucl. Phys. B 172, 475–480 (1980).

[CrossRef]

R. M. Schotland, “Errors in the lidar measurement of atmospheric gases by differential absorption,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 71–77 (1974).

[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, “Some effects of target-induced scintillation on optical radar performance,” Proc. IEEE 53, 1688–1700 (1965).

[CrossRef]

L. G. Shirley, E. E. Arieal, G. R. Hallerman, H. C. Payson, J. R. Vivilecchia, “Advanced techniques for target discrimination using laser speckle,” Mass. Inst. Technol. Lincoln Lab. J. 5, 367–440 (1992).

T. Okamoto, T. Asakura, “The statistics of dynamic speckles,” Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1995), Vol. 34, pp. 183–248.

[CrossRef]

P. R. Bevington, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969).

G. D. Boreman, Y. Sun, A. B. James, “Generation of laser speckle with an integrating sphere,” Opt. Eng. 29, 339–342 (1990).

[CrossRef]

G. E. P. Box, G. M. Jenkins, G. C. Reinsel, Time Series Analysis: Forecasting and Control (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1994), pp. 30–31.

G. E. Busch, “Speckle error in transmitter energy measurement,” (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Chemical Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos, N. Mex., 1996), pp. 1–6.

S. J. Czuchlewski, “Speckle effects with integrating spheres,” (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Chemical Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos, N. Mex., 1996), pp. 1–6.

J. W. Goodman, “Some effects of target-induced scintillation on optical radar performance,” Proc. IEEE 53, 1688–1700 (1965).

[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, “Statistical properties of laser speckle patterns,” in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, 2nd ed., J. C. Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984), Chap. 2.

L. G. Shirley, E. E. Arieal, G. R. Hallerman, H. C. Payson, J. R. Vivilecchia, “Advanced techniques for target discrimination using laser speckle,” Mass. Inst. Technol. Lincoln Lab. J. 5, 367–440 (1992).

G. D. Boreman, Y. Sun, A. B. James, “Generation of laser speckle with an integrating sphere,” Opt. Eng. 29, 339–342 (1990).

[CrossRef]

F. James, M. Roos, “Errors on ratios of small number of events,” Nucl. Phys. B 172, 475–480 (1980).

[CrossRef]

G. M. Jenkins, D. G. Watts, Spectral analysis and its applications (Holden-Day, San Francisco, Calif., 1968), pp. 155–289.

G. E. P. Box, G. M. Jenkins, G. C. Reinsel, Time Series Analysis: Forecasting and Control (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1994), pp. 30–31.

N. Menyuk, D. K. Killinger, C. R. Menyuk, “Error reduction in laser remote sensing: combined effects of cross correlation and signal averaging,” Appl. Opt. 24, 118–131 (1985).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

N. Menyuk, D. K. Killinger, “Assessment of relative error sources in IR DIAL measurement accuracy,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2690–2698 (1983).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

N. Menyuk, D. K. Killinger, C. R. Menyuk, “Limitations of signal averaging due to temporal correlation in laser remote-sensing measurements,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3377–3383 (1982).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. K. Killinger, N. Menyuk, “Effect of turbulence-induced correlation on laser remote sensing errors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 968–970 (1981).

[CrossRef]

W. R. Leo, Techniques for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987), Chap. 4.

[CrossRef]

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing, Fundamentals and Applications (Krieger, Malabar, Fla., 1992).

N. Menyuk, D. K. Killinger, C. R. Menyuk, “Error reduction in laser remote sensing: combined effects of cross correlation and signal averaging,” Appl. Opt. 24, 118–131 (1985).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

N. Menyuk, D. K. Killinger, C. R. Menyuk, “Limitations of signal averaging due to temporal correlation in laser remote-sensing measurements,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3377–3383 (1982).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

N. Menyuk, D. K. Killinger, C. R. Menyuk, “Error reduction in laser remote sensing: combined effects of cross correlation and signal averaging,” Appl. Opt. 24, 118–131 (1985).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

N. Menyuk, D. K. Killinger, “Assessment of relative error sources in IR DIAL measurement accuracy,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2690–2698 (1983).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

N. Menyuk, D. K. Killinger, C. R. Menyuk, “Limitations of signal averaging due to temporal correlation in laser remote-sensing measurements,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3377–3383 (1982).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. K. Killinger, N. Menyuk, “Effect of turbulence-induced correlation on laser remote sensing errors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 968–970 (1981).

[CrossRef]

S. L. Meyer, Data Analysis for Scientists and Engineers (Wiley, New York, 1975).

T. Okamoto, T. Asakura, “The statistics of dynamic speckles,” Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1995), Vol. 34, pp. 183–248.

[CrossRef]

A Papoulis, Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965), Chap. 5.

G. Parry, “Speckle patterns in partially coherent light,” in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, 2nd ed., J. C. Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984), Chap. 3.

L. G. Shirley, E. E. Arieal, G. R. Hallerman, H. C. Payson, J. R. Vivilecchia, “Advanced techniques for target discrimination using laser speckle,” Mass. Inst. Technol. Lincoln Lab. J. 5, 367–440 (1992).

G. E. P. Box, G. M. Jenkins, G. C. Reinsel, Time Series Analysis: Forecasting and Control (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1994), pp. 30–31.

F. James, M. Roos, “Errors on ratios of small number of events,” Nucl. Phys. B 172, 475–480 (1980).

[CrossRef]

R. M. Schotland, “Errors in the lidar measurement of atmospheric gases by differential absorption,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 71–77 (1974).

[CrossRef]

L. G. Shirley, E. E. Arieal, G. R. Hallerman, H. C. Payson, J. R. Vivilecchia, “Advanced techniques for target discrimination using laser speckle,” Mass. Inst. Technol. Lincoln Lab. J. 5, 367–440 (1992).

J. S. Simonoff, Smoothing Methods in Statistics (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996), Chap. 2.

[CrossRef]

G. D. Boreman, Y. Sun, A. B. James, “Generation of laser speckle with an integrating sphere,” Opt. Eng. 29, 339–342 (1990).

[CrossRef]

L. G. Shirley, E. E. Arieal, G. R. Hallerman, H. C. Payson, J. R. Vivilecchia, “Advanced techniques for target discrimination using laser speckle,” Mass. Inst. Technol. Lincoln Lab. J. 5, 367–440 (1992).

G. M. Jenkins, D. G. Watts, Spectral analysis and its applications (Holden-Day, San Francisco, Calif., 1968), pp. 155–289.

N. Menyuk, D. K. Killinger, C. R. Menyuk, “Limitations of signal averaging due to temporal correlation in laser remote-sensing measurements,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3377–3383 (1982).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

N. Menyuk, D. K. Killinger, “Assessment of relative error sources in IR DIAL measurement accuracy,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2690–2698 (1983).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

N. Menyuk, D. K. Killinger, C. R. Menyuk, “Error reduction in laser remote sensing: combined effects of cross correlation and signal averaging,” Appl. Opt. 24, 118–131 (1985).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

R. E. Warren, “Effect of pulse-pair correlation on differential absorption lidar,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3472–3475 (1985).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H. Ahlberg, S. Lundqvist, M. S. Shumate, U. Persson, “Analysis of errors caused by optical interference effects in wavelength-diverse CO2 laser long-path systems,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3917–3923 (1985).

[CrossRef]

Y. Sasano, E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, “Error caused by using a constant extinction/backscattering ratio in the lidar solution,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3929–3932 (1985).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

W. B. Grant, “He–Ne and cw CO2 laser long-path systems for gas detection,” Appl. Opt. 25, 709–719 (1986).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. J. T. Milton, P. T. Woods, “Pulse averaging methods for a laser remote monitoring system using atmospheric backscatter,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2598–2603 (1987).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. A. Fox, C. R. Gautier, J. L. Ahl, “Practical consideration for the design of CO2 lidar systems,” Appl. Opt. 27, 847–855 (1988).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

W. B. Grant, A. M. Brothers, J. R. Bogan, “Differential absorption lidar signal averaging,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1934–1938 (1988).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

E. P. MacKerrow, M. J. Schmitt, “Measurement of integrated speckle statistics for CO2 lidar returns from a moving, non-uniform, hard-target,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6921–6937 (1997).

[CrossRef]

D. K. Killinger, N. Menyuk, “Effect of turbulence-induced correlation on laser remote sensing errors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 968–970 (1981).

[CrossRef]

R. M. Schotland, “Errors in the lidar measurement of atmospheric gases by differential absorption,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 71–77 (1974).

[CrossRef]

L. G. Shirley, E. E. Arieal, G. R. Hallerman, H. C. Payson, J. R. Vivilecchia, “Advanced techniques for target discrimination using laser speckle,” Mass. Inst. Technol. Lincoln Lab. J. 5, 367–440 (1992).

F. James, M. Roos, “Errors on ratios of small number of events,” Nucl. Phys. B 172, 475–480 (1980).

[CrossRef]

G. D. Boreman, Y. Sun, A. B. James, “Generation of laser speckle with an integrating sphere,” Opt. Eng. 29, 339–342 (1990).

[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, “Some effects of target-induced scintillation on optical radar performance,” Proc. IEEE 53, 1688–1700 (1965).

[CrossRef]

P. R. Bevington, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969).

W. R. Leo, Techniques for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987), Chap. 4.

[CrossRef]

T. Okamoto, T. Asakura, “The statistics of dynamic speckles,” Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1995), Vol. 34, pp. 183–248.

[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, “Statistical properties of laser speckle patterns,” in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, 2nd ed., J. C. Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984), Chap. 2.

G. Parry, “Speckle patterns in partially coherent light,” in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, 2nd ed., J. C. Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984), Chap. 3.

G. E. Busch, “Speckle error in transmitter energy measurement,” (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Chemical Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos, N. Mex., 1996), pp. 1–6.

S. J. Czuchlewski, “Speckle effects with integrating spheres,” (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Chemical Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos, N. Mex., 1996), pp. 1–6.

American National Standard for Information Systems, IEEE Standard for Binary Floating-Point Numbers, (IEEE, New York, 1985).

S. L. Meyer, Data Analysis for Scientists and Engineers (Wiley, New York, 1975).

This integral was evaluated using the software Mathematica Version 3.0 (Wolfram Research, Inc., Champaign, Ill., 1996).

A Papoulis, Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965), Chap. 5.

J. S. Simonoff, Smoothing Methods in Statistics (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996), Chap. 2.

[CrossRef]

G. E. P. Box, G. M. Jenkins, G. C. Reinsel, Time Series Analysis: Forecasting and Control (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1994), pp. 30–31.

G. M. Jenkins, D. G. Watts, Spectral analysis and its applications (Holden-Day, San Francisco, Calif., 1968), pp. 155–289.

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing, Fundamentals and Applications (Krieger, Malabar, Fla., 1992).