Abstract

The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III, scheduled for a first launch in mid-1998, will be making measurements of the extinction that is due to aerosols and gases at many wavelengths between 385 and 1550 nm. In the troposphere and wintertime polar stratosphere, extinction will also occur because of the presence of cloud along the optical path from the Sun to the satellite instrument. We describe a method for separating the effects of aerosol and cloud using the extinction at 525, 1020, and 1550 nm and present the results of simulation studies. These studies show that the new method will work well under background nonvolcanic aerosol conditions in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Under conditions of severe volcanic contamination, the error rate for the separation of aerosol and cloud may rise as high as 30%.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Zawodny, L. E. Mauldin, J. R. McMaster, “Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III), aerosol and trace gas measurements from Earth Observing System (EOS),” in Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Chemistry, J. L. McElroy, R. J. McNeal, eds., Proc. SPIE1491, 125–141 (1991).
  2. M. P. McCormick, J. M. Zawodny, W. P. Chu, J. W. Baer, J Guy, A Ray, “Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III),” in Sensor Systems for the Early Earth Observing System Platforms, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE1939, 137–147 (1993).
  3. G. S. Kent, D. M. Winker, M. T. Osborn, K. M. Skeens, “A model for the separation of cloud and aerosol in SAGE II occultation data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20725–20735 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. P. McCormick, R. E. Veiga, “SAGE II measurements of early Mount Pinatubo aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 155–158 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. E. Woodbury, M. P. McCormick, “Global distributions of cirrus clouds determined from SAGE data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 1180–1183 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. E. Woodbury, M. P. McCormick, “Zonal and geographical distribution of cirrus clouds determined from SAGE data,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 2775–2785 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. W. Chiou, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, G. K. Yue, “Distributions of cirrus determined from SAGE II occultation measurements between November 1984 and October 1988,” presented at the Conference on Cloud Physics, American Meteorological Society, San Francisco, Calif., 23–27 July 1990.
  8. G. S. Kent, E. R. Williams, P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, K. M. Skeens, “Surface temperature related variations in tropical cirrus cloud as measured by SAGE II,” J. Clim. 8, 2577–2594 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. S. Kent, M. P. McCormick, “Separation of cloud and aerosol in two-wavelength satellite occultation data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 428–431 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Sassen, M. K. Griffin, G. C. Dodd, “Optical scattering and microphysical properties of subvisual cirrus clouds, and climatic implications,” J. Appl. Meterol. 28, 91–98 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Sassen, B. S. Cho, “Subvisual-thin cirrus lidar dataset for satellite verification and climatological research,” J. Appl. Meterol. 31, 1275–1285 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, L. R. Poole, W. P. Chu, G. K. Yue, G. S. Kent, K. M. Skeens, “Tropical high cloud characteristics derived from SAGE II extinction measurements,” Atmos. Res. 34, 53–83 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
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  16. T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of Mount Pinatubo aerosol during 1991 and 1992 at 41 ̊N: vertical profiles, size distribution, and volatility,” J. Geophys. Res. 20, 1435–1438 (1993).
  17. G. K. Yue, M. P. McCormick, E. W. Chiou, “Stratospheric aerosol optical depth observed by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II: decay of the El Chichón and Ruiz volcanic perturbations,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 5209–5219 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. S. Kent, P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, K. M. Skeens, “Multiyear Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II measurements of upper tropospheric aerosol characteristics,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20725–20735 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. F. Pueschel, J. M. Livingston, G. V. Ferry, T. E. DeFelice, “Aerosol abundances and optical characteristics in the Pacific basin free troposphere,” Atmos. Environ. 28, 951–960 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. J. Post, C. J. Grund, A. O. Langford, M. H. Profitt, “Observations of Mount Pinatubo ejecta over Boulder, Colorado by lidars of three different wavelengths,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 195–198 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, C. A. Brock, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avalone, D. Baumgardner, J. E. Dye, L. R. Poole, D. C. Woods, R. J. DeCoursey, M. Osborn, M. C. Pitts, K. K. Kelly, K. R. Chan, G. V. Ferry, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, A. Weaver, “In situ observations of aerosol and chlorine monoxide after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo: effects of reactions on sulfate aerosol,” Science 261, 1140–1143 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. K. G. Snetsinger, R. F. Pueschel, G. V. Ferry, “Diminished effects of El Chichón on stratospheric aerosols, early 1984 to late 1986,” Atmos. Environ. 26A, 2947–2951 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  23. V. R. Oberbeck, E. F. Danielsen, K. G. Snetsinger, G. V. Ferry, “Effect of the eruption of El Chichón on stratospheric aerosol size and composition,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 1021–1024 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. F. Pueschel, S. A. Kinne, P. B. Russell, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingstone, “Effects of the 1991 Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption on the physical and radiative properties of stratospheric aerosols,” in IRS ’92: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, S. Keevallik, O. Kärner, eds. (A. Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1993).
  25. R. G. Knollenberg, D. Huffman, “Measurements of the aerosol size distribution in the El Chichón cloud,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 1025–1028 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  26. R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, “Physical and optical properties of the Mount Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12915–12922 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. Goodman, K. G. Snetsinger, R. F. Pueschel, G. Ferry, S. Verma, “Evolution of Mount Pinatubo aerosol near 19-km altitude over western North America,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1129–1132 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  28. C. E. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).
  29. K. F. Palmer, D. Williams, “Optical constants of sulfuric acid: application to the clouds of Venus?,” Appl. Opt. 14, 208–219 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. It is recognized that the Palmer and Williams refractive-index values are for room temperature and that an appropriate temperature correction33 should be made. Errors arising from the omission of this correction are likely to be smaller than those arising from the lack of exact knowledge of the aerosol composition and the measurement errors in the size distributions.
  31. W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, P. Pruvost, “SAGE II inversion algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8339–8351 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  32. X. Liao, W. B. Rossow, D. Rind, “Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. Part 1: Global and zonal mean cloud amounts,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1121–1185 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  33. G. K. Yue, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, “Retrieval of composition and size distribution of stratospheric aerosols with the SAGE II satellite experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 3, 371–380 (1986).
    [CrossRef]

1995 (3)

G. S. Kent, E. R. Williams, P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, K. M. Skeens, “Surface temperature related variations in tropical cirrus cloud as measured by SAGE II,” J. Clim. 8, 2577–2594 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, K. M. Skeens, “Multiyear Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II measurements of upper tropospheric aerosol characteristics,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20725–20735 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. Liao, W. B. Rossow, D. Rind, “Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. Part 1: Global and zonal mean cloud amounts,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1121–1185 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (4)

R. F. Pueschel, J. M. Livingston, G. V. Ferry, T. E. DeFelice, “Aerosol abundances and optical characteristics in the Pacific basin free troposphere,” Atmos. Environ. 28, 951–960 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, “Physical and optical properties of the Mount Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12915–12922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Goodman, K. G. Snetsinger, R. F. Pueschel, G. Ferry, S. Verma, “Evolution of Mount Pinatubo aerosol near 19-km altitude over western North America,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1129–1132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, L. R. Poole, W. P. Chu, G. K. Yue, G. S. Kent, K. M. Skeens, “Tropical high cloud characteristics derived from SAGE II extinction measurements,” Atmos. Res. 34, 53–83 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of Mount Pinatubo aerosol during 1991 and 1992 at 41 ̊N: vertical profiles, size distribution, and volatility,” J. Geophys. Res. 20, 1435–1438 (1993).

G. S. Kent, D. M. Winker, M. T. Osborn, K. M. Skeens, “A model for the separation of cloud and aerosol in SAGE II occultation data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20725–20735 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, C. A. Brock, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avalone, D. Baumgardner, J. E. Dye, L. R. Poole, D. C. Woods, R. J. DeCoursey, M. Osborn, M. C. Pitts, K. K. Kelly, K. R. Chan, G. V. Ferry, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, A. Weaver, “In situ observations of aerosol and chlorine monoxide after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo: effects of reactions on sulfate aerosol,” Science 261, 1140–1143 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (4)

K. G. Snetsinger, R. F. Pueschel, G. V. Ferry, “Diminished effects of El Chichón on stratospheric aerosols, early 1984 to late 1986,” Atmos. Environ. 26A, 2947–2951 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Post, C. J. Grund, A. O. Langford, M. H. Profitt, “Observations of Mount Pinatubo ejecta over Boulder, Colorado by lidars of three different wavelengths,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 195–198 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. P. McCormick, R. E. Veiga, “SAGE II measurements of early Mount Pinatubo aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 155–158 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, B. S. Cho, “Subvisual-thin cirrus lidar dataset for satellite verification and climatological research,” J. Appl. Meterol. 31, 1275–1285 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

G. K. Yue, M. P. McCormick, E. W. Chiou, “Stratospheric aerosol optical depth observed by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II: decay of the El Chichón and Ruiz volcanic perturbations,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 5209–5219 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, M. P. McCormick, “Separation of cloud and aerosol in two-wavelength satellite occultation data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 428–431 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

K. Sassen, M. K. Griffin, G. C. Dodd, “Optical scattering and microphysical properties of subvisual cirrus clouds, and climatic implications,” J. Appl. Meterol. 28, 91–98 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, P. Pruvost, “SAGE II inversion algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8339–8351 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

G. E. Woodbury, M. P. McCormick, “Zonal and geographical distribution of cirrus clouds determined from SAGE data,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 2775–2785 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Yue, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, “Retrieval of composition and size distribution of stratospheric aerosols with the SAGE II satellite experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 3, 371–380 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (3)

G. E. Woodbury, M. P. McCormick, “Global distributions of cirrus clouds determined from SAGE data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 1180–1183 (1983).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Oberbeck, E. F. Danielsen, K. G. Snetsinger, G. V. Ferry, “Effect of the eruption of El Chichón on stratospheric aerosol size and composition,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 1021–1024 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Knollenberg, D. Huffman, “Measurements of the aerosol size distribution in the El Chichón cloud,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 1025–1028 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

Allen, D. A.

R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, “Physical and optical properties of the Mount Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12915–12922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Avalone, L. M.

J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, C. A. Brock, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avalone, D. Baumgardner, J. E. Dye, L. R. Poole, D. C. Woods, R. J. DeCoursey, M. Osborn, M. C. Pitts, K. K. Kelly, K. R. Chan, G. V. Ferry, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, A. Weaver, “In situ observations of aerosol and chlorine monoxide after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo: effects of reactions on sulfate aerosol,” Science 261, 1140–1143 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baer, J. W.

M. P. McCormick, J. M. Zawodny, W. P. Chu, J. W. Baer, J Guy, A Ray, “Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III),” in Sensor Systems for the Early Earth Observing System Platforms, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE1939, 137–147 (1993).

Baumgardner, D.

J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, C. A. Brock, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avalone, D. Baumgardner, J. E. Dye, L. R. Poole, D. C. Woods, R. J. DeCoursey, M. Osborn, M. C. Pitts, K. K. Kelly, K. R. Chan, G. V. Ferry, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, A. Weaver, “In situ observations of aerosol and chlorine monoxide after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo: effects of reactions on sulfate aerosol,” Science 261, 1140–1143 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bohren, C. E.

C. E. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Brock, C. A.

J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, C. A. Brock, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avalone, D. Baumgardner, J. E. Dye, L. R. Poole, D. C. Woods, R. J. DeCoursey, M. Osborn, M. C. Pitts, K. K. Kelly, K. R. Chan, G. V. Ferry, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, A. Weaver, “In situ observations of aerosol and chlorine monoxide after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo: effects of reactions on sulfate aerosol,” Science 261, 1140–1143 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brogniez, C.

W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, P. Pruvost, “SAGE II inversion algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8339–8351 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chan, K. R.

J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, C. A. Brock, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avalone, D. Baumgardner, J. E. Dye, L. R. Poole, D. C. Woods, R. J. DeCoursey, M. Osborn, M. C. Pitts, K. K. Kelly, K. R. Chan, G. V. Ferry, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, A. Weaver, “In situ observations of aerosol and chlorine monoxide after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo: effects of reactions on sulfate aerosol,” Science 261, 1140–1143 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiou, E. W.

G. K. Yue, M. P. McCormick, E. W. Chiou, “Stratospheric aerosol optical depth observed by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II: decay of the El Chichón and Ruiz volcanic perturbations,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 5209–5219 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Chiou, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, G. K. Yue, “Distributions of cirrus determined from SAGE II occultation measurements between November 1984 and October 1988,” presented at the Conference on Cloud Physics, American Meteorological Society, San Francisco, Calif., 23–27 July 1990.

E. W. Chiou, Science Applications International Corporation, Hampton, Va. 23666 (personal communication, 1993).

Cho, B. S.

K. Sassen, B. S. Cho, “Subvisual-thin cirrus lidar dataset for satellite verification and climatological research,” J. Appl. Meterol. 31, 1275–1285 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chu, W. P.

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, L. R. Poole, W. P. Chu, G. K. Yue, G. S. Kent, K. M. Skeens, “Tropical high cloud characteristics derived from SAGE II extinction measurements,” Atmos. Res. 34, 53–83 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, P. Pruvost, “SAGE II inversion algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8339–8351 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Yue, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, “Retrieval of composition and size distribution of stratospheric aerosols with the SAGE II satellite experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 3, 371–380 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Zawodny, L. E. Mauldin, J. R. McMaster, “Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III), aerosol and trace gas measurements from Earth Observing System (EOS),” in Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Chemistry, J. L. McElroy, R. J. McNeal, eds., Proc. SPIE1491, 125–141 (1991).

E. W. Chiou, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, G. K. Yue, “Distributions of cirrus determined from SAGE II occultation measurements between November 1984 and October 1988,” presented at the Conference on Cloud Physics, American Meteorological Society, San Francisco, Calif., 23–27 July 1990.

M. P. McCormick, J. M. Zawodny, W. P. Chu, J. W. Baer, J Guy, A Ray, “Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III),” in Sensor Systems for the Early Earth Observing System Platforms, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE1939, 137–147 (1993).

Danielsen, E. F.

V. R. Oberbeck, E. F. Danielsen, K. G. Snetsinger, G. V. Ferry, “Effect of the eruption of El Chichón on stratospheric aerosol size and composition,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 1021–1024 (1983).
[CrossRef]

DeCoursey, R. J.

J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, C. A. Brock, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avalone, D. Baumgardner, J. E. Dye, L. R. Poole, D. C. Woods, R. J. DeCoursey, M. Osborn, M. C. Pitts, K. K. Kelly, K. R. Chan, G. V. Ferry, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, A. Weaver, “In situ observations of aerosol and chlorine monoxide after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo: effects of reactions on sulfate aerosol,” Science 261, 1140–1143 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeFelice, T. E.

R. F. Pueschel, J. M. Livingston, G. V. Ferry, T. E. DeFelice, “Aerosol abundances and optical characteristics in the Pacific basin free troposphere,” Atmos. Environ. 28, 951–960 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Deshler, T.

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of Mount Pinatubo aerosol during 1991 and 1992 at 41 ̊N: vertical profiles, size distribution, and volatility,” J. Geophys. Res. 20, 1435–1438 (1993).

Dodd, G. C.

K. Sassen, M. K. Griffin, G. C. Dodd, “Optical scattering and microphysical properties of subvisual cirrus clouds, and climatic implications,” J. Appl. Meterol. 28, 91–98 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Dye, J. E.

J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, C. A. Brock, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avalone, D. Baumgardner, J. E. Dye, L. R. Poole, D. C. Woods, R. J. DeCoursey, M. Osborn, M. C. Pitts, K. K. Kelly, K. R. Chan, G. V. Ferry, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, A. Weaver, “In situ observations of aerosol and chlorine monoxide after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo: effects of reactions on sulfate aerosol,” Science 261, 1140–1143 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferry, G.

J. Goodman, K. G. Snetsinger, R. F. Pueschel, G. Ferry, S. Verma, “Evolution of Mount Pinatubo aerosol near 19-km altitude over western North America,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1129–1132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ferry, G. V.

R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, “Physical and optical properties of the Mount Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12915–12922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Pueschel, J. M. Livingston, G. V. Ferry, T. E. DeFelice, “Aerosol abundances and optical characteristics in the Pacific basin free troposphere,” Atmos. Environ. 28, 951–960 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, C. A. Brock, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avalone, D. Baumgardner, J. E. Dye, L. R. Poole, D. C. Woods, R. J. DeCoursey, M. Osborn, M. C. Pitts, K. K. Kelly, K. R. Chan, G. V. Ferry, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, A. Weaver, “In situ observations of aerosol and chlorine monoxide after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo: effects of reactions on sulfate aerosol,” Science 261, 1140–1143 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Snetsinger, R. F. Pueschel, G. V. Ferry, “Diminished effects of El Chichón on stratospheric aerosols, early 1984 to late 1986,” Atmos. Environ. 26A, 2947–2951 (1992).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Oberbeck, E. F. Danielsen, K. G. Snetsinger, G. V. Ferry, “Effect of the eruption of El Chichón on stratospheric aerosol size and composition,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 1021–1024 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J.

J. Goodman, K. G. Snetsinger, R. F. Pueschel, G. Ferry, S. Verma, “Evolution of Mount Pinatubo aerosol near 19-km altitude over western North America,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1129–1132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, M. K.

K. Sassen, M. K. Griffin, G. C. Dodd, “Optical scattering and microphysical properties of subvisual cirrus clouds, and climatic implications,” J. Appl. Meterol. 28, 91–98 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Grund, C. J.

M. J. Post, C. J. Grund, A. O. Langford, M. H. Profitt, “Observations of Mount Pinatubo ejecta over Boulder, Colorado by lidars of three different wavelengths,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 195–198 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Guy, J

M. P. McCormick, J. M. Zawodny, W. P. Chu, J. W. Baer, J Guy, A Ray, “Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III),” in Sensor Systems for the Early Earth Observing System Platforms, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE1939, 137–147 (1993).

Huffman, D.

R. G. Knollenberg, D. Huffman, “Measurements of the aerosol size distribution in the El Chichón cloud,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 1025–1028 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D. R.

C. E. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Ivanov, V. A.

J. Rosen, V. A. Ivanov, “Stratospheric aerosols,” in Aerosol Effects on Climate, S. G. Jennings, ed. (University of Arizona, Tucson, 1993).

Johnson, B. J.

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of Mount Pinatubo aerosol during 1991 and 1992 at 41 ̊N: vertical profiles, size distribution, and volatility,” J. Geophys. Res. 20, 1435–1438 (1993).

Jonsson, H. H.

J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, C. A. Brock, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avalone, D. Baumgardner, J. E. Dye, L. R. Poole, D. C. Woods, R. J. DeCoursey, M. Osborn, M. C. Pitts, K. K. Kelly, K. R. Chan, G. V. Ferry, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, A. Weaver, “In situ observations of aerosol and chlorine monoxide after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo: effects of reactions on sulfate aerosol,” Science 261, 1140–1143 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelly, K. K.

J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, C. A. Brock, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avalone, D. Baumgardner, J. E. Dye, L. R. Poole, D. C. Woods, R. J. DeCoursey, M. Osborn, M. C. Pitts, K. K. Kelly, K. R. Chan, G. V. Ferry, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, A. Weaver, “In situ observations of aerosol and chlorine monoxide after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo: effects of reactions on sulfate aerosol,” Science 261, 1140–1143 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kent, G. S.

G. S. Kent, E. R. Williams, P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, K. M. Skeens, “Surface temperature related variations in tropical cirrus cloud as measured by SAGE II,” J. Clim. 8, 2577–2594 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, K. M. Skeens, “Multiyear Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II measurements of upper tropospheric aerosol characteristics,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20725–20735 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, L. R. Poole, W. P. Chu, G. K. Yue, G. S. Kent, K. M. Skeens, “Tropical high cloud characteristics derived from SAGE II extinction measurements,” Atmos. Res. 34, 53–83 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, D. M. Winker, M. T. Osborn, K. M. Skeens, “A model for the separation of cloud and aerosol in SAGE II occultation data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20725–20735 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, M. P. McCormick, “Separation of cloud and aerosol in two-wavelength satellite occultation data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 428–431 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kinne, S. A.

R. F. Pueschel, S. A. Kinne, P. B. Russell, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingstone, “Effects of the 1991 Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption on the physical and radiative properties of stratospheric aerosols,” in IRS ’92: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, S. Keevallik, O. Kärner, eds. (A. Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1993).

Knollenberg, R. G.

R. G. Knollenberg, D. Huffman, “Measurements of the aerosol size distribution in the El Chichón cloud,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 1025–1028 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Langford, A. O.

M. J. Post, C. J. Grund, A. O. Langford, M. H. Profitt, “Observations of Mount Pinatubo ejecta over Boulder, Colorado by lidars of three different wavelengths,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 195–198 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lenoble, J.

W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, P. Pruvost, “SAGE II inversion algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8339–8351 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Liao, X.

X. Liao, W. B. Rossow, D. Rind, “Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. Part 1: Global and zonal mean cloud amounts,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1121–1185 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Livingston, J. M.

R. F. Pueschel, J. M. Livingston, G. V. Ferry, T. E. DeFelice, “Aerosol abundances and optical characteristics in the Pacific basin free troposphere,” Atmos. Environ. 28, 951–960 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, “Physical and optical properties of the Mount Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12915–12922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Livingstone, J. M.

R. F. Pueschel, S. A. Kinne, P. B. Russell, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingstone, “Effects of the 1991 Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption on the physical and radiative properties of stratospheric aerosols,” in IRS ’92: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, S. Keevallik, O. Kärner, eds. (A. Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1993).

Loewenstein, M.

J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, C. A. Brock, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avalone, D. Baumgardner, J. E. Dye, L. R. Poole, D. C. Woods, R. J. DeCoursey, M. Osborn, M. C. Pitts, K. K. Kelly, K. R. Chan, G. V. Ferry, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, A. Weaver, “In situ observations of aerosol and chlorine monoxide after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo: effects of reactions on sulfate aerosol,” Science 261, 1140–1143 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mauldin, L. E.

M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Zawodny, L. E. Mauldin, J. R. McMaster, “Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III), aerosol and trace gas measurements from Earth Observing System (EOS),” in Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Chemistry, J. L. McElroy, R. J. McNeal, eds., Proc. SPIE1491, 125–141 (1991).

McCormick, M. P.

G. S. Kent, P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, K. M. Skeens, “Multiyear Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II measurements of upper tropospheric aerosol characteristics,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20725–20735 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, E. R. Williams, P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, K. M. Skeens, “Surface temperature related variations in tropical cirrus cloud as measured by SAGE II,” J. Clim. 8, 2577–2594 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, L. R. Poole, W. P. Chu, G. K. Yue, G. S. Kent, K. M. Skeens, “Tropical high cloud characteristics derived from SAGE II extinction measurements,” Atmos. Res. 34, 53–83 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. P. McCormick, R. E. Veiga, “SAGE II measurements of early Mount Pinatubo aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 155–158 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Yue, M. P. McCormick, E. W. Chiou, “Stratospheric aerosol optical depth observed by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II: decay of the El Chichón and Ruiz volcanic perturbations,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 5209–5219 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, M. P. McCormick, “Separation of cloud and aerosol in two-wavelength satellite occultation data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 428–431 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, P. Pruvost, “SAGE II inversion algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8339–8351 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Yue, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, “Retrieval of composition and size distribution of stratospheric aerosols with the SAGE II satellite experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 3, 371–380 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Woodbury, M. P. McCormick, “Zonal and geographical distribution of cirrus clouds determined from SAGE data,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 2775–2785 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Woodbury, M. P. McCormick, “Global distributions of cirrus clouds determined from SAGE data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 1180–1183 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Zawodny, L. E. Mauldin, J. R. McMaster, “Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III), aerosol and trace gas measurements from Earth Observing System (EOS),” in Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Chemistry, J. L. McElroy, R. J. McNeal, eds., Proc. SPIE1491, 125–141 (1991).

M. P. McCormick, J. M. Zawodny, W. P. Chu, J. W. Baer, J Guy, A Ray, “Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III),” in Sensor Systems for the Early Earth Observing System Platforms, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE1939, 137–147 (1993).

E. W. Chiou, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, G. K. Yue, “Distributions of cirrus determined from SAGE II occultation measurements between November 1984 and October 1988,” presented at the Conference on Cloud Physics, American Meteorological Society, San Francisco, Calif., 23–27 July 1990.

McMaster, J. R.

M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Zawodny, L. E. Mauldin, J. R. McMaster, “Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III), aerosol and trace gas measurements from Earth Observing System (EOS),” in Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Chemistry, J. L. McElroy, R. J. McNeal, eds., Proc. SPIE1491, 125–141 (1991).

Oberbeck, V. R.

V. R. Oberbeck, E. F. Danielsen, K. G. Snetsinger, G. V. Ferry, “Effect of the eruption of El Chichón on stratospheric aerosol size and composition,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 1021–1024 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Osborn, M.

J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, C. A. Brock, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avalone, D. Baumgardner, J. E. Dye, L. R. Poole, D. C. Woods, R. J. DeCoursey, M. Osborn, M. C. Pitts, K. K. Kelly, K. R. Chan, G. V. Ferry, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, A. Weaver, “In situ observations of aerosol and chlorine monoxide after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo: effects of reactions on sulfate aerosol,” Science 261, 1140–1143 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osborn, M. T.

G. S. Kent, D. M. Winker, M. T. Osborn, K. M. Skeens, “A model for the separation of cloud and aerosol in SAGE II occultation data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20725–20735 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, K. F.

Pitts, M. C.

J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, C. A. Brock, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avalone, D. Baumgardner, J. E. Dye, L. R. Poole, D. C. Woods, R. J. DeCoursey, M. Osborn, M. C. Pitts, K. K. Kelly, K. R. Chan, G. V. Ferry, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, A. Weaver, “In situ observations of aerosol and chlorine monoxide after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo: effects of reactions on sulfate aerosol,” Science 261, 1140–1143 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podolske, J. R.

J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, C. A. Brock, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avalone, D. Baumgardner, J. E. Dye, L. R. Poole, D. C. Woods, R. J. DeCoursey, M. Osborn, M. C. Pitts, K. K. Kelly, K. R. Chan, G. V. Ferry, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, A. Weaver, “In situ observations of aerosol and chlorine monoxide after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo: effects of reactions on sulfate aerosol,” Science 261, 1140–1143 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poole, L. R.

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, L. R. Poole, W. P. Chu, G. K. Yue, G. S. Kent, K. M. Skeens, “Tropical high cloud characteristics derived from SAGE II extinction measurements,” Atmos. Res. 34, 53–83 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, C. A. Brock, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avalone, D. Baumgardner, J. E. Dye, L. R. Poole, D. C. Woods, R. J. DeCoursey, M. Osborn, M. C. Pitts, K. K. Kelly, K. R. Chan, G. V. Ferry, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, A. Weaver, “In situ observations of aerosol and chlorine monoxide after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo: effects of reactions on sulfate aerosol,” Science 261, 1140–1143 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Post, M. J.

M. J. Post, C. J. Grund, A. O. Langford, M. H. Profitt, “Observations of Mount Pinatubo ejecta over Boulder, Colorado by lidars of three different wavelengths,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 195–198 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Profitt, M. H.

M. J. Post, C. J. Grund, A. O. Langford, M. H. Profitt, “Observations of Mount Pinatubo ejecta over Boulder, Colorado by lidars of three different wavelengths,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 195–198 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pruvost, P.

W. P. Chu, M. P. McCormick, J. Lenoble, C. Brogniez, P. Pruvost, “SAGE II inversion algorithm,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 8339–8351 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pueschel, R. F.

R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, “Physical and optical properties of the Mount Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12915–12922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Goodman, K. G. Snetsinger, R. F. Pueschel, G. Ferry, S. Verma, “Evolution of Mount Pinatubo aerosol near 19-km altitude over western North America,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1129–1132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Pueschel, J. M. Livingston, G. V. Ferry, T. E. DeFelice, “Aerosol abundances and optical characteristics in the Pacific basin free troposphere,” Atmos. Environ. 28, 951–960 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Snetsinger, R. F. Pueschel, G. V. Ferry, “Diminished effects of El Chichón on stratospheric aerosols, early 1984 to late 1986,” Atmos. Environ. 26A, 2947–2951 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Pueschel, S. A. Kinne, P. B. Russell, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingstone, “Effects of the 1991 Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption on the physical and radiative properties of stratospheric aerosols,” in IRS ’92: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, S. Keevallik, O. Kärner, eds. (A. Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1993).

Ray, A

M. P. McCormick, J. M. Zawodny, W. P. Chu, J. W. Baer, J Guy, A Ray, “Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III),” in Sensor Systems for the Early Earth Observing System Platforms, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE1939, 137–147 (1993).

Rind, D.

X. Liao, W. B. Rossow, D. Rind, “Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. Part 1: Global and zonal mean cloud amounts,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1121–1185 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, J.

J. Rosen, V. A. Ivanov, “Stratospheric aerosols,” in Aerosol Effects on Climate, S. G. Jennings, ed. (University of Arizona, Tucson, 1993).

Rossow, W. B.

X. Liao, W. B. Rossow, D. Rind, “Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. Part 1: Global and zonal mean cloud amounts,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1121–1185 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rozier, W. R.

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Balloonborne measurements of Mount Pinatubo aerosol during 1991 and 1992 at 41 ̊N: vertical profiles, size distribution, and volatility,” J. Geophys. Res. 20, 1435–1438 (1993).

Russell, P. B.

R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, “Physical and optical properties of the Mount Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12915–12922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Pueschel, S. A. Kinne, P. B. Russell, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingstone, “Effects of the 1991 Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption on the physical and radiative properties of stratospheric aerosols,” in IRS ’92: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, S. Keevallik, O. Kärner, eds. (A. Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1993).

Sassen, K.

K. Sassen, B. S. Cho, “Subvisual-thin cirrus lidar dataset for satellite verification and climatological research,” J. Appl. Meterol. 31, 1275–1285 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, M. K. Griffin, G. C. Dodd, “Optical scattering and microphysical properties of subvisual cirrus clouds, and climatic implications,” J. Appl. Meterol. 28, 91–98 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Skeens, K. M.

G. S. Kent, E. R. Williams, P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, K. M. Skeens, “Surface temperature related variations in tropical cirrus cloud as measured by SAGE II,” J. Clim. 8, 2577–2594 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, K. M. Skeens, “Multiyear Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II measurements of upper tropospheric aerosol characteristics,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20725–20735 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, L. R. Poole, W. P. Chu, G. K. Yue, G. S. Kent, K. M. Skeens, “Tropical high cloud characteristics derived from SAGE II extinction measurements,” Atmos. Res. 34, 53–83 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, D. M. Winker, M. T. Osborn, K. M. Skeens, “A model for the separation of cloud and aerosol in SAGE II occultation data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20725–20735 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Snetsinger, K. G.

R. F. Pueschel, P. B. Russell, D. A. Allen, G. V. Ferry, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingston, “Physical and optical properties of the Mount Pinatubo volcanic aerosol: aircraft observations with impactors and a sun-tracking photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 12915–12922 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Goodman, K. G. Snetsinger, R. F. Pueschel, G. Ferry, S. Verma, “Evolution of Mount Pinatubo aerosol near 19-km altitude over western North America,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1129–1132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Snetsinger, R. F. Pueschel, G. V. Ferry, “Diminished effects of El Chichón on stratospheric aerosols, early 1984 to late 1986,” Atmos. Environ. 26A, 2947–2951 (1992).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Oberbeck, E. F. Danielsen, K. G. Snetsinger, G. V. Ferry, “Effect of the eruption of El Chichón on stratospheric aerosol size and composition,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 1021–1024 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Pueschel, S. A. Kinne, P. B. Russell, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingstone, “Effects of the 1991 Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption on the physical and radiative properties of stratospheric aerosols,” in IRS ’92: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, S. Keevallik, O. Kärner, eds. (A. Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1993).

Toohey, D. W.

J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, C. A. Brock, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avalone, D. Baumgardner, J. E. Dye, L. R. Poole, D. C. Woods, R. J. DeCoursey, M. Osborn, M. C. Pitts, K. K. Kelly, K. R. Chan, G. V. Ferry, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, A. Weaver, “In situ observations of aerosol and chlorine monoxide after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo: effects of reactions on sulfate aerosol,” Science 261, 1140–1143 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veiga, R. E.

M. P. McCormick, R. E. Veiga, “SAGE II measurements of early Mount Pinatubo aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 155–158 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Veiga, Science Applications International Corporation, Hampton, Va. 23666 (personal communication, 1993).

Verma, S.

J. Goodman, K. G. Snetsinger, R. F. Pueschel, G. Ferry, S. Verma, “Evolution of Mount Pinatubo aerosol near 19-km altitude over western North America,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1129–1132 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.-H.

G. S. Kent, P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, K. M. Skeens, “Multiyear Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II measurements of upper tropospheric aerosol characteristics,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20725–20735 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, E. R. Williams, P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, K. M. Skeens, “Surface temperature related variations in tropical cirrus cloud as measured by SAGE II,” J. Clim. 8, 2577–2594 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, L. R. Poole, W. P. Chu, G. K. Yue, G. S. Kent, K. M. Skeens, “Tropical high cloud characteristics derived from SAGE II extinction measurements,” Atmos. Res. 34, 53–83 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Weaver, A.

J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, C. A. Brock, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avalone, D. Baumgardner, J. E. Dye, L. R. Poole, D. C. Woods, R. J. DeCoursey, M. Osborn, M. C. Pitts, K. K. Kelly, K. R. Chan, G. V. Ferry, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, A. Weaver, “In situ observations of aerosol and chlorine monoxide after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo: effects of reactions on sulfate aerosol,” Science 261, 1140–1143 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, D.

Williams, E. R.

G. S. Kent, E. R. Williams, P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, K. M. Skeens, “Surface temperature related variations in tropical cirrus cloud as measured by SAGE II,” J. Clim. 8, 2577–2594 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, J. C.

J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, C. A. Brock, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avalone, D. Baumgardner, J. E. Dye, L. R. Poole, D. C. Woods, R. J. DeCoursey, M. Osborn, M. C. Pitts, K. K. Kelly, K. R. Chan, G. V. Ferry, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, A. Weaver, “In situ observations of aerosol and chlorine monoxide after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo: effects of reactions on sulfate aerosol,” Science 261, 1140–1143 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winker, D. M.

G. S. Kent, D. M. Winker, M. T. Osborn, K. M. Skeens, “A model for the separation of cloud and aerosol in SAGE II occultation data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20725–20735 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Woodbury, G. E.

G. E. Woodbury, M. P. McCormick, “Zonal and geographical distribution of cirrus clouds determined from SAGE data,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 2775–2785 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Woodbury, M. P. McCormick, “Global distributions of cirrus clouds determined from SAGE data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 1180–1183 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Woods, D. C.

J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, C. A. Brock, D. W. Toohey, L. M. Avalone, D. Baumgardner, J. E. Dye, L. R. Poole, D. C. Woods, R. J. DeCoursey, M. Osborn, M. C. Pitts, K. K. Kelly, K. R. Chan, G. V. Ferry, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, A. Weaver, “In situ observations of aerosol and chlorine monoxide after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo: effects of reactions on sulfate aerosol,” Science 261, 1140–1143 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yue, G. K.

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, L. R. Poole, W. P. Chu, G. K. Yue, G. S. Kent, K. M. Skeens, “Tropical high cloud characteristics derived from SAGE II extinction measurements,” Atmos. Res. 34, 53–83 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Yue, M. P. McCormick, E. W. Chiou, “Stratospheric aerosol optical depth observed by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II: decay of the El Chichón and Ruiz volcanic perturbations,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 5209–5219 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Yue, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, “Retrieval of composition and size distribution of stratospheric aerosols with the SAGE II satellite experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 3, 371–380 (1986).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Chiou, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, G. K. Yue, “Distributions of cirrus determined from SAGE II occultation measurements between November 1984 and October 1988,” presented at the Conference on Cloud Physics, American Meteorological Society, San Francisco, Calif., 23–27 July 1990.

Zawodny, J. M.

M. P. McCormick, J. M. Zawodny, W. P. Chu, J. W. Baer, J Guy, A Ray, “Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III),” in Sensor Systems for the Early Earth Observing System Platforms, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE1939, 137–147 (1993).

M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Zawodny, L. E. Mauldin, J. R. McMaster, “Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III), aerosol and trace gas measurements from Earth Observing System (EOS),” in Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Chemistry, J. L. McElroy, R. J. McNeal, eds., Proc. SPIE1491, 125–141 (1991).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Atmos. Environ. (2)

R. F. Pueschel, J. M. Livingston, G. V. Ferry, T. E. DeFelice, “Aerosol abundances and optical characteristics in the Pacific basin free troposphere,” Atmos. Environ. 28, 951–960 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Snetsinger, R. F. Pueschel, G. V. Ferry, “Diminished effects of El Chichón on stratospheric aerosols, early 1984 to late 1986,” Atmos. Environ. 26A, 2947–2951 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Res. (1)

P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, L. R. Poole, W. P. Chu, G. K. Yue, G. S. Kent, K. M. Skeens, “Tropical high cloud characteristics derived from SAGE II extinction measurements,” Atmos. Res. 34, 53–83 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (7)

G. S. Kent, M. P. McCormick, “Separation of cloud and aerosol in two-wavelength satellite occultation data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 428–431 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. P. McCormick, R. E. Veiga, “SAGE II measurements of early Mount Pinatubo aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 155–158 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Woodbury, M. P. McCormick, “Global distributions of cirrus clouds determined from SAGE data,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 1180–1183 (1983).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Oberbeck, E. F. Danielsen, K. G. Snetsinger, G. V. Ferry, “Effect of the eruption of El Chichón on stratospheric aerosol size and composition,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 1021–1024 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Post, C. J. Grund, A. O. Langford, M. H. Profitt, “Observations of Mount Pinatubo ejecta over Boulder, Colorado by lidars of three different wavelengths,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 195–198 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meterol. (2)

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

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[CrossRef]

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G. S. Kent, E. R. Williams, P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, K. M. Skeens, “Surface temperature related variations in tropical cirrus cloud as measured by SAGE II,” J. Clim. 8, 2577–2594 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (8)

G. S. Kent, D. M. Winker, M. T. Osborn, K. M. Skeens, “A model for the separation of cloud and aerosol in SAGE II occultation data,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20725–20735 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, P.-H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, K. M. Skeens, “Multiyear Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II measurements of upper tropospheric aerosol characteristics,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20725–20735 (1995).
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Science (1)

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (9)

R. F. Pueschel, S. A. Kinne, P. B. Russell, K. G. Snetsinger, J. M. Livingstone, “Effects of the 1991 Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption on the physical and radiative properties of stratospheric aerosols,” in IRS ’92: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation, S. Keevallik, O. Kärner, eds. (A. Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1993).

C. E. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

It is recognized that the Palmer and Williams refractive-index values are for room temperature and that an appropriate temperature correction33 should be made. Errors arising from the omission of this correction are likely to be smaller than those arising from the lack of exact knowledge of the aerosol composition and the measurement errors in the size distributions.

E. W. Chiou, Science Applications International Corporation, Hampton, Va. 23666 (personal communication, 1993).

R. E. Veiga, Science Applications International Corporation, Hampton, Va. 23666 (personal communication, 1993).

J. Rosen, V. A. Ivanov, “Stratospheric aerosols,” in Aerosol Effects on Climate, S. G. Jennings, ed. (University of Arizona, Tucson, 1993).

E. W. Chiou, M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, G. K. Yue, “Distributions of cirrus determined from SAGE II occultation measurements between November 1984 and October 1988,” presented at the Conference on Cloud Physics, American Meteorological Society, San Francisco, Calif., 23–27 July 1990.

M. P. McCormick, W. P. Chu, J. M. Zawodny, L. E. Mauldin, J. R. McMaster, “Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III), aerosol and trace gas measurements from Earth Observing System (EOS),” in Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Chemistry, J. L. McElroy, R. J. McNeal, eds., Proc. SPIE1491, 125–141 (1991).

M. P. McCormick, J. M. Zawodny, W. P. Chu, J. W. Baer, J Guy, A Ray, “Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III),” in Sensor Systems for the Early Earth Observing System Platforms, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE1939, 137–147 (1993).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Theoretical basis for two methods of separating aerosol and cloud in the SAGE II data set: (a) the slope and intercept method and (b) the slope method.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scatterplots showing the relationships between the simulated extinctions at 525, 1020, and 1550 nm. Filled circles correspond to aerosol data only; crosses correspond to aerosol plus different amounts of simulated cloud. The dashed lines demarcate aerosol and cloud in panels (a) and (c). (a) Background, 525 nm versus 1020 nm; (b) volcanically perturbed, 525 nm versus 1020 nm; (c) background, 1020 nm versus 1550 nm; (d) volcanically perturbed, 1020 nm versus 1550 nm. Inserts in (a) and (c) show enlarged views of the regions of these plots near the origin.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Theoretical basis for the proposed method of separating aerosol and cloud in the SAGE III data set. The solid curves indicate the relationship between the 525-nm/1020-nm and the 1020-nm/1550-nm extinction ratios for narrow rectangular size distributions. Calculations were made for a 75% sulphuric acid composition. Numbers adjacent to the solid curves show the particle radii in micrometers. Cloud undiluted by aerosol is shown by the filled circle at location (1.0, 1.0). (a) and (b) show the same data plotted to different scales; data points within the shaded area in (b) are considered to correspond to cloud as well as aerosol along the optical path.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scatterplots of the 525-nm/1020-nm and the 1020-nm/1550-nm extinction ratios for in situ measured size distributions during background and volcanically perturbed conditions. Solid circles correspond to aerosol data only; crosses correspond to aerosol plus different amounts of simulated cloud. Plot scales and the shaded area, which are used to determine the presence of cloud, are the same as in Fig. 3. (a) and (c) background, plotted to different scales; (b) and (d) volcanically perturbed, plotted to different scales.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Cloud identification error rate as a function of time of measurement. Each data point represents one in situ measurement; most measurements were made at times following volcanic activity. The concentration of errors during the periods following the eruptions of El Chichón and Mount Pinatubo is outstanding.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Alternative cloud selection areas for which simulations were carried out. The coordinates of the ends of the dashed lines are given in Table 4. (b) Effect of changing the cloud selection area, as shown in (a), on cloud loss and corruption rates under volcanic conditions.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Data Sources Used for Aerosol Extinction Simulations

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Table 2 Cloud Occurrence Frequency Used in Simulationsa

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Table 3 Cloud Identification Error Rate as a Function of Method and Aerosol State

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Table 4 Results of Modifying Cloud Selection Area in Aerosol–Cloud Separation Algorithma

Equations (1)

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e r = ( c l 2 + a g 2 ) 0.5 .

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