Abstract

We report frequency measurements for relatively weak H2O and 16O3 rotational transitions in the ground state and in the ν2 = 1 vibrationally excited state. We obtained the frequency measurements by using the laboratory technique of tunable far-infrared spectroscopy with the objective of improving H2O and O3 line parameters required for modeling the important atmospheric spectral window near 119 cm−1. New sets of molecular constants are calculated from the 16O3 data, and improved values are reported for the frequencies of the H2O lines. The improvement in atmospheric simulations obtained with the new results is illustrated by comparison with recent high-resolution balloon-based atmospheric measurements. These new data significantly improve simulations of high-resolution atmospheric emission spectra.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. G. Murray, M. J. Griffin, P. A. R. Ade, J Leotin, C Meny, G Sirmain, “Optimisation of FIR photoconductors for atmospheric spectroscopy,” in Proceedings of the ESA Symposium on Photon Detectors for Space Instrumentation, ESA Spec. Pub. 356, (European Space Agency, Postbus 299, 2200AG Noordwijk, The Netherlands).
  2. L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamach, A. Goldman, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Barbe, N. Husson, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, “The HITRAN Database: 1986 Edition,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4058–4097 (1986).
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    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Husson, B. Bonnet, N. A. Scott, A. Chedin, “Management and study of spectroscopic information: the GEISA program,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 509–518 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. V. Chance, W. A. Traub, D. G. Johnson, K. W. Jucks, P. Ciarpallini, R. A. Stachnik, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, “Simultaneous measurements of stratospheric HOx, NOx, and Clx: comparison with a photochemical model,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9031–9043 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. I. G. Nolt, P. A. R. Ade, F. Alboni, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, U. Cortesi, M. Epifani, M. J. Griffin, P. A. Hamilton, C. Lee, G. Lepri, F. Mencaraglia, A. G. Murray, J. H. Park, K. Park, P. Raspollini, M. Ridolfi, M. D. Vanek, “Stratospheric HBr concentration profile obtained from far-infrared emission spectroscopy,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 281–284 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. M. Pickett, D. B. Peterson, “Stratospheric OH measurements with a far-infrared limb observing spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20507–20515 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Titz, M. Birk, D. Hausamann, R. Nitsche, F. Schreier, J. Urban, H. Küllmann, H. P. Röser, “Observation of stratospheric OH at 2.5 THz with an airborne heterodyne system,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 36, 883–891 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, A. Bonetti, “Submillimeter high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer for atmospheric studies,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2594–2603 (1984).
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    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Carlotti, G. Di Lonardo, L. Fusina, A. Trombetti, A. Bonetti, B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, “The high-resolution spectrum of ozone between 8 and 150 cm-1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 107, 84–93 (1984).
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  15. M. Bellini, P. De Natale, G. Di Lonardo, L. Fusina, M. Inguscio, M. Prevedelli, “Tunable far infrared spectroscopy of 16O3,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 152, 256–259 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  16. V. G. Tyuterev, V. I. Starikov, S. A. Tashkun, S. N. Mikhailenko, “Calculation of high rotation energies of the water molecule using the generating function model,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 170, 38–58 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. M. Evenson, D. A. Jennings, F. R. Petersen, “Tunable far-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 576–578 (1984).
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  18. L. R. Zink, P. De Natale, F. S. Pavone, M. Prevedelli, K. M. Evenson, M. Inguscio, “Rotational far infrared spectrum of 13CO,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 143, 304–310 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Inguscio, P. De Natale, M. Bellini, “High sensitivity and precision spectroscopy in the far infrared,” in Laser Spectroscopy XI, L. A. Bloomfield, T. F. Gallagher, D. J. Larson, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1993), pp. 128–133.
  20. P. De Natale, L. Lorini, M. Inguscio, G. Di Lonardo, L. Fusina, P. A. R. Ade, A. G. Murray, “Sensitive detection of the rotational spectrum of HBr in the ν = 1 state,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5822–5826 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. G. Modugno, P. De Natale, M. Bellini, M. Inguscio, L. Fusina, G. Di Lonardo, J. Vander Auwera, “Precise measurement of molecular dipole moments with a tunable Far-infrared Stark spectrometer: application to HOCl,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1645–1649 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  22. C. Freed, A. Javan, “Standing-wave saturation resonances in the CO2 10.6 μm transitions observed in a low pressure room-temperature absorber gas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 53–56 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. G. Maki, C. C. Chou, K. M. Evenson, L. R. Zink, J. T. Shy, “Improved molecular constants and frequencies for the CO2 laser from new high-J regular and hot-band frequency measurements,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 167, 211–224 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  24. K. V. Chance, D. A. Jennings, K. M. Evenson, M. D. Vanek, I. G. Nolt, J. V. Radostitz, K. Park, “Pressure broadening of the 118.455 cm-1 rotational lines of OH by H2, He, N2, and O2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 146, 375–380 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. H. Park, B. Carli, “Analysis of far-infrared emission Fourier transform spectra,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3490–3501 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. Lichtestein, J. J. Gallagher, S. A. Clough, “Millimeter wave spectrum of ozone,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 40, 10–26 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. J. C. Depannemacker, B. Duterage, M. J. Bellet, “Systematic calculations of rotational spectra of normal and substituted (18O in place of 16O) ozone molecules,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 77, 519–530 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  28. H. M. Pickett, E. A. Cohen, J. S. Margolis, “The infrared and microwave spectra of ozone for the (0, 0, 0), (1, 0, 0), and (0, 0, 1) states,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 110, 186–214 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. K. G. Watson, “Aspects of quartic and sextic centrifugal effects on rotational energy levels,” in Vibrational Spectra and Structures, J. R. Durig, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1977), Vol. 6, Chap. 1, pp. 1–89.
  30. T. Tanaka, Y. Morino, “Coriolis interaction and anharmonic potential function of ozone from the microwave spectra in the excited vibrational states,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 33, 538–551 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  31. N. Monnanteuil, J. C. Depannemacker, J. Bellet, A. Barbe, C. Secroun, P. Jouve, S. Giorgianni, Y.-S. Hoh, K. Narahari Rao, “Microwave and infrared study of the ν 2 state of 16O3 and identification of the (ν 3 + ν 2)–ν 2 band lines at 10 μm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 71, 399–413 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  32. A. Goldman, J. R. Gillis, D. G. Murcray, A. Barbe, C. Secroun, “Analysis of the ν 2 and 2ν 2–ν 2 ozone bands from the high-resolution atmospheric spectra,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 96, 279–287 (1982).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (2)

I. G. Nolt, P. A. R. Ade, F. Alboni, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, U. Cortesi, M. Epifani, M. J. Griffin, P. A. Hamilton, C. Lee, G. Lepri, F. Mencaraglia, A. G. Murray, J. H. Park, K. Park, P. Raspollini, M. Ridolfi, M. D. Vanek, “Stratospheric HBr concentration profile obtained from far-infrared emission spectroscopy,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 281–284 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. De Natale, L. Lorini, M. Inguscio, G. Di Lonardo, L. Fusina, P. A. R. Ade, A. G. Murray, “Sensitive detection of the rotational spectrum of HBr in the ν = 1 state,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5822–5826 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

G. Modugno, P. De Natale, M. Bellini, M. Inguscio, L. Fusina, G. Di Lonardo, J. Vander Auwera, “Precise measurement of molecular dipole moments with a tunable Far-infrared Stark spectrometer: application to HOCl,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1645–1649 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Chance, W. A. Traub, D. G. Johnson, K. W. Jucks, P. Ciarpallini, R. A. Stachnik, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, “Simultaneous measurements of stratospheric HOx, NOx, and Clx: comparison with a photochemical model,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9031–9043 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

F. Matsushima, H. Odashima, T. Iwasaki, S. Tsunekawa, K. Takagi, “H2O: a frequency and wavelength standard from 0.5 to 5 THz (18–160 cm-1),” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 110–112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Titz, M. Birk, D. Hausamann, R. Nitsche, F. Schreier, J. Urban, H. Küllmann, H. P. Röser, “Observation of stratospheric OH at 2.5 THz with an airborne heterodyne system,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 36, 883–891 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, D. G. Johnson, W. A. Traub, “The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Database. SAO92,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 445–457 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Maki, C. C. Chou, K. M. Evenson, L. R. Zink, J. T. Shy, “Improved molecular constants and frequencies for the CO2 laser from new high-J regular and hot-band frequency measurements,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 167, 211–224 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

H. M. Pickett, D. B. Peterson, “Stratospheric OH measurements with a far-infrared limb observing spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20507–20515 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

N. Husson, B. Bonnet, N. A. Scott, A. Chedin, “Management and study of spectroscopic information: the GEISA program,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 509–518 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Bellini, P. De Natale, G. Di Lonardo, L. Fusina, M. Inguscio, M. Prevedelli, “Tunable far infrared spectroscopy of 16O3,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 152, 256–259 (1992).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Tyuterev, V. I. Starikov, S. A. Tashkun, S. N. Mikhailenko, “Calculation of high rotation energies of the water molecule using the generating function model,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 170, 38–58 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

K. V. Chance, D. A. Jennings, K. M. Evenson, M. D. Vanek, I. G. Nolt, J. V. Radostitz, K. Park, “Pressure broadening of the 118.455 cm-1 rotational lines of OH by H2, He, N2, and O2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 146, 375–380 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

L. R. Zink, P. De Natale, F. S. Pavone, M. Prevedelli, K. M. Evenson, M. Inguscio, “Rotational far infrared spectrum of 13CO,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 143, 304–310 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

1985 (3)

1984 (3)

M. Carlotti, G. Di Lonardo, L. Fusina, A. Trombetti, A. Bonetti, B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, “The high-resolution spectrum of ozone between 8 and 150 cm-1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 107, 84–93 (1984).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Evenson, D. A. Jennings, F. R. Petersen, “Tunable far-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 576–578 (1984).
[CrossRef]

B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, A. Bonetti, “Submillimeter high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer for atmospheric studies,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2594–2603 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

A. Goldman, J. R. Gillis, D. G. Murcray, A. Barbe, C. Secroun, “Analysis of the ν 2 and 2ν 2–ν 2 ozone bands from the high-resolution atmospheric spectra,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 96, 279–287 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

N. Monnanteuil, J. C. Depannemacker, J. Bellet, A. Barbe, C. Secroun, P. Jouve, S. Giorgianni, Y.-S. Hoh, K. Narahari Rao, “Microwave and infrared study of the ν 2 state of 16O3 and identification of the (ν 3 + ν 2)–ν 2 band lines at 10 μm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 71, 399–413 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

M. J. C. Depannemacker, B. Duterage, M. J. Bellet, “Systematic calculations of rotational spectra of normal and substituted (18O in place of 16O) ozone molecules,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 77, 519–530 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

M. Lichtestein, J. J. Gallagher, S. A. Clough, “Millimeter wave spectrum of ozone,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 40, 10–26 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970 (2)

T. Tanaka, Y. Morino, “Coriolis interaction and anharmonic potential function of ozone from the microwave spectra in the excited vibrational states,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 33, 538–551 (1970).
[CrossRef]

C. Freed, A. Javan, “Standing-wave saturation resonances in the CO2 10.6 μm transitions observed in a low pressure room-temperature absorber gas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 53–56 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Ade, P. A. R.

I. G. Nolt, P. A. R. Ade, F. Alboni, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, U. Cortesi, M. Epifani, M. J. Griffin, P. A. Hamilton, C. Lee, G. Lepri, F. Mencaraglia, A. G. Murray, J. H. Park, K. Park, P. Raspollini, M. Ridolfi, M. D. Vanek, “Stratospheric HBr concentration profile obtained from far-infrared emission spectroscopy,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 281–284 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. De Natale, L. Lorini, M. Inguscio, G. Di Lonardo, L. Fusina, P. A. R. Ade, A. G. Murray, “Sensitive detection of the rotational spectrum of HBr in the ν = 1 state,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5822–5826 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Murray, M. J. Griffin, P. A. R. Ade, J Leotin, C Meny, G Sirmain, “Optimisation of FIR photoconductors for atmospheric spectroscopy,” in Proceedings of the ESA Symposium on Photon Detectors for Space Instrumentation, ESA Spec. Pub. 356, (European Space Agency, Postbus 299, 2200AG Noordwijk, The Netherlands).

Alboni, F.

I. G. Nolt, P. A. R. Ade, F. Alboni, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, U. Cortesi, M. Epifani, M. J. Griffin, P. A. Hamilton, C. Lee, G. Lepri, F. Mencaraglia, A. G. Murray, J. H. Park, K. Park, P. Raspollini, M. Ridolfi, M. D. Vanek, “Stratospheric HBr concentration profile obtained from far-infrared emission spectroscopy,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 281–284 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamach, A. Goldman, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Barbe, N. Husson, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, “The HITRAN Database: 1986 Edition,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4058–4097 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Goldman, J. R. Gillis, D. G. Murcray, A. Barbe, C. Secroun, “Analysis of the ν 2 and 2ν 2–ν 2 ozone bands from the high-resolution atmospheric spectra,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 96, 279–287 (1982).
[CrossRef]

N. Monnanteuil, J. C. Depannemacker, J. Bellet, A. Barbe, C. Secroun, P. Jouve, S. Giorgianni, Y.-S. Hoh, K. Narahari Rao, “Microwave and infrared study of the ν 2 state of 16O3 and identification of the (ν 3 + ν 2)–ν 2 band lines at 10 μm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 71, 399–413 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bellet, J.

N. Monnanteuil, J. C. Depannemacker, J. Bellet, A. Barbe, C. Secroun, P. Jouve, S. Giorgianni, Y.-S. Hoh, K. Narahari Rao, “Microwave and infrared study of the ν 2 state of 16O3 and identification of the (ν 3 + ν 2)–ν 2 band lines at 10 μm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 71, 399–413 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bellet, M. J.

M. J. C. Depannemacker, B. Duterage, M. J. Bellet, “Systematic calculations of rotational spectra of normal and substituted (18O in place of 16O) ozone molecules,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 77, 519–530 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bellini, M.

G. Modugno, P. De Natale, M. Bellini, M. Inguscio, L. Fusina, G. Di Lonardo, J. Vander Auwera, “Precise measurement of molecular dipole moments with a tunable Far-infrared Stark spectrometer: application to HOCl,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1645–1649 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Bellini, P. De Natale, G. Di Lonardo, L. Fusina, M. Inguscio, M. Prevedelli, “Tunable far infrared spectroscopy of 16O3,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 152, 256–259 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Inguscio, P. De Natale, M. Bellini, “High sensitivity and precision spectroscopy in the far infrared,” in Laser Spectroscopy XI, L. A. Bloomfield, T. F. Gallagher, D. J. Larson, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1993), pp. 128–133.

Birk, M.

R. Titz, M. Birk, D. Hausamann, R. Nitsche, F. Schreier, J. Urban, H. Küllmann, H. P. Röser, “Observation of stratospheric OH at 2.5 THz with an airborne heterodyne system,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 36, 883–891 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bonetti, A.

B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, A. Bonetti, “Submillimeter high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer for atmospheric studies,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2594–2603 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Carlotti, G. Di Lonardo, L. Fusina, A. Trombetti, A. Bonetti, B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, “The high-resolution spectrum of ozone between 8 and 150 cm-1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 107, 84–93 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bonnet, B.

N. Husson, B. Bonnet, N. A. Scott, A. Chedin, “Management and study of spectroscopic information: the GEISA program,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 509–518 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

Camy-Peyret, C.

Carli, B.

I. G. Nolt, P. A. R. Ade, F. Alboni, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, U. Cortesi, M. Epifani, M. J. Griffin, P. A. Hamilton, C. Lee, G. Lepri, F. Mencaraglia, A. G. Murray, J. H. Park, K. Park, P. Raspollini, M. Ridolfi, M. D. Vanek, “Stratospheric HBr concentration profile obtained from far-infrared emission spectroscopy,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 281–284 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Park, B. Carli, “Analysis of far-infrared emission Fourier transform spectra,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3490–3501 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Carlotti, G. Di Lonardo, L. Fusina, A. Trombetti, A. Bonetti, B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, “The high-resolution spectrum of ozone between 8 and 150 cm-1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 107, 84–93 (1984).
[CrossRef]

B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, A. Bonetti, “Submillimeter high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer for atmospheric studies,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2594–2603 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Carlotti, M.

I. G. Nolt, P. A. R. Ade, F. Alboni, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, U. Cortesi, M. Epifani, M. J. Griffin, P. A. Hamilton, C. Lee, G. Lepri, F. Mencaraglia, A. G. Murray, J. H. Park, K. Park, P. Raspollini, M. Ridolfi, M. D. Vanek, “Stratospheric HBr concentration profile obtained from far-infrared emission spectroscopy,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 281–284 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Carlotti, G. Di Lonardo, L. Fusina, A. Trombetti, A. Bonetti, B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, “The high-resolution spectrum of ozone between 8 and 150 cm-1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 107, 84–93 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K. V.

K. V. Chance, W. A. Traub, D. G. Johnson, K. W. Jucks, P. Ciarpallini, R. A. Stachnik, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, “Simultaneous measurements of stratospheric HOx, NOx, and Clx: comparison with a photochemical model,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9031–9043 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, D. G. Johnson, W. A. Traub, “The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Database. SAO92,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 445–457 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Chance, D. A. Jennings, K. M. Evenson, M. D. Vanek, I. G. Nolt, J. V. Radostitz, K. Park, “Pressure broadening of the 118.455 cm-1 rotational lines of OH by H2, He, N2, and O2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 146, 375–380 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chedin, A.

N. Husson, B. Bonnet, N. A. Scott, A. Chedin, “Management and study of spectroscopic information: the GEISA program,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 509–518 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chou, C. C.

A. G. Maki, C. C. Chou, K. M. Evenson, L. R. Zink, J. T. Shy, “Improved molecular constants and frequencies for the CO2 laser from new high-J regular and hot-band frequency measurements,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 167, 211–224 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ciarpallini, P.

K. V. Chance, W. A. Traub, D. G. Johnson, K. W. Jucks, P. Ciarpallini, R. A. Stachnik, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, “Simultaneous measurements of stratospheric HOx, NOx, and Clx: comparison with a photochemical model,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9031–9043 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Clough, S. A.

M. Lichtestein, J. J. Gallagher, S. A. Clough, “Millimeter wave spectrum of ozone,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 40, 10–26 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, E. A.

H. M. Pickett, E. A. Cohen, J. S. Margolis, “The infrared and microwave spectra of ozone for the (0, 0, 0), (1, 0, 0), and (0, 0, 1) states,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 110, 186–214 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Cortesi, U.

I. G. Nolt, P. A. R. Ade, F. Alboni, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, U. Cortesi, M. Epifani, M. J. Griffin, P. A. Hamilton, C. Lee, G. Lepri, F. Mencaraglia, A. G. Murray, J. H. Park, K. Park, P. Raspollini, M. Ridolfi, M. D. Vanek, “Stratospheric HBr concentration profile obtained from far-infrared emission spectroscopy,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 281–284 (1997).
[CrossRef]

De Natale, P.

P. De Natale, L. Lorini, M. Inguscio, G. Di Lonardo, L. Fusina, P. A. R. Ade, A. G. Murray, “Sensitive detection of the rotational spectrum of HBr in the ν = 1 state,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5822–5826 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Modugno, P. De Natale, M. Bellini, M. Inguscio, L. Fusina, G. Di Lonardo, J. Vander Auwera, “Precise measurement of molecular dipole moments with a tunable Far-infrared Stark spectrometer: application to HOCl,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1645–1649 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Bellini, P. De Natale, G. Di Lonardo, L. Fusina, M. Inguscio, M. Prevedelli, “Tunable far infrared spectroscopy of 16O3,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 152, 256–259 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Zink, P. De Natale, F. S. Pavone, M. Prevedelli, K. M. Evenson, M. Inguscio, “Rotational far infrared spectrum of 13CO,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 143, 304–310 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Inguscio, P. De Natale, M. Bellini, “High sensitivity and precision spectroscopy in the far infrared,” in Laser Spectroscopy XI, L. A. Bloomfield, T. F. Gallagher, D. J. Larson, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1993), pp. 128–133.

Depannemacker, J. C.

N. Monnanteuil, J. C. Depannemacker, J. Bellet, A. Barbe, C. Secroun, P. Jouve, S. Giorgianni, Y.-S. Hoh, K. Narahari Rao, “Microwave and infrared study of the ν 2 state of 16O3 and identification of the (ν 3 + ν 2)–ν 2 band lines at 10 μm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 71, 399–413 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Depannemacker, M. J. C.

M. J. C. Depannemacker, B. Duterage, M. J. Bellet, “Systematic calculations of rotational spectra of normal and substituted (18O in place of 16O) ozone molecules,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 77, 519–530 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Di Lonardo, G.

P. De Natale, L. Lorini, M. Inguscio, G. Di Lonardo, L. Fusina, P. A. R. Ade, A. G. Murray, “Sensitive detection of the rotational spectrum of HBr in the ν = 1 state,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5822–5826 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Modugno, P. De Natale, M. Bellini, M. Inguscio, L. Fusina, G. Di Lonardo, J. Vander Auwera, “Precise measurement of molecular dipole moments with a tunable Far-infrared Stark spectrometer: application to HOCl,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1645–1649 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Bellini, P. De Natale, G. Di Lonardo, L. Fusina, M. Inguscio, M. Prevedelli, “Tunable far infrared spectroscopy of 16O3,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 152, 256–259 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Carlotti, G. Di Lonardo, L. Fusina, A. Trombetti, A. Bonetti, B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, “The high-resolution spectrum of ozone between 8 and 150 cm-1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 107, 84–93 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Duterage, B.

M. J. C. Depannemacker, B. Duterage, M. J. Bellet, “Systematic calculations of rotational spectra of normal and substituted (18O in place of 16O) ozone molecules,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 77, 519–530 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Epifani, M.

I. G. Nolt, P. A. R. Ade, F. Alboni, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, U. Cortesi, M. Epifani, M. J. Griffin, P. A. Hamilton, C. Lee, G. Lepri, F. Mencaraglia, A. G. Murray, J. H. Park, K. Park, P. Raspollini, M. Ridolfi, M. D. Vanek, “Stratospheric HBr concentration profile obtained from far-infrared emission spectroscopy,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 281–284 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Evenson, K. M.

A. G. Maki, C. C. Chou, K. M. Evenson, L. R. Zink, J. T. Shy, “Improved molecular constants and frequencies for the CO2 laser from new high-J regular and hot-band frequency measurements,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 167, 211–224 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Chance, D. A. Jennings, K. M. Evenson, M. D. Vanek, I. G. Nolt, J. V. Radostitz, K. Park, “Pressure broadening of the 118.455 cm-1 rotational lines of OH by H2, He, N2, and O2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 146, 375–380 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Zink, P. De Natale, F. S. Pavone, M. Prevedelli, K. M. Evenson, M. Inguscio, “Rotational far infrared spectrum of 13CO,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 143, 304–310 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Evenson, D. A. Jennings, F. R. Petersen, “Tunable far-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 576–578 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

Freed, C.

C. Freed, A. Javan, “Standing-wave saturation resonances in the CO2 10.6 μm transitions observed in a low pressure room-temperature absorber gas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 53–56 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Fusina, L.

P. De Natale, L. Lorini, M. Inguscio, G. Di Lonardo, L. Fusina, P. A. R. Ade, A. G. Murray, “Sensitive detection of the rotational spectrum of HBr in the ν = 1 state,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5822–5826 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Modugno, P. De Natale, M. Bellini, M. Inguscio, L. Fusina, G. Di Lonardo, J. Vander Auwera, “Precise measurement of molecular dipole moments with a tunable Far-infrared Stark spectrometer: application to HOCl,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1645–1649 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Bellini, P. De Natale, G. Di Lonardo, L. Fusina, M. Inguscio, M. Prevedelli, “Tunable far infrared spectroscopy of 16O3,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 152, 256–259 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Carlotti, G. Di Lonardo, L. Fusina, A. Trombetti, A. Bonetti, B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, “The high-resolution spectrum of ozone between 8 and 150 cm-1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 107, 84–93 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, J. J.

M. Lichtestein, J. J. Gallagher, S. A. Clough, “Millimeter wave spectrum of ozone,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 40, 10–26 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Gamach, R. R.

Gillis, J. R.

A. Goldman, J. R. Gillis, D. G. Murcray, A. Barbe, C. Secroun, “Analysis of the ν 2 and 2ν 2–ν 2 ozone bands from the high-resolution atmospheric spectra,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 96, 279–287 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Giorgianni, S.

N. Monnanteuil, J. C. Depannemacker, J. Bellet, A. Barbe, C. Secroun, P. Jouve, S. Giorgianni, Y.-S. Hoh, K. Narahari Rao, “Microwave and infrared study of the ν 2 state of 16O3 and identification of the (ν 3 + ν 2)–ν 2 band lines at 10 μm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 71, 399–413 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamach, A. Goldman, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Barbe, N. Husson, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, “The HITRAN Database: 1986 Edition,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4058–4097 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Goldman, J. R. Gillis, D. G. Murcray, A. Barbe, C. Secroun, “Analysis of the ν 2 and 2ν 2–ν 2 ozone bands from the high-resolution atmospheric spectra,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 96, 279–287 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, M. J.

I. G. Nolt, P. A. R. Ade, F. Alboni, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, U. Cortesi, M. Epifani, M. J. Griffin, P. A. Hamilton, C. Lee, G. Lepri, F. Mencaraglia, A. G. Murray, J. H. Park, K. Park, P. Raspollini, M. Ridolfi, M. D. Vanek, “Stratospheric HBr concentration profile obtained from far-infrared emission spectroscopy,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 281–284 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Murray, M. J. Griffin, P. A. R. Ade, J Leotin, C Meny, G Sirmain, “Optimisation of FIR photoconductors for atmospheric spectroscopy,” in Proceedings of the ESA Symposium on Photon Detectors for Space Instrumentation, ESA Spec. Pub. 356, (European Space Agency, Postbus 299, 2200AG Noordwijk, The Netherlands).

Hamilton, P. A.

I. G. Nolt, P. A. R. Ade, F. Alboni, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, U. Cortesi, M. Epifani, M. J. Griffin, P. A. Hamilton, C. Lee, G. Lepri, F. Mencaraglia, A. G. Murray, J. H. Park, K. Park, P. Raspollini, M. Ridolfi, M. D. Vanek, “Stratospheric HBr concentration profile obtained from far-infrared emission spectroscopy,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 281–284 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hausamann, D.

R. Titz, M. Birk, D. Hausamann, R. Nitsche, F. Schreier, J. Urban, H. Küllmann, H. P. Röser, “Observation of stratospheric OH at 2.5 THz with an airborne heterodyne system,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 36, 883–891 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hoh, Y.-S.

N. Monnanteuil, J. C. Depannemacker, J. Bellet, A. Barbe, C. Secroun, P. Jouve, S. Giorgianni, Y.-S. Hoh, K. Narahari Rao, “Microwave and infrared study of the ν 2 state of 16O3 and identification of the (ν 3 + ν 2)–ν 2 band lines at 10 μm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 71, 399–413 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Husson, N.

N. Husson, B. Bonnet, N. A. Scott, A. Chedin, “Management and study of spectroscopic information: the GEISA program,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 509–518 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamach, A. Goldman, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Barbe, N. Husson, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, “The HITRAN Database: 1986 Edition,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4058–4097 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Inguscio, M.

P. De Natale, L. Lorini, M. Inguscio, G. Di Lonardo, L. Fusina, P. A. R. Ade, A. G. Murray, “Sensitive detection of the rotational spectrum of HBr in the ν = 1 state,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5822–5826 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Modugno, P. De Natale, M. Bellini, M. Inguscio, L. Fusina, G. Di Lonardo, J. Vander Auwera, “Precise measurement of molecular dipole moments with a tunable Far-infrared Stark spectrometer: application to HOCl,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1645–1649 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Bellini, P. De Natale, G. Di Lonardo, L. Fusina, M. Inguscio, M. Prevedelli, “Tunable far infrared spectroscopy of 16O3,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 152, 256–259 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Zink, P. De Natale, F. S. Pavone, M. Prevedelli, K. M. Evenson, M. Inguscio, “Rotational far infrared spectrum of 13CO,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 143, 304–310 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Inguscio, P. De Natale, M. Bellini, “High sensitivity and precision spectroscopy in the far infrared,” in Laser Spectroscopy XI, L. A. Bloomfield, T. F. Gallagher, D. J. Larson, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1993), pp. 128–133.

Iwasaki, T.

F. Matsushima, H. Odashima, T. Iwasaki, S. Tsunekawa, K. Takagi, “H2O: a frequency and wavelength standard from 0.5 to 5 THz (18–160 cm-1),” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 110–112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Javan, A.

C. Freed, A. Javan, “Standing-wave saturation resonances in the CO2 10.6 μm transitions observed in a low pressure room-temperature absorber gas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 53–56 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Jennings, D. A.

K. V. Chance, D. A. Jennings, K. M. Evenson, M. D. Vanek, I. G. Nolt, J. V. Radostitz, K. Park, “Pressure broadening of the 118.455 cm-1 rotational lines of OH by H2, He, N2, and O2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 146, 375–380 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Evenson, D. A. Jennings, F. R. Petersen, “Tunable far-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 576–578 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Johns, J. W. C.

Johnson, D. G.

K. V. Chance, W. A. Traub, D. G. Johnson, K. W. Jucks, P. Ciarpallini, R. A. Stachnik, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, “Simultaneous measurements of stratospheric HOx, NOx, and Clx: comparison with a photochemical model,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9031–9043 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, D. G. Johnson, W. A. Traub, “The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Database. SAO92,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 445–457 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jouve, P.

N. Monnanteuil, J. C. Depannemacker, J. Bellet, A. Barbe, C. Secroun, P. Jouve, S. Giorgianni, Y.-S. Hoh, K. Narahari Rao, “Microwave and infrared study of the ν 2 state of 16O3 and identification of the (ν 3 + ν 2)–ν 2 band lines at 10 μm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 71, 399–413 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Jucks, K. W.

K. V. Chance, W. A. Traub, D. G. Johnson, K. W. Jucks, P. Ciarpallini, R. A. Stachnik, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, “Simultaneous measurements of stratospheric HOx, NOx, and Clx: comparison with a photochemical model,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9031–9043 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, D. G. Johnson, W. A. Traub, “The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Database. SAO92,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 445–457 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Küllmann, H.

R. Titz, M. Birk, D. Hausamann, R. Nitsche, F. Schreier, J. Urban, H. Küllmann, H. P. Röser, “Observation of stratospheric OH at 2.5 THz with an airborne heterodyne system,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 36, 883–891 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.

I. G. Nolt, P. A. R. Ade, F. Alboni, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, U. Cortesi, M. Epifani, M. J. Griffin, P. A. Hamilton, C. Lee, G. Lepri, F. Mencaraglia, A. G. Murray, J. H. Park, K. Park, P. Raspollini, M. Ridolfi, M. D. Vanek, “Stratospheric HBr concentration profile obtained from far-infrared emission spectroscopy,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 281–284 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Leotin, J

A. G. Murray, M. J. Griffin, P. A. R. Ade, J Leotin, C Meny, G Sirmain, “Optimisation of FIR photoconductors for atmospheric spectroscopy,” in Proceedings of the ESA Symposium on Photon Detectors for Space Instrumentation, ESA Spec. Pub. 356, (European Space Agency, Postbus 299, 2200AG Noordwijk, The Netherlands).

Lepri, G.

I. G. Nolt, P. A. R. Ade, F. Alboni, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, U. Cortesi, M. Epifani, M. J. Griffin, P. A. Hamilton, C. Lee, G. Lepri, F. Mencaraglia, A. G. Murray, J. H. Park, K. Park, P. Raspollini, M. Ridolfi, M. D. Vanek, “Stratospheric HBr concentration profile obtained from far-infrared emission spectroscopy,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 281–284 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lichtestein, M.

M. Lichtestein, J. J. Gallagher, S. A. Clough, “Millimeter wave spectrum of ozone,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 40, 10–26 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Lorini, L.

Maki, A. G.

A. G. Maki, C. C. Chou, K. M. Evenson, L. R. Zink, J. T. Shy, “Improved molecular constants and frequencies for the CO2 laser from new high-J regular and hot-band frequency measurements,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 167, 211–224 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Malathy Devi, V.

J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, V. Malathy Devi, Atlas of Ozone Spectral Parameters from Microwave to Medium Infrared (Academic, Boston, 1990).

Margolis, J. S.

H. M. Pickett, E. A. Cohen, J. S. Margolis, “The infrared and microwave spectra of ozone for the (0, 0, 0), (1, 0, 0), and (0, 0, 1) states,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 110, 186–214 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Matsushima, F.

F. Matsushima, H. Odashima, T. Iwasaki, S. Tsunekawa, K. Takagi, “H2O: a frequency and wavelength standard from 0.5 to 5 THz (18–160 cm-1),” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 110–112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mencaraglia, F.

I. G. Nolt, P. A. R. Ade, F. Alboni, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, U. Cortesi, M. Epifani, M. J. Griffin, P. A. Hamilton, C. Lee, G. Lepri, F. Mencaraglia, A. G. Murray, J. H. Park, K. Park, P. Raspollini, M. Ridolfi, M. D. Vanek, “Stratospheric HBr concentration profile obtained from far-infrared emission spectroscopy,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 281–284 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, A. Bonetti, “Submillimeter high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer for atmospheric studies,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2594–2603 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Carlotti, G. Di Lonardo, L. Fusina, A. Trombetti, A. Bonetti, B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, “The high-resolution spectrum of ozone between 8 and 150 cm-1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 107, 84–93 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Meny, C

A. G. Murray, M. J. Griffin, P. A. R. Ade, J Leotin, C Meny, G Sirmain, “Optimisation of FIR photoconductors for atmospheric spectroscopy,” in Proceedings of the ESA Symposium on Photon Detectors for Space Instrumentation, ESA Spec. Pub. 356, (European Space Agency, Postbus 299, 2200AG Noordwijk, The Netherlands).

Michelsen, H. A.

K. V. Chance, W. A. Traub, D. G. Johnson, K. W. Jucks, P. Ciarpallini, R. A. Stachnik, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, “Simultaneous measurements of stratospheric HOx, NOx, and Clx: comparison with a photochemical model,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9031–9043 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailenko, S. N.

V. G. Tyuterev, V. I. Starikov, S. A. Tashkun, S. N. Mikhailenko, “Calculation of high rotation energies of the water molecule using the generating function model,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 170, 38–58 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Modugno, G.

Monnanteuil, N.

N. Monnanteuil, J. C. Depannemacker, J. Bellet, A. Barbe, C. Secroun, P. Jouve, S. Giorgianni, Y.-S. Hoh, K. Narahari Rao, “Microwave and infrared study of the ν 2 state of 16O3 and identification of the (ν 3 + ν 2)–ν 2 band lines at 10 μm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 71, 399–413 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Morino, Y.

T. Tanaka, Y. Morino, “Coriolis interaction and anharmonic potential function of ozone from the microwave spectra in the excited vibrational states,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 33, 538–551 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Murcray, D. G.

A. Goldman, J. R. Gillis, D. G. Murcray, A. Barbe, C. Secroun, “Analysis of the ν 2 and 2ν 2–ν 2 ozone bands from the high-resolution atmospheric spectra,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 96, 279–287 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Murray, A. G.

P. De Natale, L. Lorini, M. Inguscio, G. Di Lonardo, L. Fusina, P. A. R. Ade, A. G. Murray, “Sensitive detection of the rotational spectrum of HBr in the ν = 1 state,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5822–5826 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. G. Nolt, P. A. R. Ade, F. Alboni, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, U. Cortesi, M. Epifani, M. J. Griffin, P. A. Hamilton, C. Lee, G. Lepri, F. Mencaraglia, A. G. Murray, J. H. Park, K. Park, P. Raspollini, M. Ridolfi, M. D. Vanek, “Stratospheric HBr concentration profile obtained from far-infrared emission spectroscopy,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 281–284 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Murray, M. J. Griffin, P. A. R. Ade, J Leotin, C Meny, G Sirmain, “Optimisation of FIR photoconductors for atmospheric spectroscopy,” in Proceedings of the ESA Symposium on Photon Detectors for Space Instrumentation, ESA Spec. Pub. 356, (European Space Agency, Postbus 299, 2200AG Noordwijk, The Netherlands).

Narahari Rao, K.

N. Monnanteuil, J. C. Depannemacker, J. Bellet, A. Barbe, C. Secroun, P. Jouve, S. Giorgianni, Y.-S. Hoh, K. Narahari Rao, “Microwave and infrared study of the ν 2 state of 16O3 and identification of the (ν 3 + ν 2)–ν 2 band lines at 10 μm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 71, 399–413 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Nitsche, R.

R. Titz, M. Birk, D. Hausamann, R. Nitsche, F. Schreier, J. Urban, H. Küllmann, H. P. Röser, “Observation of stratospheric OH at 2.5 THz with an airborne heterodyne system,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 36, 883–891 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nolt, I. G.

I. G. Nolt, P. A. R. Ade, F. Alboni, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, U. Cortesi, M. Epifani, M. J. Griffin, P. A. Hamilton, C. Lee, G. Lepri, F. Mencaraglia, A. G. Murray, J. H. Park, K. Park, P. Raspollini, M. Ridolfi, M. D. Vanek, “Stratospheric HBr concentration profile obtained from far-infrared emission spectroscopy,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 281–284 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Chance, D. A. Jennings, K. M. Evenson, M. D. Vanek, I. G. Nolt, J. V. Radostitz, K. Park, “Pressure broadening of the 118.455 cm-1 rotational lines of OH by H2, He, N2, and O2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 146, 375–380 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Odashima, H.

F. Matsushima, H. Odashima, T. Iwasaki, S. Tsunekawa, K. Takagi, “H2O: a frequency and wavelength standard from 0.5 to 5 THz (18–160 cm-1),” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 110–112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. H.

I. G. Nolt, P. A. R. Ade, F. Alboni, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, U. Cortesi, M. Epifani, M. J. Griffin, P. A. Hamilton, C. Lee, G. Lepri, F. Mencaraglia, A. G. Murray, J. H. Park, K. Park, P. Raspollini, M. Ridolfi, M. D. Vanek, “Stratospheric HBr concentration profile obtained from far-infrared emission spectroscopy,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 281–284 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Park, B. Carli, “Analysis of far-infrared emission Fourier transform spectra,” Appl. Opt. 25, 3490–3501 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, K.

I. G. Nolt, P. A. R. Ade, F. Alboni, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, U. Cortesi, M. Epifani, M. J. Griffin, P. A. Hamilton, C. Lee, G. Lepri, F. Mencaraglia, A. G. Murray, J. H. Park, K. Park, P. Raspollini, M. Ridolfi, M. D. Vanek, “Stratospheric HBr concentration profile obtained from far-infrared emission spectroscopy,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 281–284 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Chance, D. A. Jennings, K. M. Evenson, M. D. Vanek, I. G. Nolt, J. V. Radostitz, K. Park, “Pressure broadening of the 118.455 cm-1 rotational lines of OH by H2, He, N2, and O2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 146, 375–380 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pavone, F. S.

L. R. Zink, P. De Natale, F. S. Pavone, M. Prevedelli, K. M. Evenson, M. Inguscio, “Rotational far infrared spectrum of 13CO,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 143, 304–310 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, F. R.

K. M. Evenson, D. A. Jennings, F. R. Petersen, “Tunable far-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 576–578 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, D. B.

H. M. Pickett, D. B. Peterson, “Stratospheric OH measurements with a far-infrared limb observing spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20507–20515 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pickett, H. M.

H. M. Pickett, D. B. Peterson, “Stratospheric OH measurements with a far-infrared limb observing spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20507–20515 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamach, A. Goldman, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Barbe, N. Husson, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, “The HITRAN Database: 1986 Edition,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4058–4097 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Poynter, H. M. Pickett, “Submillimeter, millimeter, and microwave spectral line catalog,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2235–2240 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Pickett, E. A. Cohen, J. S. Margolis, “The infrared and microwave spectra of ozone for the (0, 0, 0), (1, 0, 0), and (0, 0, 1) states,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 110, 186–214 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Poynter, R. L.

Prevedelli, M.

M. Bellini, P. De Natale, G. Di Lonardo, L. Fusina, M. Inguscio, M. Prevedelli, “Tunable far infrared spectroscopy of 16O3,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 152, 256–259 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Zink, P. De Natale, F. S. Pavone, M. Prevedelli, K. M. Evenson, M. Inguscio, “Rotational far infrared spectrum of 13CO,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 143, 304–310 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Radostitz, J. V.

K. V. Chance, D. A. Jennings, K. M. Evenson, M. D. Vanek, I. G. Nolt, J. V. Radostitz, K. Park, “Pressure broadening of the 118.455 cm-1 rotational lines of OH by H2, He, N2, and O2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 146, 375–380 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Raspollini, P.

I. G. Nolt, P. A. R. Ade, F. Alboni, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, U. Cortesi, M. Epifani, M. J. Griffin, P. A. Hamilton, C. Lee, G. Lepri, F. Mencaraglia, A. G. Murray, J. H. Park, K. Park, P. Raspollini, M. Ridolfi, M. D. Vanek, “Stratospheric HBr concentration profile obtained from far-infrared emission spectroscopy,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 281–284 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ridolfi, M.

I. G. Nolt, P. A. R. Ade, F. Alboni, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, U. Cortesi, M. Epifani, M. J. Griffin, P. A. Hamilton, C. Lee, G. Lepri, F. Mencaraglia, A. G. Murray, J. H. Park, K. Park, P. Raspollini, M. Ridolfi, M. D. Vanek, “Stratospheric HBr concentration profile obtained from far-infrared emission spectroscopy,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 281–284 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

Röser, H. P.

R. Titz, M. Birk, D. Hausamann, R. Nitsche, F. Schreier, J. Urban, H. Küllmann, H. P. Röser, “Observation of stratospheric OH at 2.5 THz with an airborne heterodyne system,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 36, 883–891 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

Salawitch, R. J.

K. V. Chance, W. A. Traub, D. G. Johnson, K. W. Jucks, P. Ciarpallini, R. A. Stachnik, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, “Simultaneous measurements of stratospheric HOx, NOx, and Clx: comparison with a photochemical model,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9031–9043 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schreier, F.

R. Titz, M. Birk, D. Hausamann, R. Nitsche, F. Schreier, J. Urban, H. Küllmann, H. P. Röser, “Observation of stratospheric OH at 2.5 THz with an airborne heterodyne system,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 36, 883–891 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Scott, N. A.

N. Husson, B. Bonnet, N. A. Scott, A. Chedin, “Management and study of spectroscopic information: the GEISA program,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 509–518 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Secroun, C.

A. Goldman, J. R. Gillis, D. G. Murcray, A. Barbe, C. Secroun, “Analysis of the ν 2 and 2ν 2–ν 2 ozone bands from the high-resolution atmospheric spectra,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 96, 279–287 (1982).
[CrossRef]

N. Monnanteuil, J. C. Depannemacker, J. Bellet, A. Barbe, C. Secroun, P. Jouve, S. Giorgianni, Y.-S. Hoh, K. Narahari Rao, “Microwave and infrared study of the ν 2 state of 16O3 and identification of the (ν 3 + ν 2)–ν 2 band lines at 10 μm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 71, 399–413 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Shy, J. T.

A. G. Maki, C. C. Chou, K. M. Evenson, L. R. Zink, J. T. Shy, “Improved molecular constants and frequencies for the CO2 laser from new high-J regular and hot-band frequency measurements,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 167, 211–224 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sirmain, G

A. G. Murray, M. J. Griffin, P. A. R. Ade, J Leotin, C Meny, G Sirmain, “Optimisation of FIR photoconductors for atmospheric spectroscopy,” in Proceedings of the ESA Symposium on Photon Detectors for Space Instrumentation, ESA Spec. Pub. 356, (European Space Agency, Postbus 299, 2200AG Noordwijk, The Netherlands).

Smith, M. A. H.

Stachnik, R. A.

K. V. Chance, W. A. Traub, D. G. Johnson, K. W. Jucks, P. Ciarpallini, R. A. Stachnik, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, “Simultaneous measurements of stratospheric HOx, NOx, and Clx: comparison with a photochemical model,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9031–9043 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Starikov, V. I.

V. G. Tyuterev, V. I. Starikov, S. A. Tashkun, S. N. Mikhailenko, “Calculation of high rotation energies of the water molecule using the generating function model,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 170, 38–58 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Takagi, K.

F. Matsushima, H. Odashima, T. Iwasaki, S. Tsunekawa, K. Takagi, “H2O: a frequency and wavelength standard from 0.5 to 5 THz (18–160 cm-1),” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 110–112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, T.

T. Tanaka, Y. Morino, “Coriolis interaction and anharmonic potential function of ozone from the microwave spectra in the excited vibrational states,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 33, 538–551 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Tashkun, S. A.

V. G. Tyuterev, V. I. Starikov, S. A. Tashkun, S. N. Mikhailenko, “Calculation of high rotation energies of the water molecule using the generating function model,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 170, 38–58 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Titz, R.

R. Titz, M. Birk, D. Hausamann, R. Nitsche, F. Schreier, J. Urban, H. Küllmann, H. P. Röser, “Observation of stratospheric OH at 2.5 THz with an airborne heterodyne system,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 36, 883–891 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

Traub, W. A.

K. V. Chance, W. A. Traub, D. G. Johnson, K. W. Jucks, P. Ciarpallini, R. A. Stachnik, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, “Simultaneous measurements of stratospheric HOx, NOx, and Clx: comparison with a photochemical model,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9031–9043 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, D. G. Johnson, W. A. Traub, “The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Database. SAO92,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 445–457 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Trombetti, A.

M. Carlotti, G. Di Lonardo, L. Fusina, A. Trombetti, A. Bonetti, B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, “The high-resolution spectrum of ozone between 8 and 150 cm-1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 107, 84–93 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Tsunekawa, S.

F. Matsushima, H. Odashima, T. Iwasaki, S. Tsunekawa, K. Takagi, “H2O: a frequency and wavelength standard from 0.5 to 5 THz (18–160 cm-1),” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 110–112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tyuterev, V. G.

V. G. Tyuterev, V. I. Starikov, S. A. Tashkun, S. N. Mikhailenko, “Calculation of high rotation energies of the water molecule using the generating function model,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 170, 38–58 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Urban, J.

R. Titz, M. Birk, D. Hausamann, R. Nitsche, F. Schreier, J. Urban, H. Küllmann, H. P. Röser, “Observation of stratospheric OH at 2.5 THz with an airborne heterodyne system,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 36, 883–891 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vander Auwera, J.

Vanek, M. D.

I. G. Nolt, P. A. R. Ade, F. Alboni, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, U. Cortesi, M. Epifani, M. J. Griffin, P. A. Hamilton, C. Lee, G. Lepri, F. Mencaraglia, A. G. Murray, J. H. Park, K. Park, P. Raspollini, M. Ridolfi, M. D. Vanek, “Stratospheric HBr concentration profile obtained from far-infrared emission spectroscopy,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 281–284 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Chance, D. A. Jennings, K. M. Evenson, M. D. Vanek, I. G. Nolt, J. V. Radostitz, K. Park, “Pressure broadening of the 118.455 cm-1 rotational lines of OH by H2, He, N2, and O2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 146, 375–380 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Watson, J. K. G.

J. K. G. Watson, “Aspects of quartic and sextic centrifugal effects on rotational energy levels,” in Vibrational Spectra and Structures, J. R. Durig, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1977), Vol. 6, Chap. 1, pp. 1–89.

Zink, L. R.

A. G. Maki, C. C. Chou, K. M. Evenson, L. R. Zink, J. T. Shy, “Improved molecular constants and frequencies for the CO2 laser from new high-J regular and hot-band frequency measurements,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 167, 211–224 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Zink, P. De Natale, F. S. Pavone, M. Prevedelli, K. M. Evenson, M. Inguscio, “Rotational far infrared spectrum of 13CO,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 143, 304–310 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. Freed, A. Javan, “Standing-wave saturation resonances in the CO2 10.6 μm transitions observed in a low pressure room-temperature absorber gas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 53–56 (1970).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Evenson, D. A. Jennings, F. R. Petersen, “Tunable far-infrared spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 576–578 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

I. G. Nolt, P. A. R. Ade, F. Alboni, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, U. Cortesi, M. Epifani, M. J. Griffin, P. A. Hamilton, C. Lee, G. Lepri, F. Mencaraglia, A. G. Murray, J. H. Park, K. Park, P. Raspollini, M. Ridolfi, M. D. Vanek, “Stratospheric HBr concentration profile obtained from far-infrared emission spectroscopy,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 281–284 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

F. Matsushima, H. Odashima, T. Iwasaki, S. Tsunekawa, K. Takagi, “H2O: a frequency and wavelength standard from 0.5 to 5 THz (18–160 cm-1),” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 110–112 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. Technol. (1)

R. Titz, M. Birk, D. Hausamann, R. Nitsche, F. Schreier, J. Urban, H. Küllmann, H. P. Röser, “Observation of stratospheric OH at 2.5 THz with an airborne heterodyne system,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 36, 883–891 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

H. M. Pickett, D. B. Peterson, “Stratospheric OH measurements with a far-infrared limb observing spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 20507–20515 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Chance, W. A. Traub, D. G. Johnson, K. W. Jucks, P. Ciarpallini, R. A. Stachnik, R. J. Salawitch, H. A. Michelsen, “Simultaneous measurements of stratospheric HOx, NOx, and Clx: comparison with a photochemical model,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 9031–9043 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc. (11)

M. Carlotti, G. Di Lonardo, L. Fusina, A. Trombetti, A. Bonetti, B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, “The high-resolution spectrum of ozone between 8 and 150 cm-1,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 107, 84–93 (1984).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Zink, P. De Natale, F. S. Pavone, M. Prevedelli, K. M. Evenson, M. Inguscio, “Rotational far infrared spectrum of 13CO,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 143, 304–310 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Bellini, P. De Natale, G. Di Lonardo, L. Fusina, M. Inguscio, M. Prevedelli, “Tunable far infrared spectroscopy of 16O3,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 152, 256–259 (1992).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Tyuterev, V. I. Starikov, S. A. Tashkun, S. N. Mikhailenko, “Calculation of high rotation energies of the water molecule using the generating function model,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 170, 38–58 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanaka, Y. Morino, “Coriolis interaction and anharmonic potential function of ozone from the microwave spectra in the excited vibrational states,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 33, 538–551 (1970).
[CrossRef]

N. Monnanteuil, J. C. Depannemacker, J. Bellet, A. Barbe, C. Secroun, P. Jouve, S. Giorgianni, Y.-S. Hoh, K. Narahari Rao, “Microwave and infrared study of the ν 2 state of 16O3 and identification of the (ν 3 + ν 2)–ν 2 band lines at 10 μm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 71, 399–413 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. Goldman, J. R. Gillis, D. G. Murcray, A. Barbe, C. Secroun, “Analysis of the ν 2 and 2ν 2–ν 2 ozone bands from the high-resolution atmospheric spectra,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 96, 279–287 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Maki, C. C. Chou, K. M. Evenson, L. R. Zink, J. T. Shy, “Improved molecular constants and frequencies for the CO2 laser from new high-J regular and hot-band frequency measurements,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 167, 211–224 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Chance, D. A. Jennings, K. M. Evenson, M. D. Vanek, I. G. Nolt, J. V. Radostitz, K. Park, “Pressure broadening of the 118.455 cm-1 rotational lines of OH by H2, He, N2, and O2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 146, 375–380 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Lichtestein, J. J. Gallagher, S. A. Clough, “Millimeter wave spectrum of ozone,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 40, 10–26 (1971).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Pickett, E. A. Cohen, J. S. Margolis, “The infrared and microwave spectra of ozone for the (0, 0, 0), (1, 0, 0), and (0, 0, 1) states,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 110, 186–214 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (3)

K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, D. G. Johnson, W. A. Traub, “The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Database. SAO92,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 445–457 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. Husson, B. Bonnet, N. A. Scott, A. Chedin, “Management and study of spectroscopic information: the GEISA program,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 509–518 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. J. C. Depannemacker, B. Duterage, M. J. Bellet, “Systematic calculations of rotational spectra of normal and substituted (18O in place of 16O) ozone molecules,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 77, 519–530 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

J. K. G. Watson, “Aspects of quartic and sextic centrifugal effects on rotational energy levels,” in Vibrational Spectra and Structures, J. R. Durig, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1977), Vol. 6, Chap. 1, pp. 1–89.

A. G. Murray, M. J. Griffin, P. A. R. Ade, J Leotin, C Meny, G Sirmain, “Optimisation of FIR photoconductors for atmospheric spectroscopy,” in Proceedings of the ESA Symposium on Photon Detectors for Space Instrumentation, ESA Spec. Pub. 356, (European Space Agency, Postbus 299, 2200AG Noordwijk, The Netherlands).

J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, V. Malathy Devi, Atlas of Ozone Spectral Parameters from Microwave to Medium Infrared (Academic, Boston, 1990).

M. Inguscio, P. De Natale, M. Bellini, “High sensitivity and precision spectroscopy in the far infrared,” in Laser Spectroscopy XI, L. A. Bloomfield, T. F. Gallagher, D. J. Larson, eds. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1993), pp. 128–133.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Recording of the spectrum of O3 near 1.6 THz that shows some rotational transitions for the rQJ, 8 branch in the (0 1 0) vibrational band at room temperature.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectrum calculated with the HITRAN 96 line parameters of H2O vapor and O3 model parameters for the 118–120-cm−1 spectral region (upper trace). The unit radiance for the ordinate axis corresponds to that of a blackbody with a temperature of 225 K at 118 cm−1. The residual difference with respect to the measured atmospheric emission is plotted (with an arbitrary offset) as the lower trace. The spectral identifications of the lines are ▼, O2; ■, H2O; ◆, OH; unmarked, O3 lines.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectrum calculated as in Fig. 2, but with the revised frequencies for the water vapor and the ozone simulations (upper trace). As discussed in the text, the fitting to the experimental result also incorporates an adjustment of line intensity coefficients for the weak water lines. The residual difference with respect to the measured atmospheric emission is plotted (with an arbitrary offset) as the lower trace. The spectral identification of the lines is the same as in Fig. 2.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of Five Measured H2 Vapor Frequencies with the Frequencies in Two Current Databases

Tables Icon

Table 2 Measured Rotational Transitions (in Megahertz) in the Ground State of 16O3 Compared with Values Based on the S-Reduced Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 3 Spectroscopic Parameters for the Ground State of 16O3 in the Ir Representationa

Tables Icon

Table 4 Measured Rotational Transitions (in Megahertz) in the ν2 = 1 Vibrational State Compared with Values Based on the S-Reduced Parameters

Tables Icon

Table 5 Spectroscopic Parameters for the ν2 = 1 Vibrational State of 16O3 in the Ir Representationa

Equations (1)

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ν F I R = ν 1 - ν 2 ± ν μ w ,

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