Abstract

Scattering patterns captured at two different directions from ink-doped ethanol droplets containing submicrometer-sized particles, which had been pumped by nanosecond pulses, were obtained simultaneously. By use of ray optics we interpreted the various scattering patterns of the lasing in droplets. The scattering image of one side and the spectral image of the opposite side were also detected simultaneously. We observed that particles scatter with similar output couplings among modes of the same order. We also found that a single particle could react to modes of different orders with different output couplings.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H.-M. Tzeng, K. F. Wall, M. B. Long, R. K. Chang, “Laser emission from individual droplets at wavelengths corresponding to morphology-dependent resonances,” Opt. Lett. 9, 499–501 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Biswas, H. Latifi, R. L. Armstrong, R. G. Pinnick, “Time-resolved spectroscopy of laser emission from dye-doped droplets,” Opt. Lett. 14, 214–216 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H.-B. Lin, J. D. Eversole, A. J. Campillo, “Spectral properties of lasing microdroplets,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 43–50 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. B. Snow, S.-X. Qian, R. K. Chang, “Stimulated Raman scattering from individual water and ethanol droplets at morphology-dependent resonances,” Opt. Lett. 10, 37–39 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. H. Leach, R. K. Chang, W. P. Acker, “Stimulated anti-Stokes Raman scattering in microdroplets,” Opt. Lett. 17, 387–389 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. W. Barber, S. C. Hill, Light Scattering by Particles: Computational Methods (World Scientific, Singapore, 1990), p. 228.
  7. D. Ngo, R. G. Pinnick, “Suppression of scattering resonances in inhomogeneous microdroplets,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1352–1359 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H.-B. Lin, A. L. Huston, J. D. Eversole, A. J. Campillo, P. Chýlek, “Internal scattering effects on microdroplet resonant emission structure,” Opt. Lett. 17, 970–972 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. L. Armstrong, J.-G. Xie, T. E. Ruekegauer, J. Gu, R. G. Pinnick, “Effects of submicrometer-sized particles on microdroplet lasing,” Opt. Lett. 18, 119–121 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J.-G. Xie, T. E. Ruekauer, R. L. Armstrong, R. G. Pinnick, “Suppression of stimulated Raman scattering from microdroplets by seeding with nanometer-sized latex particles,” Opt. Lett. 18, 340–342 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. Taniguchi, M. Nishiya, S. Tanosaki, H. Inaba, “Lasing behavior in a liquid spherical dye laser containing highly scattering nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 21, 263–265 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Gu, T. E. Ruekgauer, J.-G. Xie, R. L. Armstrong, “Effect of particulate seeding on microdroplet angular scattering,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1293–1295 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. V. Bronk, M. J. Smith, S. Arnold, “Photon-correlation spectroscopy for small spherical inclusions in a micrometer-sized electrodynamically levitated droplet,” Opt. Lett. 18, 93–95 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. L. Armstrong, J.-G. Xie, T. E. Ruekgauer, R. G. Pinnick, “Energy-transfer-assisted lasing from microdroplets seeded with fluorescent sol,” Opt. Lett. 17, 943–945 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289–291 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Takeda, H. Yasuda, “Laser emission from dye-doped polystyrene microsphere,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L99–L101 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. H. J. Moon, G. H. Kim, Y. S. Lim, C. S. Go, J. H. Lee, J. S. Chang, “Lasing images from two merging ink-doped liquid droplets,” Opt. Lett. 21, 913–915 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. H. J. Moon, G. H. Kim, Y. S. Lim, C. S. Go, J. H. Lee, J. S. Chang, “Liquid microdroplet generator with glass orifice,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3030–3033 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  22. G. Chen, M. M. Mazumder, Y. R. Chemla, A. Serpengüzel, R. K. Chang, S. C. Hill, “Wavelength variation of laser emission along the entire rim of slightly deformed microdroplets,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1993–1995 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

1995 (1)

H. J. Moon, G. H. Kim, Y. S. Lim, C. S. Go, J. H. Lee, J. S. Chang, “Liquid microdroplet generator with glass orifice,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3030–3033 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (6)

1992 (7)

1989 (2)

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

Acker, W. P.

Armstrong, R. L.

Arnold, S.

Barber, P. W.

P. W. Barber, S. C. Hill, Light Scattering by Particles: Computational Methods (World Scientific, Singapore, 1990), p. 228.

Biswas, A.

Bronk, B. V.

Campillo, A. J.

Chang, J. S.

H. J. Moon, G. H. Kim, Y. S. Lim, C. S. Go, J. H. Lee, J. S. Chang, “Lasing images from two merging ink-doped liquid droplets,” Opt. Lett. 21, 913–915 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Moon, G. H. Kim, Y. S. Lim, C. S. Go, J. H. Lee, J. S. Chang, “Liquid microdroplet generator with glass orifice,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3030–3033 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. K.

Chemla, Y. R.

Chen, G.

Chowdhury, D. Q.

Chýlek, P.

Eversole, J. D.

Go, C. S.

H. J. Moon, G. H. Kim, Y. S. Lim, C. S. Go, J. H. Lee, J. S. Chang, “Lasing images from two merging ink-doped liquid droplets,” Opt. Lett. 21, 913–915 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Moon, G. H. Kim, Y. S. Lim, C. S. Go, J. H. Lee, J. S. Chang, “Liquid microdroplet generator with glass orifice,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3030–3033 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gu, J.

Hill, S. C.

Hsieh, W.-F.

Huston, A. L.

Inaba, H.

Jarzembski, M. A.

Kim, G. H.

H. J. Moon, G. H. Kim, Y. S. Lim, C. S. Go, J. H. Lee, J. S. Chang, “Lasing images from two merging ink-doped liquid droplets,” Opt. Lett. 21, 913–915 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Moon, G. H. Kim, Y. S. Lim, C. S. Go, J. H. Lee, J. S. Chang, “Liquid microdroplet generator with glass orifice,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3030–3033 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kuwata-Gonokami, M.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Takeda, H. Yasuda, “Laser emission from dye-doped polystyrene microsphere,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L99–L101 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Latifi, H.

Leach, D. H.

Lee, J. H.

H. J. Moon, G. H. Kim, Y. S. Lim, C. S. Go, J. H. Lee, J. S. Chang, “Lasing images from two merging ink-doped liquid droplets,” Opt. Lett. 21, 913–915 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Moon, G. H. Kim, Y. S. Lim, C. S. Go, J. H. Lee, J. S. Chang, “Liquid microdroplet generator with glass orifice,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3030–3033 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Levi, A. F. J.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289–291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lim, Y. S.

H. J. Moon, G. H. Kim, Y. S. Lim, C. S. Go, J. H. Lee, J. S. Chang, “Lasing images from two merging ink-doped liquid droplets,” Opt. Lett. 21, 913–915 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Moon, G. H. Kim, Y. S. Lim, C. S. Go, J. H. Lee, J. S. Chang, “Liquid microdroplet generator with glass orifice,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3030–3033 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.-B.

Logan, R. A.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289–291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Long, M. B.

Mazumder, M. M.

McCall, S. L.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289–291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Moon, H. J.

H. J. Moon, G. H. Kim, Y. S. Lim, C. S. Go, J. H. Lee, J. S. Chang, “Lasing images from two merging ink-doped liquid droplets,” Opt. Lett. 21, 913–915 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Moon, G. H. Kim, Y. S. Lim, C. S. Go, J. H. Lee, J. S. Chang, “Liquid microdroplet generator with glass orifice,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3030–3033 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ngo, D.

Nishiya, M.

Pearton, S. J.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289–291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pinnick, R. G.

Qian, S.-X.

Ruekauer, T. E.

Ruekegauer, T. E.

Ruekgauer, T. E.

Serpengüzel, A.

Slusher, R. E.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289–291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. J.

Snow, J. B.

Srivastava, V.

Takeda, K.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Takeda, H. Yasuda, “Laser emission from dye-doped polystyrene microsphere,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L99–L101 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Taniguchi, H.

Tanosaki, S.

Tzeng, H.-M.

Wall, K. F.

Xie, J.-G.

Yasuda, H.

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Takeda, H. Yasuda, “Laser emission from dye-doped polystyrene microsphere,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L99–L101 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 289–291 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Takeda, H. Yasuda, “Laser emission from dye-doped polystyrene microsphere,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L99–L101 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (13)

H.-M. Tzeng, K. F. Wall, M. B. Long, R. K. Chang, “Laser emission from individual droplets at wavelengths corresponding to morphology-dependent resonances,” Opt. Lett. 9, 499–501 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Biswas, H. Latifi, R. L. Armstrong, R. G. Pinnick, “Time-resolved spectroscopy of laser emission from dye-doped droplets,” Opt. Lett. 14, 214–216 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Snow, S.-X. Qian, R. K. Chang, “Stimulated Raman scattering from individual water and ethanol droplets at morphology-dependent resonances,” Opt. Lett. 10, 37–39 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Leach, R. K. Chang, W. P. Acker, “Stimulated anti-Stokes Raman scattering in microdroplets,” Opt. Lett. 17, 387–389 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-B. Lin, A. L. Huston, J. D. Eversole, A. J. Campillo, P. Chýlek, “Internal scattering effects on microdroplet resonant emission structure,” Opt. Lett. 17, 970–972 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Armstrong, J.-G. Xie, T. E. Ruekegauer, J. Gu, R. G. Pinnick, “Effects of submicrometer-sized particles on microdroplet lasing,” Opt. Lett. 18, 119–121 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-G. Xie, T. E. Ruekauer, R. L. Armstrong, R. G. Pinnick, “Suppression of stimulated Raman scattering from microdroplets by seeding with nanometer-sized latex particles,” Opt. Lett. 18, 340–342 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Taniguchi, M. Nishiya, S. Tanosaki, H. Inaba, “Lasing behavior in a liquid spherical dye laser containing highly scattering nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett. 21, 263–265 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gu, T. E. Ruekgauer, J.-G. Xie, R. L. Armstrong, “Effect of particulate seeding on microdroplet angular scattering,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1293–1295 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. V. Bronk, M. J. Smith, S. Arnold, “Photon-correlation spectroscopy for small spherical inclusions in a micrometer-sized electrodynamically levitated droplet,” Opt. Lett. 18, 93–95 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Armstrong, J.-G. Xie, T. E. Ruekgauer, R. G. Pinnick, “Energy-transfer-assisted lasing from microdroplets seeded with fluorescent sol,” Opt. Lett. 17, 943–945 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Chen, M. M. Mazumder, Y. R. Chemla, A. Serpengüzel, R. K. Chang, S. C. Hill, “Wavelength variation of laser emission along the entire rim of slightly deformed microdroplets,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1993–1995 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Moon, G. H. Kim, Y. S. Lim, C. S. Go, J. H. Lee, J. S. Chang, “Lasing images from two merging ink-doped liquid droplets,” Opt. Lett. 21, 913–915 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

H. J. Moon, G. H. Kim, Y. S. Lim, C. S. Go, J. H. Lee, J. S. Chang, “Liquid microdroplet generator with glass orifice,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3030–3033 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

P. W. Barber, S. C. Hill, Light Scattering by Particles: Computational Methods (World Scientific, Singapore, 1990), p. 228.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of scattering by a particle located in the high intensity region of a spherical shell: FS, front side; RS, rear side; SA, scattering axis; IP1 and IP2, image planes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ray tracings of scattered light: (a) rays 1 and 2, (b) rays 1 and 3 with rp = 0.85 a and m = 1.361.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Representative scattering patterns created by single particles in droplets (a ~ 20 μm). The image planes of both microscopes were set on the rim as IP1 in Fig. 1. The horizontal and vertical arrows denote the directions of the pump beam and the droplet stream, respectively. The upper and lower patterns in each photograph were obtained with microscopes equipped with objective lenses of ×40 and ×20, respectively. (a), (c), (e), Scattering patterns when the particle is located on the side of a ×40 objective lens; (b), (d), (f ), scattering patterns when the particle is located on the side of a ×20 objective lens.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Single-shot image of three droplets (a ~ 12 μm) as seen through a microscope with an objective lens of ×60 and its spectral image captured from the opposite side. We minimized the astigmatism of the spherical mirrors in the spectrograph with a cylindrical lens, but a slight deviation of the droplet image from a circular shape was inevitable. The direction of the droplet stream is from A to C. In B and C the particle is located on the side of the microscope.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Typical spectra from ethanol droplets (a ~ 11 μm) without a scattering particle (D) and with a single particle (E and F). In E and F, the particle is located at the side of the microscope. The spectra of E and F were not taken along the equatorial rim but along the line of the particle image in the two-dimensional spectral image of the droplet. In D, one can observe the MDR denoted as δ, whereas in F, the hidden ɛ and ζ modes can also be observed.

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