Abstract

Local decorrelation of speckle patterns scattered by a surface is used for nondestructive evaluation of the state of conservation of wooden artifacts. Some experiments have been carried out on models with simulated internal flaws and on real, ancient, wooden panel paintings. The setup is very simple and can easily be used by nonoptically skilled operators.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Paoletti, G. S. Spagnolo, “Interferometric methods for artwork diagnostics,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1996), Vol. 35, pp. 197–255.
  2. G. Gülker, K. Hinsch, C. Höscher, A. Kramer, H. Neunaber, “ESPI system for in situ deformation monitoring on buildings,” Opt. Eng. 29, 816–820 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. M. Boone, V. B. Markov, “Examinations of museum objects by means of video holography,” Studies Conserv. 40, 103–109 (1995).
  4. D. Paoletti, G. S. Spagnolo, “The potential of portable TV holography for examining frescoes in situ,” Studies Conserv. 40, 127–132 (1995).
  5. T. C. Chu, W. F. Rason, M. A. Sutton, W. H. Peters, “Applications of digital-image-correlation techniques to experimental mechanics,” Exp. Mech. 25, 232–244 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. D. Hinsch, F. McLysaght, K. Wolff, “Tilt-compensated real-time holographic speckle correlation,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5937–5939 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. Coburn, J. Slevin, “Digital correlation system for nondestructive testing of thermally stressed ceramics,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5977–5986 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. S. Spagnolo, D. Ambrosini, A. Ponticiello, D. Paoletti, “A simple method of determining diffusion coefficient by digital laser speckle correlation,” J. Phys. III (France) 6, 1117–1125 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. S. Spagnolo, D. Paoletti, P. Zanetta, “Local speckle correlation for vibration analysis,” Opt. Commun. 123, 41–48 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Owner-Petersen, “Decorrelation and fringe visibility: on the limiting behavior of various electronic speckle-pattern correlation interferometers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1082–1086 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Léger, E. Mathieu, J. C. Perrin, “Optical surface roughness determination using speckle correlation technique,” Appl. Opt. 14, 872–877 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. Höfling, W. Osten, “Displacement measurement by image-processed speckle patterns,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 607–617 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. W. Goodman, “Statistical properties of laser speckle patterns,” in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, J. C. Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1975), pp. 9–75.
  14. D. Paoletti, G. S. Spagnolo, M. Facchini, P. Zanetta, “Artwork diagnostics with fiber-optics digital speckle pattern interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6236–6244 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

G. S. Spagnolo, D. Ambrosini, A. Ponticiello, D. Paoletti, “A simple method of determining diffusion coefficient by digital laser speckle correlation,” J. Phys. III (France) 6, 1117–1125 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Spagnolo, D. Paoletti, P. Zanetta, “Local speckle correlation for vibration analysis,” Opt. Commun. 123, 41–48 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

P. M. Boone, V. B. Markov, “Examinations of museum objects by means of video holography,” Studies Conserv. 40, 103–109 (1995).

D. Paoletti, G. S. Spagnolo, “The potential of portable TV holography for examining frescoes in situ,” Studies Conserv. 40, 127–132 (1995).

D. Coburn, J. Slevin, “Digital correlation system for nondestructive testing of thermally stressed ceramics,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5977–5986 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

G. Gülker, K. Hinsch, C. Höscher, A. Kramer, H. Neunaber, “ESPI system for in situ deformation monitoring on buildings,” Opt. Eng. 29, 816–820 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. Höfling, W. Osten, “Displacement measurement by image-processed speckle patterns,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 607–617 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

T. C. Chu, W. F. Rason, M. A. Sutton, W. H. Peters, “Applications of digital-image-correlation techniques to experimental mechanics,” Exp. Mech. 25, 232–244 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

Ambrosini, D.

G. S. Spagnolo, D. Ambrosini, A. Ponticiello, D. Paoletti, “A simple method of determining diffusion coefficient by digital laser speckle correlation,” J. Phys. III (France) 6, 1117–1125 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Boone, P. M.

P. M. Boone, V. B. Markov, “Examinations of museum objects by means of video holography,” Studies Conserv. 40, 103–109 (1995).

Chu, T. C.

T. C. Chu, W. F. Rason, M. A. Sutton, W. H. Peters, “Applications of digital-image-correlation techniques to experimental mechanics,” Exp. Mech. 25, 232–244 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Coburn, D.

Facchini, M.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, “Statistical properties of laser speckle patterns,” in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, J. C. Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1975), pp. 9–75.

Gülker, G.

G. Gülker, K. Hinsch, C. Höscher, A. Kramer, H. Neunaber, “ESPI system for in situ deformation monitoring on buildings,” Opt. Eng. 29, 816–820 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hinsch, K.

G. Gülker, K. Hinsch, C. Höscher, A. Kramer, H. Neunaber, “ESPI system for in situ deformation monitoring on buildings,” Opt. Eng. 29, 816–820 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hinsch, K. D.

Höfling, R.

R. Höfling, W. Osten, “Displacement measurement by image-processed speckle patterns,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 607–617 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Höscher, C.

G. Gülker, K. Hinsch, C. Höscher, A. Kramer, H. Neunaber, “ESPI system for in situ deformation monitoring on buildings,” Opt. Eng. 29, 816–820 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kramer, A.

G. Gülker, K. Hinsch, C. Höscher, A. Kramer, H. Neunaber, “ESPI system for in situ deformation monitoring on buildings,” Opt. Eng. 29, 816–820 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Léger, D.

Markov, V. B.

P. M. Boone, V. B. Markov, “Examinations of museum objects by means of video holography,” Studies Conserv. 40, 103–109 (1995).

Mathieu, E.

McLysaght, F.

Neunaber, H.

G. Gülker, K. Hinsch, C. Höscher, A. Kramer, H. Neunaber, “ESPI system for in situ deformation monitoring on buildings,” Opt. Eng. 29, 816–820 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Osten, W.

R. Höfling, W. Osten, “Displacement measurement by image-processed speckle patterns,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 607–617 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Owner-Petersen, M.

Paoletti, D.

G. S. Spagnolo, D. Ambrosini, A. Ponticiello, D. Paoletti, “A simple method of determining diffusion coefficient by digital laser speckle correlation,” J. Phys. III (France) 6, 1117–1125 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Spagnolo, D. Paoletti, P. Zanetta, “Local speckle correlation for vibration analysis,” Opt. Commun. 123, 41–48 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Paoletti, G. S. Spagnolo, “The potential of portable TV holography for examining frescoes in situ,” Studies Conserv. 40, 127–132 (1995).

D. Paoletti, G. S. Spagnolo, M. Facchini, P. Zanetta, “Artwork diagnostics with fiber-optics digital speckle pattern interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6236–6244 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Paoletti, G. S. Spagnolo, “Interferometric methods for artwork diagnostics,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1996), Vol. 35, pp. 197–255.

Perrin, J. C.

Peters, W. H.

T. C. Chu, W. F. Rason, M. A. Sutton, W. H. Peters, “Applications of digital-image-correlation techniques to experimental mechanics,” Exp. Mech. 25, 232–244 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ponticiello, A.

G. S. Spagnolo, D. Ambrosini, A. Ponticiello, D. Paoletti, “A simple method of determining diffusion coefficient by digital laser speckle correlation,” J. Phys. III (France) 6, 1117–1125 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rason, W. F.

T. C. Chu, W. F. Rason, M. A. Sutton, W. H. Peters, “Applications of digital-image-correlation techniques to experimental mechanics,” Exp. Mech. 25, 232–244 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Slevin, J.

Spagnolo, G. S.

G. S. Spagnolo, D. Paoletti, P. Zanetta, “Local speckle correlation for vibration analysis,” Opt. Commun. 123, 41–48 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Spagnolo, D. Ambrosini, A. Ponticiello, D. Paoletti, “A simple method of determining diffusion coefficient by digital laser speckle correlation,” J. Phys. III (France) 6, 1117–1125 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Paoletti, G. S. Spagnolo, “The potential of portable TV holography for examining frescoes in situ,” Studies Conserv. 40, 127–132 (1995).

D. Paoletti, G. S. Spagnolo, M. Facchini, P. Zanetta, “Artwork diagnostics with fiber-optics digital speckle pattern interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6236–6244 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Paoletti, G. S. Spagnolo, “Interferometric methods for artwork diagnostics,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1996), Vol. 35, pp. 197–255.

Sutton, M. A.

T. C. Chu, W. F. Rason, M. A. Sutton, W. H. Peters, “Applications of digital-image-correlation techniques to experimental mechanics,” Exp. Mech. 25, 232–244 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wolff, K.

Zanetta, P.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Exp. Mech. (1)

T. C. Chu, W. F. Rason, M. A. Sutton, W. H. Peters, “Applications of digital-image-correlation techniques to experimental mechanics,” Exp. Mech. 25, 232–244 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

R. Höfling, W. Osten, “Displacement measurement by image-processed speckle patterns,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 607–617 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. III (France) (1)

G. S. Spagnolo, D. Ambrosini, A. Ponticiello, D. Paoletti, “A simple method of determining diffusion coefficient by digital laser speckle correlation,” J. Phys. III (France) 6, 1117–1125 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. S. Spagnolo, D. Paoletti, P. Zanetta, “Local speckle correlation for vibration analysis,” Opt. Commun. 123, 41–48 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

G. Gülker, K. Hinsch, C. Höscher, A. Kramer, H. Neunaber, “ESPI system for in situ deformation monitoring on buildings,” Opt. Eng. 29, 816–820 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Studies Conserv. (2)

P. M. Boone, V. B. Markov, “Examinations of museum objects by means of video holography,” Studies Conserv. 40, 103–109 (1995).

D. Paoletti, G. S. Spagnolo, “The potential of portable TV holography for examining frescoes in situ,” Studies Conserv. 40, 127–132 (1995).

Other (2)

D. Paoletti, G. S. Spagnolo, “Interferometric methods for artwork diagnostics,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1996), Vol. 35, pp. 197–255.

J. W. Goodman, “Statistical properties of laser speckle patterns,” in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, J. C. Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1975), pp. 9–75.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometric parameters for the evaluation of the local-correlation coefficient in the case of surface tilt.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup. GRIN, gradient index.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) ESPI interferogram of simulated detachment in a model of wooden panel paintings. (b) Correlation image, relative to the same model. (c) ESPI interferogram of an ancient wooden panel painting, La Visitazione, a minor work of the 17th century. (d) Correlation image of La Visitazione.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Byzantine icon. (b) Five-day growth of mold on the icon surface, as detected by the local-correlation method.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ρx, y=4π2arccosγx, yγmax-γx, yγmax×sinarccosγx, yγmax2,
γmax=Dd1+cos ϑ.
Qx, y=Brefx, y-Bdefx, y2  Irefx, y-Idefx, y2=Iref2x, y+Idef2x, y-2Irefx, yIdefx, y,
Irefx, yIdefx, y=Irefx, yIdefx, y1+ρx, y.
Qx, yIrefx, y-Idefx, y2=I2x, y1-ρx, y;
ρx, y=1-Irefx, y-Idefx, y2I2x, y1-Qx, yBx, y,

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