Abstract

We present the design of an optically interconnected Clos crossbar switch that uses three smart-pixel devices. This optical Clos architecture is also well matched to a space–wavelength switch that arbitrarily permutes data streams between wavelength-division multiplexed channels on an array of fibers. We have designed a hybrid complementary metal-oxide semiconductor–self-electro-optic device (CMOS–SEED) crossbar smart-pixel array for use in a 16-channel optical Clos switch. The crossbar devices also have an 8 × 8 array of multiple-quantum-well diodes that can be configured electrically as modulators with eight bit planes of randomly addressable local memory or as receivers with adjustable gain and threshold. We show that the current hybrid-SEED technology should support a 1024-channel Clos switch operating at 500 Mbits/s per channel if pixel power consumption can be reduced.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  26. T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. E. Leibenguth, “1-Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8-µm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Alpoin, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “3-D integration of MQW modulators over active submicron CMOS circuits: 375 Mb/s transimpedance receiver–transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1288–1290 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  31. T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, D. Bacon, R. E. Leibenguth, “Clocked-sense-amplifier-based smart-pixel optical receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1067–1069 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (4)

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, D. D. Bacon, T. K. Woodward, “Arrays of optoelectronic switching nodes comprised of flip-chip-bonded MQW modulators and detectors on silicon CMOS circuitry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 221–223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. E. Leibenguth, “1-Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8-µm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novoty, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLS switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, D. Bacon, R. E. Leibenguth, “Clocked-sense-amplifier-based smart-pixel optical receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1067–1069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (5)

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Alpoin, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “3-D integration of MQW modulators over active submicron CMOS circuits: 375 Mb/s transimpedance receiver–transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. A. De Souza, M. C. Nuss, W. H. Know, D. A. B. Miller, “Wavelength-division multiplexing with femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1166–1168 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Matsuo, T. Nakahara, Y. Kohama, Y. Ohiso, S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, “Monolithically integrated photonic switching device using an MSM PD, MESFETS, and a VCSEL,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1165–1167 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Fisher, Y. Z. Huang, A. J. Dann, D. J. Elton, M. J. Harlow, S. D. Perrin, J. Reed, I. Reid, M. J. Adams, “Pulsed electrical operation of 1.5-µm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 608–610 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

M. Yamaguchi, T. Matsunaga, S. Shirai, K. Yukimatsu, “Analog free-space optical switch structure based on cascaded beam shifters,” IEICE Trans. Commun. E77-B, 163–173 (1994).

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Drummond, “Crossbar switches 32 × 32 differential lines at 800 Mb/s,” Electron. Prod. 84, 84 (1994).

1993 (5)

J. L. Cheng, P. Zhou, S. Z. Sun, S. Hersee, D. R. Myers, J. Zolper, G. A. Vawter, “Surface-emitting laser-based smart pixels for two-dimensional optical logic and reconfigurable optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 741–756 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Kumar, Y. Baransky, M. Denneau, “The GF11 parallel computer,” Parallel Comput. 19, 1393–1412 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Carpinelli, A. Y. Oruç, “A nonbactracking matrix decomposition algorithm for routing on Clos networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 41, 1245–1251 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Douglas, “Rearrangeable 3-stage interconnection networks and their routing properties,” IEEE. Trans. Comput. 42, 559–567 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Douglass, A. Y. Oru̧c, “On self-routing in Clos connection networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 41, 121–124 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

J. L. Jewell, J. P. Harbison, A. Scherer, Y. H. Lee, L. T. Florez, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: design, growth, fabrication, characteristics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1332–1346 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. R. Wullert, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, N. G. Stoffel, M. W. Maeda, “Rastered, uniformly separated wavelengths emitted from a 2-dimensional vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 31–33 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1985 (2)

W. S. Hayward, ed., “The 5ESS switching system,” AT&T Tech. J. 64, 1303–1564 (1985).

J. W. Goodman, “Fan-in and fan-out with optical interconnects,” Opt. Acta 32, 1489–1496 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

C. Clos, “A study of nonblocking switching networks,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 32, 406–424 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Adams, M. J.

M. A. Fisher, Y. Z. Huang, A. J. Dann, D. J. Elton, M. J. Harlow, S. D. Perrin, J. Reed, I. Reid, M. J. Adams, “Pulsed electrical operation of 1.5-µm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 608–610 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Alpoin, G. F.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Alpoin, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “3-D integration of MQW modulators over active submicron CMOS circuits: 375 Mb/s transimpedance receiver–transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bacon, D.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, D. Bacon, R. E. Leibenguth, “Clocked-sense-amplifier-based smart-pixel optical receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1067–1069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bacon, D. D.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novoty, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLS switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, D. D. Bacon, T. K. Woodward, “Arrays of optoelectronic switching nodes comprised of flip-chip-bonded MQW modulators and detectors on silicon CMOS circuitry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 221–223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Baransky, Y.

M. Kumar, Y. Baransky, M. Denneau, “The GF11 parallel computer,” Parallel Comput. 19, 1393–1412 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Beckman, M. G.

Buchholz, D. B.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novoty, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLS switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Carpinelli, J. D.

J. D. Carpinelli, A. Y. Oruç, “A nonbactracking matrix decomposition algorithm for routing on Clos networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 41, 1245–1251 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. R. Wullert, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, N. G. Stoffel, M. W. Maeda, “Rastered, uniformly separated wavelengths emitted from a 2-dimensional vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 31–33 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J. L.

J. L. Cheng, P. Zhou, S. Z. Sun, S. Hersee, D. R. Myers, J. Zolper, G. A. Vawter, “Surface-emitting laser-based smart pixels for two-dimensional optical logic and reconfigurable optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 741–756 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chirovsky, L. M. F.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, D. D. Bacon, T. K. Woodward, “Arrays of optoelectronic switching nodes comprised of flip-chip-bonded MQW modulators and detectors on silicon CMOS circuitry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 221–223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. E. Leibenguth, “1-Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8-µm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novoty, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLS switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, D. Bacon, R. E. Leibenguth, “Clocked-sense-amplifier-based smart-pixel optical receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1067–1069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Alpoin, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “3-D integration of MQW modulators over active submicron CMOS circuits: 375 Mb/s transimpedance receiver–transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cloonan, T. J.

Clos, C.

C. Clos, “A study of nonblocking switching networks,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 32, 406–424 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Crisci, R. J.

Cunningham, J. E.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, D. Bacon, R. E. Leibenguth, “Clocked-sense-amplifier-based smart-pixel optical receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1067–1069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novoty, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLS switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. E. Leibenguth, “1-Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8-µm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “GaAs MQW modulators on silicon IC’s,” in Proceedings of the LEOS Topical Meeting Digest on Smart Pixels (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 1994), pp. 10–11.

J. E. Cunningham, P. N. Pathak, J. E. Ford, W. Y. Jan, A. Katalsky, “Reflectivity from multiple quantum well modulators with contrast ratio of 22:1 at 1.55 µm,” in Conference on Lasers & Electrooptics (CLEO’96), Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 487.

D’Asaro, L. A.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, D. D. Bacon, T. K. Woodward, “Arrays of optoelectronic switching nodes comprised of flip-chip-bonded MQW modulators and detectors on silicon CMOS circuitry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 221–223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. E. Leibenguth, “1-Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8-µm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novoty, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLS switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Alpoin, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “3-D integration of MQW modulators over active submicron CMOS circuits: 375 Mb/s transimpedance receiver–transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “GaAs MQW modulators on silicon IC’s,” in Proceedings of the LEOS Topical Meeting Digest on Smart Pixels (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 1994), pp. 10–11.

Dahringer, D.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. E. Leibenguth, “1-Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8-µm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, D. Bacon, R. E. Leibenguth, “Clocked-sense-amplifier-based smart-pixel optical receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1067–1069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Alpoin, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “3-D integration of MQW modulators over active submicron CMOS circuits: 375 Mb/s transimpedance receiver–transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dahringer, D. W.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novoty, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLS switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dann, A. J.

M. A. Fisher, Y. Z. Huang, A. J. Dann, D. J. Elton, M. J. Harlow, S. D. Perrin, J. Reed, I. Reid, M. J. Adams, “Pulsed electrical operation of 1.5-µm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 608–610 (1995).
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T. Delbrük, C. A. Mead, “Analog VLSI phototransduction,” (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1996).

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M. Kumar, Y. Baransky, M. Denneau, “The GF11 parallel computer,” Parallel Comput. 19, 1393–1412 (1993).
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B. G. Douglas, “Rearrangeable 3-stage interconnection networks and their routing properties,” IEEE. Trans. Comput. 42, 559–567 (1993).
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B. G. Douglass, A. Y. Oru̧c, “On self-routing in Clos connection networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 41, 121–124 (1993).
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D. Drummond, “Crossbar switches 32 × 32 differential lines at 800 Mb/s,” Electron. Prod. 84, 84 (1994).

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M. A. Fisher, Y. Z. Huang, A. J. Dann, D. J. Elton, M. J. Harlow, S. D. Perrin, J. Reed, I. Reid, M. J. Adams, “Pulsed electrical operation of 1.5-µm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 608–610 (1995).
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Fisher, M. A.

M. A. Fisher, Y. Z. Huang, A. J. Dann, D. J. Elton, M. J. Harlow, S. D. Perrin, J. Reed, I. Reid, M. J. Adams, “Pulsed electrical operation of 1.5-µm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 608–610 (1995).
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Florez, L. T.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. R. Wullert, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, N. G. Stoffel, M. W. Maeda, “Rastered, uniformly separated wavelengths emitted from a 2-dimensional vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 31–33 (1991).
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J. L. Jewell, J. P. Harbison, A. Scherer, Y. H. Lee, L. T. Florez, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: design, growth, fabrication, characteristics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1332–1346 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ford, J. E.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Alpoin, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “3-D integration of MQW modulators over active submicron CMOS circuits: 375 Mb/s transimpedance receiver–transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Ford, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, M. C. Nuss, D. A. B. Miller, “WDM/SDM fiber network design for the amoeba optoelectronic switch,” in Proceedings of the LEOS Topical Meeting Digest on Smart Pixels (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 1996) pp. 97–98.

J. E. Cunningham, P. N. Pathak, J. E. Ford, W. Y. Jan, A. Katalsky, “Reflectivity from multiple quantum well modulators with contrast ratio of 22:1 at 1.55 µm,” in Conference on Lasers & Electrooptics (CLEO’96), Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 487.

Fukushima, S.

S. Matsuo, T. Nakahara, Y. Kohama, Y. Ohiso, S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, “Monolithically integrated photonic switching device using an MSM PD, MESFETS, and a VCSEL,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1165–1167 (1995).
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K. Wagner, R. Weverka, A. Mickelson, K. Wu, C. Garvin, R. Roth, “Low loss acoustooptic permutation interconnection network,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 8 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991).

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J. W. Goodman, “Fan-in and fan-out with optical interconnects,” Opt. Acta 32, 1489–1496 (1985).
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A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, D. D. Bacon, T. K. Woodward, “Arrays of optoelectronic switching nodes comprised of flip-chip-bonded MQW modulators and detectors on silicon CMOS circuitry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 221–223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novoty, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLS switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, D. Bacon, R. E. Leibenguth, “Clocked-sense-amplifier-based smart-pixel optical receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1067–1069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. E. Leibenguth, “1-Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8-µm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Alpoin, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “3-D integration of MQW modulators over active submicron CMOS circuits: 375 Mb/s transimpedance receiver–transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “GaAs MQW modulators on silicon IC’s,” in Proceedings of the LEOS Topical Meeting Digest on Smart Pixels (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 1994), pp. 10–11.

Guest, C. C.

Harbison, J. P.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. R. Wullert, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, N. G. Stoffel, M. W. Maeda, “Rastered, uniformly separated wavelengths emitted from a 2-dimensional vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 31–33 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Jewell, J. P. Harbison, A. Scherer, Y. H. Lee, L. T. Florez, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: design, growth, fabrication, characteristics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1332–1346 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Harlow, M. J.

M. A. Fisher, Y. Z. Huang, A. J. Dann, D. J. Elton, M. J. Harlow, S. D. Perrin, J. Reed, I. Reid, M. J. Adams, “Pulsed electrical operation of 1.5-µm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 608–610 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hersee, S.

J. L. Cheng, P. Zhou, S. Z. Sun, S. Hersee, D. R. Myers, J. Zolper, G. A. Vawter, “Surface-emitting laser-based smart pixels for two-dimensional optical logic and reconfigurable optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 741–756 (1993).
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Hinterlong, S. J.

Hinton, H. S.

Huang, Y. Z.

M. A. Fisher, Y. Z. Huang, A. J. Dann, D. J. Elton, M. J. Harlow, S. D. Perrin, J. Reed, I. Reid, M. J. Adams, “Pulsed electrical operation of 1.5-µm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 608–610 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hui, S. P.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. E. Leibenguth, “1-Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8-µm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novoty, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLS switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, D. Bacon, R. E. Leibenguth, “Clocked-sense-amplifier-based smart-pixel optical receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1067–1069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Alpoin, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “3-D integration of MQW modulators over active submicron CMOS circuits: 375 Mb/s transimpedance receiver–transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “GaAs MQW modulators on silicon IC’s,” in Proceedings of the LEOS Topical Meeting Digest on Smart Pixels (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 1994), pp. 10–11.

Jan, W. Y.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novoty, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLS switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. E. Leibenguth, “1-Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8-µm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, D. Bacon, R. E. Leibenguth, “Clocked-sense-amplifier-based smart-pixel optical receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1067–1069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Cunningham, P. N. Pathak, J. E. Ford, W. Y. Jan, A. Katalsky, “Reflectivity from multiple quantum well modulators with contrast ratio of 22:1 at 1.55 µm,” in Conference on Lasers & Electrooptics (CLEO’96), Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 487.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “GaAs MQW modulators on silicon IC’s,” in Proceedings of the LEOS Topical Meeting Digest on Smart Pixels (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 1994), pp. 10–11.

Jewell, J. L.

J. L. Jewell, J. P. Harbison, A. Scherer, Y. H. Lee, L. T. Florez, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: design, growth, fabrication, characteristics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1332–1346 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Katalsky, A.

J. E. Cunningham, P. N. Pathak, J. E. Ford, W. Y. Jan, A. Katalsky, “Reflectivity from multiple quantum well modulators with contrast ratio of 22:1 at 1.55 µm,” in Conference on Lasers & Electrooptics (CLEO’96), Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 487.

Know, W. H.

Knox, W. H.

J. E. Ford, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, M. C. Nuss, D. A. B. Miller, “WDM/SDM fiber network design for the amoeba optoelectronic switch,” in Proceedings of the LEOS Topical Meeting Digest on Smart Pixels (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 1996) pp. 97–98.

Kohama, Y.

S. Matsuo, T. Nakahara, Y. Kohama, Y. Ohiso, S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, “Monolithically integrated photonic switching device using an MSM PD, MESFETS, and a VCSEL,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1165–1167 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kossives, D.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. E. Leibenguth, “1-Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8-µm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, D. Bacon, R. E. Leibenguth, “Clocked-sense-amplifier-based smart-pixel optical receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1067–1069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Alpoin, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “3-D integration of MQW modulators over active submicron CMOS circuits: 375 Mb/s transimpedance receiver–transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kossives, D. P.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novoty, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLS switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. E. Leibenguth, “1-Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8-µm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, D. Bacon, R. E. Leibenguth, “Clocked-sense-amplifier-based smart-pixel optical receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1067–1069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Alpoin, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “3-D integration of MQW modulators over active submicron CMOS circuits: 375 Mb/s transimpedance receiver–transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Ford, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, M. C. Nuss, D. A. B. Miller, “WDM/SDM fiber network design for the amoeba optoelectronic switch,” in Proceedings of the LEOS Topical Meeting Digest on Smart Pixels (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 1996) pp. 97–98.

Kumar, M.

M. Kumar, Y. Baransky, M. Denneau, “The GF11 parallel computer,” Parallel Comput. 19, 1393–1412 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, J.-M.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novoty, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLS switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kurokawa, T.

S. Matsuo, T. Nakahara, Y. Kohama, Y. Ohiso, S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, “Monolithically integrated photonic switching device using an MSM PD, MESFETS, and a VCSEL,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1165–1167 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

Lee, Y. H.

J. L. Jewell, J. P. Harbison, A. Scherer, Y. H. Lee, L. T. Florez, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: design, growth, fabrication, characteristics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1332–1346 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Leibenguth, R.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Alpoin, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “3-D integration of MQW modulators over active submicron CMOS circuits: 375 Mb/s transimpedance receiver–transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Leibenguth, R. E.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novoty, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLS switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. E. Leibenguth, “1-Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8-µm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, D. Bacon, R. E. Leibenguth, “Clocked-sense-amplifier-based smart-pixel optical receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1067–1069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lentine, A. L.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. E. Leibenguth, “1-Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8-µm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novoty, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLS switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, D. D. Bacon, T. K. Woodward, “Arrays of optoelectronic switching nodes comprised of flip-chip-bonded MQW modulators and detectors on silicon CMOS circuitry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 221–223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Alpoin, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “3-D integration of MQW modulators over active submicron CMOS circuits: 375 Mb/s transimpedance receiver–transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Livescu, G.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novoty, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLS switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, M. W.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. R. Wullert, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, N. G. Stoffel, M. W. Maeda, “Rastered, uniformly separated wavelengths emitted from a 2-dimensional vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 31–33 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Matsunaga, T.

M. Yamaguchi, T. Matsunaga, S. Shirai, K. Yukimatsu, “Analog free-space optical switch structure based on cascaded beam shifters,” IEICE Trans. Commun. E77-B, 163–173 (1994).

Matsuo, S.

S. Matsuo, T. Nakahara, Y. Kohama, Y. Ohiso, S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, “Monolithically integrated photonic switching device using an MSM PD, MESFETS, and a VCSEL,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1165–1167 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, F. B.

Mead, C. A.

T. Delbrük, C. A. Mead, “Analog VLSI phototransduction,” (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1996).

Mickelson, A.

K. Wagner, R. Weverka, A. Mickelson, K. Wu, C. Garvin, R. Roth, “Low loss acoustooptic permutation interconnection network,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 8 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991).

Miller, D. A. B.

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Alpoin, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “3-D integration of MQW modulators over active submicron CMOS circuits: 375 Mb/s transimpedance receiver–transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. A. De Souza, M. C. Nuss, W. H. Know, D. A. B. Miller, “Wavelength-division multiplexing with femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1166–1168 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Ford, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, M. C. Nuss, D. A. B. Miller, “WDM/SDM fiber network design for the amoeba optoelectronic switch,” in Proceedings of the LEOS Topical Meeting Digest on Smart Pixels (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 1996) pp. 97–98.

Morrison, R. L.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novoty, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLS switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Myers, D. R.

J. L. Cheng, P. Zhou, S. Z. Sun, S. Hersee, D. R. Myers, J. Zolper, G. A. Vawter, “Surface-emitting laser-based smart pixels for two-dimensional optical logic and reconfigurable optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 741–756 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nakahara, T.

S. Matsuo, T. Nakahara, Y. Kohama, Y. Ohiso, S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, “Monolithically integrated photonic switching device using an MSM PD, MESFETS, and a VCSEL,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1165–1167 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, R. A.

Novoty, R. A.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novoty, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLS switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M. C.

E. A. De Souza, M. C. Nuss, W. H. Know, D. A. B. Miller, “Wavelength-division multiplexing with femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1166–1168 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Ford, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, M. C. Nuss, D. A. B. Miller, “WDM/SDM fiber network design for the amoeba optoelectronic switch,” in Proceedings of the LEOS Topical Meeting Digest on Smart Pixels (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 1996) pp. 97–98.

Ohiso, Y.

S. Matsuo, T. Nakahara, Y. Kohama, Y. Ohiso, S. Fukushima, T. Kurokawa, “Monolithically integrated photonic switching device using an MSM PD, MESFETS, and a VCSEL,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1165–1167 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Oru¸c, A. Y.

B. G. Douglass, A. Y. Oru̧c, “On self-routing in Clos connection networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 41, 121–124 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Oruç, A. Y.

J. D. Carpinelli, A. Y. Oruç, “A nonbactracking matrix decomposition algorithm for routing on Clos networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 41, 1245–1251 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pathak, P. N.

J. E. Cunningham, P. N. Pathak, J. E. Ford, W. Y. Jan, A. Katalsky, “Reflectivity from multiple quantum well modulators with contrast ratio of 22:1 at 1.55 µm,” in Conference on Lasers & Electrooptics (CLEO’96), Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 487.

Perrin, S. D.

M. A. Fisher, Y. Z. Huang, A. J. Dann, D. J. Elton, M. J. Harlow, S. D. Perrin, J. Reed, I. Reid, M. J. Adams, “Pulsed electrical operation of 1.5-µm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 608–610 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Reed, J.

M. A. Fisher, Y. Z. Huang, A. J. Dann, D. J. Elton, M. J. Harlow, S. D. Perrin, J. Reed, I. Reid, M. J. Adams, “Pulsed electrical operation of 1.5-µm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 608–610 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Reid, I.

M. A. Fisher, Y. Z. Huang, A. J. Dann, D. J. Elton, M. J. Harlow, S. D. Perrin, J. Reed, I. Reid, M. J. Adams, “Pulsed electrical operation of 1.5-µm vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 608–610 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Roth, R.

K. Wagner, R. Weverka, A. Mickelson, K. Wu, C. Garvin, R. Roth, “Low loss acoustooptic permutation interconnection network,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 8 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991).

Sasian, J. M.

Scherer, A.

J. L. Jewell, J. P. Harbison, A. Scherer, Y. H. Lee, L. T. Florez, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: design, growth, fabrication, characteristics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1332–1346 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shirai, S.

M. Yamaguchi, T. Matsunaga, S. Shirai, K. Yukimatsu, “Analog free-space optical switch structure based on cascaded beam shifters,” IEICE Trans. Commun. E77-B, 163–173 (1994).

Stoffel, N. G.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. R. Wullert, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, N. G. Stoffel, M. W. Maeda, “Rastered, uniformly separated wavelengths emitted from a 2-dimensional vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 31–33 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sun, S. Z.

J. L. Cheng, P. Zhou, S. Z. Sun, S. Hersee, D. R. Myers, J. Zolper, G. A. Vawter, “Surface-emitting laser-based smart pixels for two-dimensional optical logic and reconfigurable optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 741–756 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, B.

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. E. Leibenguth, “1-Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8-µm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, D. Bacon, R. E. Leibenguth, “Clocked-sense-amplifier-based smart-pixel optical receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1067–1069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Alpoin, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “3-D integration of MQW modulators over active submicron CMOS circuits: 375 Mb/s transimpedance receiver–transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, B. J.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novoty, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLS switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tsuda, S.

J. E. Ford, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, M. C. Nuss, D. A. B. Miller, “WDM/SDM fiber network design for the amoeba optoelectronic switch,” in Proceedings of the LEOS Topical Meeting Digest on Smart Pixels (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 1996) pp. 97–98.

Vawter, G. A.

J. L. Cheng, P. Zhou, S. Z. Sun, S. Hersee, D. R. Myers, J. Zolper, G. A. Vawter, “Surface-emitting laser-based smart pixels for two-dimensional optical logic and reconfigurable optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 741–756 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, K.

K. Wagner, R. Weverka, A. Mickelson, K. Wu, C. Garvin, R. Roth, “Low loss acoustooptic permutation interconnection network,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 8 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991).

Walker, J. A.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, D. D. Bacon, T. K. Woodward, “Arrays of optoelectronic switching nodes comprised of flip-chip-bonded MQW modulators and detectors on silicon CMOS circuitry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 221–223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, D. Bacon, R. E. Leibenguth, “Clocked-sense-amplifier-based smart-pixel optical receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1067–1069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novoty, D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed optoelectronic VLS switching chip with >4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. E. Leibenguth, “1-Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8-µm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Alpoin, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “3-D integration of MQW modulators over active submicron CMOS circuits: 375 Mb/s transimpedance receiver–transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, A. L. Lentine, D. A. B. Miller, “GaAs MQW modulators integrated with silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 360–362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, “GaAs MQW modulators on silicon IC’s,” in Proceedings of the LEOS Topical Meeting Digest on Smart Pixels (Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, Piscataway, N.J., 1994), pp. 10–11.

Walker, S. L.

Weverka, R.

K. Wagner, R. Weverka, A. Mickelson, K. Wu, C. Garvin, R. Roth, “Low loss acoustooptic permutation interconnection network,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 8 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991).

Wojcik, M. J.

Woodward, T. K.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, D. D. Bacon, T. K. Woodward, “Arrays of optoelectronic switching nodes comprised of flip-chip-bonded MQW modulators and detectors on silicon CMOS circuitry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 221–223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. A. D’Asaro, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, R. E. Leibenguth, “1-Gb/s two-beam transimpedance smart-pixel optical receivers made from hybrid GaAs MQW modulators bonded to 0.8-µm silicon CMOS,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 422–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, D. Bacon, R. E. Leibenguth, “Clocked-sense-amplifier-based smart-pixel optical receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1067–1069 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, T. K. Woodward, J. E. Ford, G. F. Alpoin, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, D. Kossives, D. Dahringer, L. M. F. Chirovsky, D. A. B. Miller, “3-D integration of MQW modulators over active submicron CMOS circuits: 375 Mb/s transimpedance receiver–transmitter circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1288–1290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wu, K.

K. Wagner, R. Weverka, A. Mickelson, K. Wu, C. Garvin, R. Roth, “Low loss acoustooptic permutation interconnection network,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 8 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991).

Wullert, J. R.

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. R. Wullert, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, N. G. Stoffel, M. W. Maeda, “Rastered, uniformly separated wavelengths emitted from a 2-dimensional vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 31–33 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, M.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of a Clos switching network. The first stage has r, n × m crossbars, the second has m, r × r crossbars, and the third has r, m × n crossbars, giving a total of N = nr channels.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Three-dimensional implementation of a Clos network by use of stacked crossbars, with switching along the columns of the first and last stage and along the rows of the middle stage. In this figure, n = 3, m = (2n - 1) = 5, r = 3, and N = 9.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Clos network using imaging between smart-pixel crossbar stages; the imaging optics are not shown. One channel’s signal path is traced through the switch from left to right, showing single-ended or differential optical (solid beam) and electronic (thick black line) interconnections. The black squares and white circles are detectors and modulators, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Space–wavelength Clos crossbar switch optical system (top view). For clarity, not all beams are shown. Stage 1 shows the input wavelength-multiplexed channels being split into different columns of the crossbar array by the grating. Stage 2 shows the inputs from the previous stage and the readout laser beam. Stage 3 shows the multiwavelength readout-beam array being combined into the output fiber array by the grating. PBS, polarizing beam splitter; Mod, modulator; Det, detector; cyl, cylindrical.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Block diagram of an individual crossbar pixel. Four of these pixels share a crossbar bus to make a crossbar. Each full crossbar has one xbar I/O buffer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Circuit diagram of one SRAM bit.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Circuit diagram of the modulator–receiver driver.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Circuit diagram of the crossbar receiver.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Circuit diagram of the crossbar transmitter. Mux, multiplexer.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Circuit diagram of the crossbar I/O buffer. The buffer connects the xbar and data I/O buses for circuit testing.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

VLSI layout of the crossbar pixel with the circuit blocks and signals buses labeled. The m3 diode wiring is not shown but connects to the pixel circuitry at the circled ports.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Circuit diagram of the GaAs MQW diodes. Nodes R and T are the crossbar receiver and transmitter connections, respectively, and nodes 1-4 are connections to the modulator-receiver drivers.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Layout of the diode interconnect wires for a mirrored pair of crossbar pixels. The circled nodes label the contacts to the pixel circuitry, and the larger boxes are the diode bump-bond pads.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Photograph of the crossbar chip die before the diodes have been bonded showing the addressing circuits and the upper three of four pixels in each crossbar.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Results of the spice simulations of the four-channel crossbar circuits showing operation at 500 Mbits/s. The upper plot is of a simulated input photocurrent of ±5 µA. The lower plot shows the input transimpedance amplifier (dashed curve), crossbar bus (dotted curve), and output modulator drive (solid curve) voltages.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Crossbar Pixel-Circuit Areas and Chip-Power Requirements for N = 16 and N = 1024 channel switchesa

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