Abstract

We characterized a laminar grating with a Mo/Si multilayer coating by using synchrotron radiation and atomic force microscopy. The grating substrate had 2400 grooves/mm, 40-Å groove depth, and 2080-Å groove width. The microroughness of the grating substrate was 5 Å rms. The multilayer coating was optimized to have peak normal-incidence reflectance at a wavelength near 150 Å. For an angle of incidence of 10° the peak grating efficiency was 16.3% in the +1 order and 15.0% in the -1 order. The efficiency in the zero order was lower by a factor of 40 owing to the excellent matching of the groove depth and groove width to the wavelength of the incident radiation. By dividing the grating efficiencies by the measured reflectance of the multilayer coating, we obtained inferred groove efficiencies of 34% and 32% in the +1 and -1 orders, respectively.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency and long-term stability of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched blazed holographic grating in the 125–133 Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7338–7346 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. F. Seely, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, R. Eby, K. G. Stolt, “Polarization and efficiency of a concave multilayer grating in the 135–250 Å region and in normal-incidence and Seya–Namioka mounts,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7347–7354 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. C. Rife, “Normal-incidence efficiencies in the 115–340-Å wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line/mm grating with multilayer and gold coatings,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6453–6458 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. H. Hellwege, “Über rasterfödormige reflexionsgitter,” Z. Phys. 106, 588–596 (1937).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. G. Michette, C. J. Buckley, X-Ray Science and Technology (Institute of Physics, University of Reading, Berkshire, UK, 1993), pp. 312–319.
  6. R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Measurements of the normal-incidence x-ray reflectance of a molybdenum–silicon multilayer deposited on a 2000-l/mm grating,” Phys. Scr. 41, 396–399 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Schmiedeskamp, A. Kloidt, H.-J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Döhring, M. Prödopper, S. Rahn, K. Hilgers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. Heidemann, “Electron-beam-deposited Mo/Si and Mox-Siy/Si multilayer x-ray mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. U. Kleineberg, H.-J. Stock, A. Kloidt, K. Osterried, D. Menke, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, D. Fuchs, P. Müller, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, K. Heidemann, B. Nelles, “Mo/Si multilayer coated laminar phase and ruled blaze gratings for the soft-x-ray region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Related Phenom. 80, 389–392 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 145–160-Å region,” Opt. Lett. 22, 834–836 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunter, “Upgrades and recent performance of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2064–2067 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A246, 465–468 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, “On-blaze operation of a Mo/Si multilayer-coated, concave diffraction grating in the 136–142 Å wavelength region and near normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4890–4897 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. F. Seely, C. M. Brown, “Multilayer-coated grating spectrometer operating in the extreme-ultraviolet region and based on the Seya–Namioka mount,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6288–6293 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. L. I. Goray, “Rigorous integral method in application to computing diffraction on relief gratings working in wavelength range from microwave to x-ray,” in X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2532, 427–433 (1995).
  16. L. I. Goray, B. C. Chernov, “Comparison of rigorous methods for x-ray and xuv grating diffraction analysis,” in X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2515, 240–245 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

U. Kleineberg, H.-J. Stock, A. Kloidt, K. Osterried, D. Menke, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, D. Fuchs, P. Müller, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, K. Heidemann, B. Nelles, “Mo/Si multilayer coated laminar phase and ruled blaze gratings for the soft-x-ray region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Related Phenom. 80, 389–392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

1994 (1)

B. Schmiedeskamp, A. Kloidt, H.-J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Döhring, M. Prödopper, S. Rahn, K. Hilgers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. Heidemann, “Electron-beam-deposited Mo/Si and Mox-Siy/Si multilayer x-ray mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

1990 (1)

R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Measurements of the normal-incidence x-ray reflectance of a molybdenum–silicon multilayer deposited on a 2000-l/mm grating,” Phys. Scr. 41, 396–399 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunter, “Upgrades and recent performance of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2064–2067 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A246, 465–468 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1937 (1)

K. H. Hellwege, “Über rasterfödormige reflexionsgitter,” Z. Phys. 106, 588–596 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Barbee, T. W.

Boyer, C. N.

Brown, C. M.

Buckley, C. J.

A. G. Michette, C. J. Buckley, X-Ray Science and Technology (Institute of Physics, University of Reading, Berkshire, UK, 1993), pp. 312–319.

Chernov, B. C.

L. I. Goray, B. C. Chernov, “Comparison of rigorous methods for x-ray and xuv grating diffraction analysis,” in X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2515, 240–245 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cruddace, R. G.

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Döhring, T.

B. Schmiedeskamp, A. Kloidt, H.-J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Döhring, M. Prödopper, S. Rahn, K. Hilgers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. Heidemann, “Electron-beam-deposited Mo/Si and Mox-Siy/Si multilayer x-ray mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Eby, R.

Fuchs, D.

U. Kleineberg, H.-J. Stock, A. Kloidt, K. Osterried, D. Menke, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, D. Fuchs, P. Müller, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, K. Heidemann, B. Nelles, “Mo/Si multilayer coated laminar phase and ruled blaze gratings for the soft-x-ray region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Related Phenom. 80, 389–392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Goray, L. I.

L. I. Goray, “Rigorous integral method in application to computing diffraction on relief gratings working in wavelength range from microwave to x-ray,” in X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2532, 427–433 (1995).

L. I. Goray, B. C. Chernov, “Comparison of rigorous methods for x-ray and xuv grating diffraction analysis,” in X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2515, 240–245 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E. M.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Heidemann, B.

B. Schmiedeskamp, A. Kloidt, H.-J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Döhring, M. Prödopper, S. Rahn, K. Hilgers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. Heidemann, “Electron-beam-deposited Mo/Si and Mox-Siy/Si multilayer x-ray mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Heidemann, K.

U. Kleineberg, H.-J. Stock, A. Kloidt, K. Osterried, D. Menke, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, D. Fuchs, P. Müller, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, K. Heidemann, B. Nelles, “Mo/Si multilayer coated laminar phase and ruled blaze gratings for the soft-x-ray region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Related Phenom. 80, 389–392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmiedeskamp, A. Kloidt, H.-J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Döhring, M. Prödopper, S. Rahn, K. Hilgers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. Heidemann, “Electron-beam-deposited Mo/Si and Mox-Siy/Si multilayer x-ray mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Heidemann, K. F.

Heinzmann, U.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 145–160-Å region,” Opt. Lett. 22, 834–836 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Kleineberg, H.-J. Stock, A. Kloidt, K. Osterried, D. Menke, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, D. Fuchs, P. Müller, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, K. Heidemann, B. Nelles, “Mo/Si multilayer coated laminar phase and ruled blaze gratings for the soft-x-ray region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Related Phenom. 80, 389–392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmiedeskamp, A. Kloidt, H.-J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Döhring, M. Prödopper, S. Rahn, K. Hilgers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. Heidemann, “Electron-beam-deposited Mo/Si and Mox-Siy/Si multilayer x-ray mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hellwege, K. H.

K. H. Hellwege, “Über rasterfödormige reflexionsgitter,” Z. Phys. 106, 588–596 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hilgers, K.

B. Schmiedeskamp, A. Kloidt, H.-J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Döhring, M. Prödopper, S. Rahn, K. Hilgers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. Heidemann, “Electron-beam-deposited Mo/Si and Mox-Siy/Si multilayer x-ray mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Holland, G. E.

Hunter, W. R.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 145–160-Å region,” Opt. Lett. 22, 834–836 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Seely, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, R. Eby, K. G. Stolt, “Polarization and efficiency of a concave multilayer grating in the 135–250 Å region and in normal-incidence and Seya–Namioka mounts,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7347–7354 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. C. Rife, “Normal-incidence efficiencies in the 115–340-Å wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line/mm grating with multilayer and gold coatings,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6453–6458 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency and long-term stability of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched blazed holographic grating in the 125–133 Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7338–7346 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, “On-blaze operation of a Mo/Si multilayer-coated, concave diffraction grating in the 136–142 Å wavelength region and near normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4890–4897 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Measurements of the normal-incidence x-ray reflectance of a molybdenum–silicon multilayer deposited on a 2000-l/mm grating,” Phys. Scr. 41, 396–399 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunter, “Upgrades and recent performance of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2064–2067 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A246, 465–468 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kleineberg, U.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 145–160-Å region,” Opt. Lett. 22, 834–836 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Kleineberg, H.-J. Stock, A. Kloidt, K. Osterried, D. Menke, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, D. Fuchs, P. Müller, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, K. Heidemann, B. Nelles, “Mo/Si multilayer coated laminar phase and ruled blaze gratings for the soft-x-ray region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Related Phenom. 80, 389–392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmiedeskamp, A. Kloidt, H.-J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Döhring, M. Prödopper, S. Rahn, K. Hilgers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. Heidemann, “Electron-beam-deposited Mo/Si and Mox-Siy/Si multilayer x-ray mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kloidt, A.

U. Kleineberg, H.-J. Stock, A. Kloidt, K. Osterried, D. Menke, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, D. Fuchs, P. Müller, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, K. Heidemann, B. Nelles, “Mo/Si multilayer coated laminar phase and ruled blaze gratings for the soft-x-ray region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Related Phenom. 80, 389–392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmiedeskamp, A. Kloidt, H.-J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Döhring, M. Prödopper, S. Rahn, K. Hilgers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. Heidemann, “Electron-beam-deposited Mo/Si and Mox-Siy/Si multilayer x-ray mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kowalski, M. P.

Krumrey, M.

B. Schmiedeskamp, A. Kloidt, H.-J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Döhring, M. Prödopper, S. Rahn, K. Hilgers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. Heidemann, “Electron-beam-deposited Mo/Si and Mox-Siy/Si multilayer x-ray mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Menke, D.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 145–160-Å region,” Opt. Lett. 22, 834–836 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Kleineberg, H.-J. Stock, A. Kloidt, K. Osterried, D. Menke, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, D. Fuchs, P. Müller, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, K. Heidemann, B. Nelles, “Mo/Si multilayer coated laminar phase and ruled blaze gratings for the soft-x-ray region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Related Phenom. 80, 389–392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Michette, A. G.

A. G. Michette, C. J. Buckley, X-Ray Science and Technology (Institute of Physics, University of Reading, Berkshire, UK, 1993), pp. 312–319.

Müller, P.

U. Kleineberg, H.-J. Stock, A. Kloidt, K. Osterried, D. Menke, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, D. Fuchs, P. Müller, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, K. Heidemann, B. Nelles, “Mo/Si multilayer coated laminar phase and ruled blaze gratings for the soft-x-ray region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Related Phenom. 80, 389–392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmiedeskamp, A. Kloidt, H.-J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Döhring, M. Prödopper, S. Rahn, K. Hilgers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. Heidemann, “Electron-beam-deposited Mo/Si and Mox-Siy/Si multilayer x-ray mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nelles, B.

U. Kleineberg, H.-J. Stock, A. Kloidt, K. Osterried, D. Menke, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, D. Fuchs, P. Müller, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, K. Heidemann, B. Nelles, “Mo/Si multilayer coated laminar phase and ruled blaze gratings for the soft-x-ray region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Related Phenom. 80, 389–392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Osterried, K.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 145–160-Å region,” Opt. Lett. 22, 834–836 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Kleineberg, H.-J. Stock, A. Kloidt, K. Osterried, D. Menke, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, D. Fuchs, P. Müller, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, K. Heidemann, B. Nelles, “Mo/Si multilayer coated laminar phase and ruled blaze gratings for the soft-x-ray region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Related Phenom. 80, 389–392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Prödopper, M.

B. Schmiedeskamp, A. Kloidt, H.-J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Döhring, M. Prödopper, S. Rahn, K. Hilgers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. Heidemann, “Electron-beam-deposited Mo/Si and Mox-Siy/Si multilayer x-ray mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rahn, S.

B. Schmiedeskamp, A. Kloidt, H.-J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Döhring, M. Prödopper, S. Rahn, K. Hilgers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. Heidemann, “Electron-beam-deposited Mo/Si and Mox-Siy/Si multilayer x-ray mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rife, J. C.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 145–160-Å region,” Opt. Lett. 22, 834–836 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. C. Rife, “Normal-incidence efficiencies in the 115–340-Å wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line/mm grating with multilayer and gold coatings,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6453–6458 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Seely, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, R. Eby, K. G. Stolt, “Polarization and efficiency of a concave multilayer grating in the 135–250 Å region and in normal-incidence and Seya–Namioka mounts,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7347–7354 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency and long-term stability of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched blazed holographic grating in the 125–133 Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7338–7346 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, “On-blaze operation of a Mo/Si multilayer-coated, concave diffraction grating in the 136–142 Å wavelength region and near normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4890–4897 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Measurements of the normal-incidence x-ray reflectance of a molybdenum–silicon multilayer deposited on a 2000-l/mm grating,” Phys. Scr. 41, 396–399 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunter, “Upgrades and recent performance of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2064–2067 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A246, 465–468 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sadeghi, H. R.

J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunter, “Upgrades and recent performance of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2064–2067 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Schmiedeskamp, B.

U. Kleineberg, H.-J. Stock, A. Kloidt, K. Osterried, D. Menke, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, D. Fuchs, P. Müller, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, K. Heidemann, B. Nelles, “Mo/Si multilayer coated laminar phase and ruled blaze gratings for the soft-x-ray region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Related Phenom. 80, 389–392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmiedeskamp, A. Kloidt, H.-J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Döhring, M. Prödopper, S. Rahn, K. Hilgers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. Heidemann, “Electron-beam-deposited Mo/Si and Mox-Siy/Si multilayer x-ray mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Scholze, F.

U. Kleineberg, H.-J. Stock, A. Kloidt, K. Osterried, D. Menke, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, D. Fuchs, P. Müller, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, K. Heidemann, B. Nelles, “Mo/Si multilayer coated laminar phase and ruled blaze gratings for the soft-x-ray region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Related Phenom. 80, 389–392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmiedeskamp, A. Kloidt, H.-J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Döhring, M. Prödopper, S. Rahn, K. Hilgers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. Heidemann, “Electron-beam-deposited Mo/Si and Mox-Siy/Si multilayer x-ray mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Seely, J. F.

M. P. Kowalski, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, K. F. Heidemann, U. Heinzmann, U. Kleineberg, K. Osterried, D. Menke, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched laminar holographic grating in the 145–160-Å region,” Opt. Lett. 22, 834–836 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Kowalski, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. F. Seely, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Efficiency and long-term stability of a multilayer-coated, ion-etched blazed holographic grating in the 125–133 Å wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7338–7346 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Seely, R. G. Cruddace, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, R. Eby, K. G. Stolt, “Polarization and efficiency of a concave multilayer grating in the 135–250 Å region and in normal-incidence and Seya–Namioka mounts,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7347–7354 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, T. W. Barbee, R. G. Cruddace, J. C. Rife, “Normal-incidence efficiencies in the 115–340-Å wavelength region of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line/mm grating with multilayer and gold coatings,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6453–6458 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Seely, M. P. Kowalski, W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, G. E. Holland, C. N. Boyer, C. M. Brown, “On-blaze operation of a Mo/Si multilayer-coated, concave diffraction grating in the 136–142 Å wavelength region and near normal incidence,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4890–4897 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Seely, C. M. Brown, “Multilayer-coated grating spectrometer operating in the extreme-ultraviolet region and based on the Seya–Namioka mount,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6288–6293 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stock, H.-J.

U. Kleineberg, H.-J. Stock, A. Kloidt, K. Osterried, D. Menke, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, D. Fuchs, P. Müller, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, K. Heidemann, B. Nelles, “Mo/Si multilayer coated laminar phase and ruled blaze gratings for the soft-x-ray region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Related Phenom. 80, 389–392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Schmiedeskamp, A. Kloidt, H.-J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Döhring, M. Prödopper, S. Rahn, K. Hilgers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. Heidemann, “Electron-beam-deposited Mo/Si and Mox-Siy/Si multilayer x-ray mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stolt, K. G.

Tappe, T.

B. Schmiedeskamp, A. Kloidt, H.-J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Döhring, M. Prödopper, S. Rahn, K. Hilgers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. Heidemann, “Electron-beam-deposited Mo/Si and Mox-Siy/Si multilayer x-ray mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ulm, G.

U. Kleineberg, H.-J. Stock, A. Kloidt, K. Osterried, D. Menke, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, D. Fuchs, P. Müller, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, K. Heidemann, B. Nelles, “Mo/Si multilayer coated laminar phase and ruled blaze gratings for the soft-x-ray region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Related Phenom. 80, 389–392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron Spectrosc. Related Phenom. (1)

U. Kleineberg, H.-J. Stock, A. Kloidt, K. Osterried, D. Menke, B. Schmiedeskamp, U. Heinzmann, D. Fuchs, P. Müller, F. Scholze, G. Ulm, K. Heidemann, B. Nelles, “Mo/Si multilayer coated laminar phase and ruled blaze gratings for the soft-x-ray region,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Related Phenom. 80, 389–392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. (1)

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A246, 465–468 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

B. Schmiedeskamp, A. Kloidt, H.-J. Stock, U. Kleineberg, T. Döhring, M. Prödopper, S. Rahn, K. Hilgers, B. Heidemann, T. Tappe, U. Heinzmann, M. Krumrey, P. Müller, F. Scholze, K. Heidemann, “Electron-beam-deposited Mo/Si and Mox-Siy/Si multilayer x-ray mirrors and gratings,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1314–1321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Scr. (1)

R. G. Cruddace, T. W. Barbee, J. C. Rife, W. R. Hunter, “Measurements of the normal-incidence x-ray reflectance of a molybdenum–silicon multilayer deposited on a 2000-l/mm grating,” Phys. Scr. 41, 396–399 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. C. Rife, H. R. Sadeghi, W. R. Hunter, “Upgrades and recent performance of the grating/crystal monochromator,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2064–2067 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. (1)

K. H. Hellwege, “Über rasterfödormige reflexionsgitter,” Z. Phys. 106, 588–596 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

A. G. Michette, C. J. Buckley, X-Ray Science and Technology (Institute of Physics, University of Reading, Berkshire, UK, 1993), pp. 312–319.

L. I. Goray, “Rigorous integral method in application to computing diffraction on relief gratings working in wavelength range from microwave to x-ray,” in X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2532, 427–433 (1995).

L. I. Goray, B. C. Chernov, “Comparison of rigorous methods for x-ray and xuv grating diffraction analysis,” in X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2515, 240–245 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Atomic force microscope images of the uncoated and the multilayer-coated 2400-gr/mm laminar grating. As indicated, the groove spacing is 4167 Å and the groove depth is 40 Å.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured reflectance and (b) calculated reflectance of the multilayer coating on the witness flat mirror for angles of incidence of 10°, 20°, and 30°. The incident synchrotron radiation was 90% p polarized.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured efficiency of the multilayer laminar grating for a fixed angle of incidence of 10° and a wavelength of 151 Å. We measured the efficiency by scanning the detector in angle through the diffraction orders. The inside (n > 0) and the outside (n < 0) diffraction orders are indicated. The effective angular width of the slit that covered the detector was 0.5° in the dispersion direction.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured peak efficiencies in the -1, 0, and +1 orders for an incidence angle of 10° and for wavelengths of 144 to 157 Å and the sum of the efficiencies in all the observed orders (-4 through +4).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Efficiencies in the +1 and -1 orders measured at an angle of incidence of 10° as a function of wavelength. The solid curves are the reflectances of the multilayer coating for angles of incidence of 7.9° and 12.1°. The reflectance values were reduced by factors of 0.34 and 0.32, which represent the groove efficiencies in the +1 and -1 orders, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured efficiency of the multilayer laminar grating for a fixed angle of incidence of 32° and a wavelength of 132 Å. We measured the efficiency by scanning the detector in angle through the diffraction orders. The inside (n > 0) and the outside (n < 0) diffraction orders are indicated. The effective angular width of the slit that covered the detector was 0.5° in the dispersion direction. The incident radiation was 90% p polarized.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured peak efficiencies in the -1, 0, and +1 orders for an angle of incidence of 32° and the sum of the efficiencies in all of the observed orders (-3 through +2).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Efficiencies in the +1 and -1 orders measured at an angle of incidence of 32°. The solid curves are the reflectances of the multilayer coating for angles of incidence of 30.3° and 32.8°. The reflectance values were reduced by factors of 0.34 and 0.33, which represent the groove efficiencies in the +1 and -1 orders, respectively.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Calculated groove efficiencies of an ideal 2400-gr/mm laminar grating as a function of the groove width and for (a) an incidence angle of 10° and a wavelength of 151 Å and (b) an incidence angle of 32° and a wavelength of 132 Å. The incident radiation was p polarized, and the groove depth was 40 Å.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Calculated groove efficiency of an ideal laminar 2400-gr/mm grating as a function of the wavelength of the incident radiation and for angles of incidence of (a) 10° and (b) 32°. The groove width was 1770 Å, the groove depth was 40 Å, and the incident radiation was p polarized.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Calculated groove efficiency of an ideal laminar 2400-gr/mm grating as a function of the groove depth and for (a) an incidence angle of 10° and a wavelength of 151 Å and (b) an incidence angle of 32° and a wavelength of 132 Å. The incident radiation was p polarized, and the groove width was 1770 Å.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Grating Characteristics

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Table 2 Grating Efficiencies

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