L. Roberti, J. Haferman, C. Kummerow, “Microwave radiative transfer through horizontally inhomogeneous precipitating clouds,” J. Geophys. Res., 9916,707–16,718 (1994).

[CrossRef]

V. B. Kisselev, L. Roberti, G. Perona, “An application of the finite element method to the solution of the radiative transfer equation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 51, 603–614 (1994).

[CrossRef]

G. M. Heymsfield, R. Fulton, “Passive microwave and infrared structure of mesoscale convective systems,” Meteorol. Atmos. Phys. 54, 123–139, (1994).

[CrossRef]

J. Zhonghai, K. Stamnes, “Radiative transfer in nonuniformly refracting layered media: atmosphere-ocean system,” Appl. Opt. 33, 431–442 (1994).

[CrossRef]

C. Kummerow, “On the accuracy of the Eddington approximation for radiative transfer in the microwave frequencies,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 2757–2765 (1993).

[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, R. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters: its dependence on sun angle as influenced by the molecular scattering contribution,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4427–4438 (1991).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

L. Tsang, K.-H. Ding, “Polarimetric signatures of a layer of random nonspherical discrete scatterers overlying a homogeneous half-space based on first and second order vector radiative transfer theory,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 29, 242–253 (1991).

[CrossRef]

T. C. Grenfell, “A radiative transfer model for sea ice with vertical structure variations,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 16991–17001 (1991).

[CrossRef]

H. T. Chuah, H. S. Tan, “A Monte Carlo method for backscatter from a half-space random medium,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 86–93 (1989).

[CrossRef]

J. A. Weinman, R. Davis, “Thermal microwave radiances from horizontally finite clouds of hydrometeors,” J. Geophys. Res. 83, 3099–3107 (1978).

[CrossRef]

J. V. Dave, “A direct solution of the spherical harmonics approximation to the radiative transfer equation for an arbitrary solar elevation. Part I: theory,” J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 790–798 (1975).

[CrossRef]

L. L. House, L. W. Avery, “The Monte Carlo technique applied to radiative transfer,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 9, 1579–1591 (1969).

[CrossRef]

L. L. House, L. W. Avery, “The Monte Carlo technique applied to radiative transfer,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 9, 1579–1591 (1969).

[CrossRef]

S. Chandrasekhar, Remote Sensing (Dover, New York, 1960), 24–42.

H. T. Chuah, H. S. Tan, “A Monte Carlo method for backscatter from a half-space random medium,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 86–93 (1989).

[CrossRef]

J. V. Dave, “A direct solution of the spherical harmonics approximation to the radiative transfer equation for an arbitrary solar elevation. Part I: theory,” J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 790–798 (1975).

[CrossRef]

J. A. Weinman, R. Davis, “Thermal microwave radiances from horizontally finite clouds of hydrometeors,” J. Geophys. Res. 83, 3099–3107 (1978).

[CrossRef]

L. Tsang, K.-H. Ding, “Polarimetric signatures of a layer of random nonspherical discrete scatterers overlying a homogeneous half-space based on first and second order vector radiative transfer theory,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 29, 242–253 (1991).

[CrossRef]

G. M. Heymsfield, R. Fulton, “Passive microwave and infrared structure of mesoscale convective systems,” Meteorol. Atmos. Phys. 54, 123–139, (1994).

[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, R. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters: its dependence on sun angle as influenced by the molecular scattering contribution,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4427–4438 (1991).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, R. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, “Bio-optical model describing the distribution of irradiance at the sea surface resulting from a point source embedded in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 19, 4133–4148 (1987).

[CrossRef]

T. C. Grenfell, “A radiative transfer model for sea ice with vertical structure variations,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 16991–17001 (1991).

[CrossRef]

L. Roberti, J. Haferman, C. Kummerow, “Microwave radiative transfer through horizontally inhomogeneous precipitating clouds,” J. Geophys. Res., 9916,707–16,718 (1994).

[CrossRef]

G. M. Heymsfield, R. Fulton, “Passive microwave and infrared structure of mesoscale convective systems,” Meteorol. Atmos. Phys. 54, 123–139, (1994).

[CrossRef]

L. L. House, L. W. Avery, “The Monte Carlo technique applied to radiative transfer,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 9, 1579–1591 (1969).

[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, R. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, R. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

V. B. Kisselev, L. Roberti, G. Perona, A finite element algorithm for radiative transfer in vertically inhomogeneous media: numerical scheme and applications, Appl. Opt. 34, 8460–8471 (1995).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

V. B. Kisselev, L. Roberti, G. Perona, “An application of the finite element method to the solution of the radiative transfer equation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 51, 603–614 (1994).

[CrossRef]

L. Tsang, J. A. Kong, R. T. Shin, Theory of Microwave Remote Sensing (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1985), 138–142.

L. Roberti, J. Haferman, C. Kummerow, “Microwave radiative transfer through horizontally inhomogeneous precipitating clouds,” J. Geophys. Res., 9916,707–16,718 (1994).

[CrossRef]

C. Kummerow, “On the accuracy of the Eddington approximation for radiative transfer in the microwave frequencies,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 2757–2765 (1993).

[CrossRef]

J. Lenoble, Radiative Transfer in Scattering and Absorbing Atmospheres: Standard Computational Procedures (A. Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1985), Chap. 3, 31–34.

K. N. Liou, An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation (Academic, Orlando, 1980), 149–151.

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, R. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, R. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters: its dependence on sun angle as influenced by the molecular scattering contribution,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4427–4438 (1991).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

V. B. Kisselev, L. Roberti, G. Perona, A finite element algorithm for radiative transfer in vertically inhomogeneous media: numerical scheme and applications, Appl. Opt. 34, 8460–8471 (1995).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

V. B. Kisselev, L. Roberti, G. Perona, “An application of the finite element method to the solution of the radiative transfer equation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 51, 603–614 (1994).

[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, R. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

V. B. Kisselev, L. Roberti, G. Perona, A finite element algorithm for radiative transfer in vertically inhomogeneous media: numerical scheme and applications, Appl. Opt. 34, 8460–8471 (1995).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

V. B. Kisselev, L. Roberti, G. Perona, “An application of the finite element method to the solution of the radiative transfer equation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 51, 603–614 (1994).

[CrossRef]

L. Roberti, J. Haferman, C. Kummerow, “Microwave radiative transfer through horizontally inhomogeneous precipitating clouds,” J. Geophys. Res., 9916,707–16,718 (1994).

[CrossRef]

L. Tsang, J. A. Kong, R. T. Shin, Theory of Microwave Remote Sensing (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1985), 138–142.

W.-K. Tao, J. Simpson, S.-T. Soong, “Statistical properties of a cloud ensemble: a numerical study,” J. Atmos. Sci. 44, 3175–3187 (1987).

[CrossRef]

W.-K. Tao, J. Simpson, S.-T. Soong, “Statistical properties of a cloud ensemble: a numerical study,” J. Atmos. Sci. 44, 3175–3187 (1987).

[CrossRef]

J. Zhonghai, K. Stamnes, “Radiative transfer in nonuniformly refracting layered media: atmosphere-ocean system,” Appl. Opt. 33, 431–442 (1994).

[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, R. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. Stamnes, S. Tsay, W. Wiscombe, K. Jayaweera, “Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2502–2509 (1988).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, R. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H. T. Chuah, H. S. Tan, “A Monte Carlo method for backscatter from a half-space random medium,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 86–93 (1989).

[CrossRef]

W.-K. Tao, J. Simpson, S.-T. Soong, “Statistical properties of a cloud ensemble: a numerical study,” J. Atmos. Sci. 44, 3175–3187 (1987).

[CrossRef]

L. Tsang, K.-H. Ding, “Polarimetric signatures of a layer of random nonspherical discrete scatterers overlying a homogeneous half-space based on first and second order vector radiative transfer theory,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 29, 242–253 (1991).

[CrossRef]

L. Tsang, J. A. Kong, R. T. Shin, Theory of Microwave Remote Sensing (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1985), 138–142.

J. A. Weinman, R. Davis, “Thermal microwave radiances from horizontally finite clouds of hydrometeors,” J. Geophys. Res. 83, 3099–3107 (1978).

[CrossRef]

D. G. Collins, W. G. Blattner, M. B. Wells, H. G. Horak, “Backward Monte Carlo calculations of the polarization characteristics of the radiation emerging form spherical-shell atmospheres,” Appl. Opt. 11, 2684–2696 (1972).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. Stamnes, S. Tsay, W. Wiscombe, K. Jayaweera, “Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer in multiple scattering and emitting layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2502–2509 (1988).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. Zhonghai, K. Stamnes, “Radiative transfer in nonuniformly refracting layered media: atmosphere-ocean system,” Appl. Opt. 33, 431–442 (1994).

[CrossRef]

V. B. Kisselev, L. Roberti, G. Perona, A finite element algorithm for radiative transfer in vertically inhomogeneous media: numerical scheme and applications, Appl. Opt. 34, 8460–8471 (1995).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. Morel, B. Gentili, “Diffuse reflectance of oceanic waters: its dependence on sun angle as influenced by the molecular scattering contribution,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4427–4438 (1991).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, R. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32, 7484–7504 (1993).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, “Bio-optical model describing the distribution of irradiance at the sea surface resulting from a point source embedded in the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 19, 4133–4148 (1987).

[CrossRef]

L. Tsang, K.-H. Ding, “Polarimetric signatures of a layer of random nonspherical discrete scatterers overlying a homogeneous half-space based on first and second order vector radiative transfer theory,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 29, 242–253 (1991).

[CrossRef]

H. T. Chuah, H. S. Tan, “A Monte Carlo method for backscatter from a half-space random medium,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 86–93 (1989).

[CrossRef]

J. V. Dave, “A direct solution of the spherical harmonics approximation to the radiative transfer equation for an arbitrary solar elevation. Part I: theory,” J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 790–798 (1975).

[CrossRef]

W.-K. Tao, J. Simpson, S.-T. Soong, “Statistical properties of a cloud ensemble: a numerical study,” J. Atmos. Sci. 44, 3175–3187 (1987).

[CrossRef]

C. Kummerow, “On the accuracy of the Eddington approximation for radiative transfer in the microwave frequencies,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 2757–2765 (1993).

[CrossRef]

J. A. Weinman, R. Davis, “Thermal microwave radiances from horizontally finite clouds of hydrometeors,” J. Geophys. Res. 83, 3099–3107 (1978).

[CrossRef]

T. C. Grenfell, “A radiative transfer model for sea ice with vertical structure variations,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 16991–17001 (1991).

[CrossRef]

L. Roberti, J. Haferman, C. Kummerow, “Microwave radiative transfer through horizontally inhomogeneous precipitating clouds,” J. Geophys. Res., 9916,707–16,718 (1994).

[CrossRef]

V. B. Kisselev, L. Roberti, G. Perona, “An application of the finite element method to the solution of the radiative transfer equation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 51, 603–614 (1994).

[CrossRef]

L. L. House, L. W. Avery, “The Monte Carlo technique applied to radiative transfer,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 9, 1579–1591 (1969).

[CrossRef]

G. M. Heymsfield, R. Fulton, “Passive microwave and infrared structure of mesoscale convective systems,” Meteorol. Atmos. Phys. 54, 123–139, (1994).

[CrossRef]

L. Tsang, J. A. Kong, R. T. Shin, Theory of Microwave Remote Sensing (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1985), 138–142.

S. Chandrasekhar, Remote Sensing (Dover, New York, 1960), 24–42.

J. Lenoble, Radiative Transfer in Scattering and Absorbing Atmospheres: Standard Computational Procedures (A. Deepak, Hampton, Va., 1985), Chap. 3, 31–34.

K. N. Liou, An Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation (Academic, Orlando, 1980), 149–151.