Abstract

Statistical analysis of stellar scintillation on the pupil of a telescope, known as the scidar (scintillation, detection, and ranging) technique, is sensitive only to atmospheric turbulence at altitudes higher than a few kilometers. With the generalized scidar technique, recently proposed and tested under laboratory conditions, one can overcome this limitation by analyzing the scintillation on a plane away from the pupil. We report the first experimental implementation of this technique, to our knowledge, under real atmospheric conditions as a vertical profiler of the refractive-index structure constant CN2(h). The instrument was adapted to the Nordic Optical Telescope and the William Hershel Telescope at La Palma, Canary Islands. We measure the spatial autocorrelation function of double-star scintillation for different positions of the analysis plane, finding good agreement with theoretical expectations.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. Roddier, “The effects of atmospheric turbulence in optical astronomy,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1981), Vol. 19, pp. 281–376.
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Rocca, F. Roddier, J. Vernin, “Detection of atmospheric turbulent layers by spatiotemporal and spatioangular correlation measurements of stellar-light scintillation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1000–1004 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Vernin, M. Azouit, “Traitement d’image adapté au speckle atmosphérique. II. Analyse multidimensionnelle appliquée au diagnostic à distance de la turbulence,” J. Opt. (Paris) 14, 131–142 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Vernin, M. Crochet, M. Azouit, O. Ghebrebrhan, “SCIDAR/radar simultaneous meaurements of atmospheric turbulence,” Radio Sci. 25, 953–959 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Vernin, “Atmospheric turbulence profiles,” in Wave Propagation in Random Media (Scintillation) - Invited Papers, V. I. Tatarskii, A. Ishimaru, V. U. Zavorotny, eds. SPIE Press, (Bellingham, Wash.1992), pp. 248–260.
  6. R. Racine, B. L. Ellerbroek, “Profiles of nighttime turbulence above Mauna Kea and isoplanatism extension in adaptive optics,” in Adaptive Optical Systems and Applications, R. K. Tyson, R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE2534, 248–257 (1995).
  7. J. L. Caccia, M. Azouit, J. Vernin, “Wind and CN2 profiling by single-star scintillation analysis,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1288–1294 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. L. Caccia, J. Vernin, “Wind fluctuation measurements in the buoyancy range by stellar scintillation analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13683–13690 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Vernin, C. Muñoz-Tuñón, “Optical seeing at La Palma Observatory II—Intensive site testing campaign at the Nordic Optical Telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 284, 311–318 (1994).
  10. C. E. Coulman, J. Vernin, A. Fuchs, “Optical seeing—mechanism of formation of thin turbulent laminae in the atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5461–5474 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Fuchs, M. Tallon, J. Vernin, “Folding-up of the vertical atmospheric turbulence profile using an optical technique of movable observing plane,” in Atmospheric Propagation and Remote Sensing III, W. A. Flood, W. B. Miller, eds., Proc. SPIE2222, 682–692 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Fuchs, “Contribution à l’étude de l’apparition de la turbulence optique dans les couches minces: Concept du SCIDAR généralisé,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université de Nice, Nice, France, 1995).
  13. J. D. Bregman, C. M. de Vos, U. J. Schwartz, “The effects of pupil refocussing on different atmospheric heights,” in High Resolution Imaging by Interferometry II, Proceedings of ESO Conference 39, J. M. Beckers, J. M. Merkle, eds. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1991), pp. 1067–1071.
  14. R. Foy, A. Labeyrie, “Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe,” Astron. Astrophys. 152, L29–L31 (1985).
  15. J. M. Beckers, “Increasing the size of the isoplanatic patch with multiconjugate adaptive optics,” in Very Large Telescopes and their Instrumentation, Proceedings of ESO Conference30, M.-H. Ulrich, ed. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1988), pp. 693–703.
  16. M. Tallon, R. Foy, J. Vernin, “3-D wavefront sensing for multiconjugate adaptive optics,” in Progress in Telescope and Instrumentation Technologies, Proceedings of ESO Conference42, M.-H. Ulrich, ed. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1992), pp. 517–521.
  17. V. A. Klückers, N. L. Wooder, M. A. Adcock, J. C. Dainty, “Results from Scidar observations,” in Image Propagation through the Atmosphere, J. C. Dainty, L. R. Bissonnette, eds., Proc. SPIE2828, 234–243 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. F. Buscher, “A thousand and one nights of seeing on Mt. Wilson,” in Amplitude and Intensity Spatial Interferometry II, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. SPIE2200, 407–417 (1994).

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

J. Vernin, C. Muñoz-Tuñón, “Optical seeing at La Palma Observatory II—Intensive site testing campaign at the Nordic Optical Telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 284, 311–318 (1994).

1990 (2)

J. Vernin, M. Crochet, M. Azouit, O. Ghebrebrhan, “SCIDAR/radar simultaneous meaurements of atmospheric turbulence,” Radio Sci. 25, 953–959 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Caccia, J. Vernin, “Wind fluctuation measurements in the buoyancy range by stellar scintillation analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13683–13690 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1985 (1)

R. Foy, A. Labeyrie, “Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe,” Astron. Astrophys. 152, L29–L31 (1985).

1983 (1)

J. Vernin, M. Azouit, “Traitement d’image adapté au speckle atmosphérique. II. Analyse multidimensionnelle appliquée au diagnostic à distance de la turbulence,” J. Opt. (Paris) 14, 131–142 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

Adcock, M. A.

V. A. Klückers, N. L. Wooder, M. A. Adcock, J. C. Dainty, “Results from Scidar observations,” in Image Propagation through the Atmosphere, J. C. Dainty, L. R. Bissonnette, eds., Proc. SPIE2828, 234–243 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Azouit, M.

J. Vernin, M. Crochet, M. Azouit, O. Ghebrebrhan, “SCIDAR/radar simultaneous meaurements of atmospheric turbulence,” Radio Sci. 25, 953–959 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Caccia, M. Azouit, J. Vernin, “Wind and CN2 profiling by single-star scintillation analysis,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1288–1294 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vernin, M. Azouit, “Traitement d’image adapté au speckle atmosphérique. II. Analyse multidimensionnelle appliquée au diagnostic à distance de la turbulence,” J. Opt. (Paris) 14, 131–142 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Beckers, J. M.

J. M. Beckers, “Increasing the size of the isoplanatic patch with multiconjugate adaptive optics,” in Very Large Telescopes and their Instrumentation, Proceedings of ESO Conference30, M.-H. Ulrich, ed. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1988), pp. 693–703.

Bregman, J. D.

J. D. Bregman, C. M. de Vos, U. J. Schwartz, “The effects of pupil refocussing on different atmospheric heights,” in High Resolution Imaging by Interferometry II, Proceedings of ESO Conference 39, J. M. Beckers, J. M. Merkle, eds. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1991), pp. 1067–1071.

Buscher, D. F.

D. F. Buscher, “A thousand and one nights of seeing on Mt. Wilson,” in Amplitude and Intensity Spatial Interferometry II, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. SPIE2200, 407–417 (1994).

Caccia, J. L.

J. L. Caccia, J. Vernin, “Wind fluctuation measurements in the buoyancy range by stellar scintillation analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13683–13690 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Caccia, M. Azouit, J. Vernin, “Wind and CN2 profiling by single-star scintillation analysis,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1288–1294 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coulman, C. E.

Crochet, M.

J. Vernin, M. Crochet, M. Azouit, O. Ghebrebrhan, “SCIDAR/radar simultaneous meaurements of atmospheric turbulence,” Radio Sci. 25, 953–959 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dainty, J. C.

V. A. Klückers, N. L. Wooder, M. A. Adcock, J. C. Dainty, “Results from Scidar observations,” in Image Propagation through the Atmosphere, J. C. Dainty, L. R. Bissonnette, eds., Proc. SPIE2828, 234–243 (1996).
[CrossRef]

de Vos, C. M.

J. D. Bregman, C. M. de Vos, U. J. Schwartz, “The effects of pupil refocussing on different atmospheric heights,” in High Resolution Imaging by Interferometry II, Proceedings of ESO Conference 39, J. M. Beckers, J. M. Merkle, eds. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1991), pp. 1067–1071.

Ellerbroek, B. L.

R. Racine, B. L. Ellerbroek, “Profiles of nighttime turbulence above Mauna Kea and isoplanatism extension in adaptive optics,” in Adaptive Optical Systems and Applications, R. K. Tyson, R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE2534, 248–257 (1995).

Foy, R.

R. Foy, A. Labeyrie, “Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe,” Astron. Astrophys. 152, L29–L31 (1985).

M. Tallon, R. Foy, J. Vernin, “3-D wavefront sensing for multiconjugate adaptive optics,” in Progress in Telescope and Instrumentation Technologies, Proceedings of ESO Conference42, M.-H. Ulrich, ed. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1992), pp. 517–521.

Fuchs, A.

C. E. Coulman, J. Vernin, A. Fuchs, “Optical seeing—mechanism of formation of thin turbulent laminae in the atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5461–5474 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Fuchs, M. Tallon, J. Vernin, “Folding-up of the vertical atmospheric turbulence profile using an optical technique of movable observing plane,” in Atmospheric Propagation and Remote Sensing III, W. A. Flood, W. B. Miller, eds., Proc. SPIE2222, 682–692 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Fuchs, “Contribution à l’étude de l’apparition de la turbulence optique dans les couches minces: Concept du SCIDAR généralisé,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université de Nice, Nice, France, 1995).

Ghebrebrhan, O.

J. Vernin, M. Crochet, M. Azouit, O. Ghebrebrhan, “SCIDAR/radar simultaneous meaurements of atmospheric turbulence,” Radio Sci. 25, 953–959 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Klückers, V. A.

V. A. Klückers, N. L. Wooder, M. A. Adcock, J. C. Dainty, “Results from Scidar observations,” in Image Propagation through the Atmosphere, J. C. Dainty, L. R. Bissonnette, eds., Proc. SPIE2828, 234–243 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Labeyrie, A.

R. Foy, A. Labeyrie, “Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe,” Astron. Astrophys. 152, L29–L31 (1985).

Muñoz-Tuñón, C.

J. Vernin, C. Muñoz-Tuñón, “Optical seeing at La Palma Observatory II—Intensive site testing campaign at the Nordic Optical Telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 284, 311–318 (1994).

Racine, R.

R. Racine, B. L. Ellerbroek, “Profiles of nighttime turbulence above Mauna Kea and isoplanatism extension in adaptive optics,” in Adaptive Optical Systems and Applications, R. K. Tyson, R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE2534, 248–257 (1995).

Rocca, A.

Roddier, F.

A. Rocca, F. Roddier, J. Vernin, “Detection of atmospheric turbulent layers by spatiotemporal and spatioangular correlation measurements of stellar-light scintillation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1000–1004 (1974).
[CrossRef]

F. Roddier, “The effects of atmospheric turbulence in optical astronomy,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1981), Vol. 19, pp. 281–376.
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, U. J.

J. D. Bregman, C. M. de Vos, U. J. Schwartz, “The effects of pupil refocussing on different atmospheric heights,” in High Resolution Imaging by Interferometry II, Proceedings of ESO Conference 39, J. M. Beckers, J. M. Merkle, eds. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1991), pp. 1067–1071.

Tallon, M.

M. Tallon, R. Foy, J. Vernin, “3-D wavefront sensing for multiconjugate adaptive optics,” in Progress in Telescope and Instrumentation Technologies, Proceedings of ESO Conference42, M.-H. Ulrich, ed. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1992), pp. 517–521.

A. Fuchs, M. Tallon, J. Vernin, “Folding-up of the vertical atmospheric turbulence profile using an optical technique of movable observing plane,” in Atmospheric Propagation and Remote Sensing III, W. A. Flood, W. B. Miller, eds., Proc. SPIE2222, 682–692 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vernin, J.

C. E. Coulman, J. Vernin, A. Fuchs, “Optical seeing—mechanism of formation of thin turbulent laminae in the atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5461–5474 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vernin, C. Muñoz-Tuñón, “Optical seeing at La Palma Observatory II—Intensive site testing campaign at the Nordic Optical Telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 284, 311–318 (1994).

J. Vernin, M. Crochet, M. Azouit, O. Ghebrebrhan, “SCIDAR/radar simultaneous meaurements of atmospheric turbulence,” Radio Sci. 25, 953–959 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Caccia, J. Vernin, “Wind fluctuation measurements in the buoyancy range by stellar scintillation analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13683–13690 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Caccia, M. Azouit, J. Vernin, “Wind and CN2 profiling by single-star scintillation analysis,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1288–1294 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vernin, M. Azouit, “Traitement d’image adapté au speckle atmosphérique. II. Analyse multidimensionnelle appliquée au diagnostic à distance de la turbulence,” J. Opt. (Paris) 14, 131–142 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. Rocca, F. Roddier, J. Vernin, “Detection of atmospheric turbulent layers by spatiotemporal and spatioangular correlation measurements of stellar-light scintillation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 1000–1004 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Vernin, “Atmospheric turbulence profiles,” in Wave Propagation in Random Media (Scintillation) - Invited Papers, V. I. Tatarskii, A. Ishimaru, V. U. Zavorotny, eds. SPIE Press, (Bellingham, Wash.1992), pp. 248–260.

A. Fuchs, M. Tallon, J. Vernin, “Folding-up of the vertical atmospheric turbulence profile using an optical technique of movable observing plane,” in Atmospheric Propagation and Remote Sensing III, W. A. Flood, W. B. Miller, eds., Proc. SPIE2222, 682–692 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Tallon, R. Foy, J. Vernin, “3-D wavefront sensing for multiconjugate adaptive optics,” in Progress in Telescope and Instrumentation Technologies, Proceedings of ESO Conference42, M.-H. Ulrich, ed. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1992), pp. 517–521.

Wooder, N. L.

V. A. Klückers, N. L. Wooder, M. A. Adcock, J. C. Dainty, “Results from Scidar observations,” in Image Propagation through the Atmosphere, J. C. Dainty, L. R. Bissonnette, eds., Proc. SPIE2828, 234–243 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Astron. Astrophys. (2)

R. Foy, A. Labeyrie, “Feasibility of adaptive telescope with laser probe,” Astron. Astrophys. 152, L29–L31 (1985).

J. Vernin, C. Muñoz-Tuñón, “Optical seeing at La Palma Observatory II—Intensive site testing campaign at the Nordic Optical Telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 284, 311–318 (1994).

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

J. L. Caccia, J. Vernin, “Wind fluctuation measurements in the buoyancy range by stellar scintillation analysis,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13683–13690 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (Paris) (1)

J. Vernin, M. Azouit, “Traitement d’image adapté au speckle atmosphérique. II. Analyse multidimensionnelle appliquée au diagnostic à distance de la turbulence,” J. Opt. (Paris) 14, 131–142 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Radio Sci. (1)

J. Vernin, M. Crochet, M. Azouit, O. Ghebrebrhan, “SCIDAR/radar simultaneous meaurements of atmospheric turbulence,” Radio Sci. 25, 953–959 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

J. Vernin, “Atmospheric turbulence profiles,” in Wave Propagation in Random Media (Scintillation) - Invited Papers, V. I. Tatarskii, A. Ishimaru, V. U. Zavorotny, eds. SPIE Press, (Bellingham, Wash.1992), pp. 248–260.

R. Racine, B. L. Ellerbroek, “Profiles of nighttime turbulence above Mauna Kea and isoplanatism extension in adaptive optics,” in Adaptive Optical Systems and Applications, R. K. Tyson, R. Q. Fugate, eds., Proc. SPIE2534, 248–257 (1995).

F. Roddier, “The effects of atmospheric turbulence in optical astronomy,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1981), Vol. 19, pp. 281–376.
[CrossRef]

A. Fuchs, M. Tallon, J. Vernin, “Folding-up of the vertical atmospheric turbulence profile using an optical technique of movable observing plane,” in Atmospheric Propagation and Remote Sensing III, W. A. Flood, W. B. Miller, eds., Proc. SPIE2222, 682–692 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Fuchs, “Contribution à l’étude de l’apparition de la turbulence optique dans les couches minces: Concept du SCIDAR généralisé,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université de Nice, Nice, France, 1995).

J. D. Bregman, C. M. de Vos, U. J. Schwartz, “The effects of pupil refocussing on different atmospheric heights,” in High Resolution Imaging by Interferometry II, Proceedings of ESO Conference 39, J. M. Beckers, J. M. Merkle, eds. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1991), pp. 1067–1071.

J. M. Beckers, “Increasing the size of the isoplanatic patch with multiconjugate adaptive optics,” in Very Large Telescopes and their Instrumentation, Proceedings of ESO Conference30, M.-H. Ulrich, ed. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1988), pp. 693–703.

M. Tallon, R. Foy, J. Vernin, “3-D wavefront sensing for multiconjugate adaptive optics,” in Progress in Telescope and Instrumentation Technologies, Proceedings of ESO Conference42, M.-H. Ulrich, ed. (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1992), pp. 517–521.

V. A. Klückers, N. L. Wooder, M. A. Adcock, J. C. Dainty, “Results from Scidar observations,” in Image Propagation through the Atmosphere, J. C. Dainty, L. R. Bissonnette, eds., Proc. SPIE2828, 234–243 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Buscher, “A thousand and one nights of seeing on Mt. Wilson,” in Amplitude and Intensity Spatial Interferometry II, J. B. Breckinridge, ed., Proc. SPIE2200, 407–417 (1994).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Images of 1-ms exposure time (a) focused on the pupil plane and (b) 3.4 km lower obtained on the NOT during observation of the double star Castor (θ = 3.6 arc sec).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Autocorrelation functions Bgs** (x) measured at the WHT with the analysis plane at hgs = 0 (solid curve), hgs = -2 km (dashed curve), hgs = -4 km (dotted–dashed curve), and hgs = -6 km (dotted curve). Squares and circles represent the expected positions of the autocorrelation peaks as hgs varies and CN2 remains constant.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Autocorrelation functions Bgs** (x) measured at the WHT with the analysis plane at four different positions above the pupil (hgs ≥ 0). For clarity we determined the values of Bgs** (x) for each curve by subtracting 0.01n to read values, where n is the integer associated with each plot. Dotted lines represent Bgs** (x) = 0 for each curve.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

CN2 (h) profiles retrieved from the autocorrelation functions shown in Fig. 2 as a function of the altitude above sea level. The dashed horizontal line represents the observatory altitude. The CN2 values for each plot were obtained by dividing read values by 103n, where n is the integer associated with each plot.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Average of 10 CN2 (h) profiles obtained at the NOT within 10 min with the analysis plane at hgs = -3.4 km. The dashed line represents the observatory altitude.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Contribution to the seeing of the turbulence NG and FA. Diamonds, lozenges, and stars represent NG seeing (dome and boundary layer), FA seeing, and total seeing, respectively, calculated from the available CN2 (h) profiles measured with the generalized scidar. Each frame corresponds to a night. Abscissa display decimal time. When greater than 24 h it corresponds to the following date. Data in (a) and (b) were recorded at the NOT and data in (c) and (d) at the WHT. Solid curves represent simultaneous IAC DIMM seeing measurements.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison between CN2 (h) profiles obtained with the generalized scidar (stars) and the balloon sounding (solid curve). The balloon was launched at 1:30 UT on 9 November 1995, and the generalized scidar measurement was calculated 1 h later. The balloon profile was convolved (see text).

Equations (6)

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B**xC**-C**=0+dhKx, h CN2h+Nx.
d=θh-hgs.
Bgs**x=B 0+dhKx, h-hgs CN2h+Nx.
Bgs**x=B -hgs+dhKx, hCN2h-hgs+Nx.
ΔH=h-hgsθ=0.5θλh-hgs1/2,
=5.25λ-1/5dhCN2h3/5.

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