Abstract

In view of a possible application in optical limiting devices for protection against laser radiation, at the Defence Research Establishment Valcartier we have studied the nonlinear transmission properties of fullerenes. The study involved C60, C70, C76, C84, several derivatives of C60, and a variety of solvents. The nonlinear measurements were made with 7-ns pulses at 532 nm from a N-d:YAG laser. For optical limiting applications, solutions of C60 yielded better results than the other fullerenes, with a solution of C60 in chlorobenzene being marginally the best.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. L. W. Tutt, T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semi-conductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299–338 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. J. Soileau, ed. Nonlinear Optical Materials for Switching and Limiting, Proc. SPIE2229 (1994).
  3. R. Crane, K. Lewis, E. Van Stryland, M. Koshnevisan, eds., Materials for Optical Limiting, Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. 374, (1995).
  4. D. G. McLean, D. M. Brandelik, M. C. Brant, R. L. Sutherland, L. Frock, “Solvent effects on C60 excited state cross sections,” Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. 374, 293–298 (1995);D. M. Brandelik, D. G. McLean, M. C. Brant, R. L. Sutherland, L. R. Frock, R. L. Crane, “Complex formations in C60 solutions,” Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. 374, 299–304 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Kost, J. E. Jensen, M. B. Klein, S. W. McCahon, M. B. Haeri, M. E. Ehritz, “Optical limiting with C60 solutions,” in Nonlinear Optical Materials for Switching and Limiting, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2229, 78–90 (1994);P. J. Hood, B. P. Edmonds, D. G. McLean, D. M. Brandelik, “Comparison of optical power limiting in carbon-black suspensions, C60 in toluene and C60 in chloronaphthalene at 694 nm,” in Nonlinear Optical Materials for Switching and Limiting, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE2229, 91–99 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, M. P. Joshim, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, “Optical limiting in C60 and C70 solutions,” in Fullerenes and Photonics, Z. H. Kafafi, ed., Proc. SPIE2284, 220–229 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. P. Joshi, S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, “Investigation of optical limiting in C60 solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1763–1765 (1993); Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2578(E) (1993).
  8. D. G. McLean, R. L. Sutherland, M. C. Brant, D. M. Brandelik, P. A. Fleitz, T. Pottenger, “Nonlinear absorption study of a C60-toluene solution,” Opt. Lett. 18, 858–860 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Taylor, D. R. M. Walton, “The chemistry of fullerenes,” Nature (London) 363, 685–693 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Diederich, C. Thilgen, “Covalent fullerene chemistry,” Science 271, 317–323 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Averdung, J. Mattay, “Exohedral functionalization of [60]fullerene by [3 + 2] cycloadditions: syntheses and chemical properties of triazolino-[60]fullerenes and 1,2-(3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrrolo)-[60]fullerenes,” Tetrahedron. 52, 5407–5420 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. R. Wilson, Qingyi Lu, Jingrong Cao, Yunhui Wu, C. J. Welch, D. I. Schuster, “Chiral non-racemic C60 derivatives: a proposed sector rule for fullerene absolute configuration,” Tetrahedron. 52, 5131–5142 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. W. Tutt, A. Kost, “Optical limiting performance of C60 and C70 solutions,” Nature (London) 356, 225–226 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. S. Ruoff, D. S. Tse, R. Malhotra, D. C. Lorents, “Solubility of C60 in a variety of solvents,” J. Phys. Chem. 97, 3379–3383 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Kost, J. E. Jensen, M. B. Klein, J. C. Withers, R. O. Loufty, “Fullerene-based large-area passive broadband laser filters,” in Fullerenes and Photonics, Z. H. Kafafi, ed., Proc. SPIE2284, 208–219 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, M. P. Joshi, S. C. Mehendale, “The role of non-linear scattering in optical limiting in C60 solutions,” J. Phys. B 27, L157–L163 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

1996

F. Diederich, C. Thilgen, “Covalent fullerene chemistry,” Science 271, 317–323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Averdung, J. Mattay, “Exohedral functionalization of [60]fullerene by [3 + 2] cycloadditions: syntheses and chemical properties of triazolino-[60]fullerenes and 1,2-(3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrrolo)-[60]fullerenes,” Tetrahedron. 52, 5407–5420 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Wilson, Qingyi Lu, Jingrong Cao, Yunhui Wu, C. J. Welch, D. I. Schuster, “Chiral non-racemic C60 derivatives: a proposed sector rule for fullerene absolute configuration,” Tetrahedron. 52, 5131–5142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

R. Crane, K. Lewis, E. Van Stryland, M. Koshnevisan, eds., Materials for Optical Limiting, Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. 374, (1995).

D. G. McLean, D. M. Brandelik, M. C. Brant, R. L. Sutherland, L. Frock, “Solvent effects on C60 excited state cross sections,” Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. 374, 293–298 (1995);D. M. Brandelik, D. G. McLean, M. C. Brant, R. L. Sutherland, L. R. Frock, R. L. Crane, “Complex formations in C60 solutions,” Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. 374, 299–304 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, M. P. Joshi, S. C. Mehendale, “The role of non-linear scattering in optical limiting in C60 solutions,” J. Phys. B 27, L157–L163 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

L. W. Tutt, T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semi-conductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299–338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Ruoff, D. S. Tse, R. Malhotra, D. C. Lorents, “Solubility of C60 in a variety of solvents,” J. Phys. Chem. 97, 3379–3383 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Joshi, S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, “Investigation of optical limiting in C60 solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1763–1765 (1993); Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2578(E) (1993).

D. G. McLean, R. L. Sutherland, M. C. Brant, D. M. Brandelik, P. A. Fleitz, T. Pottenger, “Nonlinear absorption study of a C60-toluene solution,” Opt. Lett. 18, 858–860 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Taylor, D. R. M. Walton, “The chemistry of fullerenes,” Nature (London) 363, 685–693 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

L. W. Tutt, A. Kost, “Optical limiting performance of C60 and C70 solutions,” Nature (London) 356, 225–226 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Averdung, J.

J. Averdung, J. Mattay, “Exohedral functionalization of [60]fullerene by [3 + 2] cycloadditions: syntheses and chemical properties of triazolino-[60]fullerenes and 1,2-(3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrrolo)-[60]fullerenes,” Tetrahedron. 52, 5407–5420 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Boggess, T. F.

L. W. Tutt, T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semi-conductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299–338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brandelik, D. M.

D. G. McLean, D. M. Brandelik, M. C. Brant, R. L. Sutherland, L. Frock, “Solvent effects on C60 excited state cross sections,” Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. 374, 293–298 (1995);D. M. Brandelik, D. G. McLean, M. C. Brant, R. L. Sutherland, L. R. Frock, R. L. Crane, “Complex formations in C60 solutions,” Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. 374, 299–304 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. G. McLean, R. L. Sutherland, M. C. Brant, D. M. Brandelik, P. A. Fleitz, T. Pottenger, “Nonlinear absorption study of a C60-toluene solution,” Opt. Lett. 18, 858–860 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brant, M. C.

D. G. McLean, D. M. Brandelik, M. C. Brant, R. L. Sutherland, L. Frock, “Solvent effects on C60 excited state cross sections,” Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. 374, 293–298 (1995);D. M. Brandelik, D. G. McLean, M. C. Brant, R. L. Sutherland, L. R. Frock, R. L. Crane, “Complex formations in C60 solutions,” Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. 374, 299–304 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. G. McLean, R. L. Sutherland, M. C. Brant, D. M. Brandelik, P. A. Fleitz, T. Pottenger, “Nonlinear absorption study of a C60-toluene solution,” Opt. Lett. 18, 858–860 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Jingrong

S. R. Wilson, Qingyi Lu, Jingrong Cao, Yunhui Wu, C. J. Welch, D. I. Schuster, “Chiral non-racemic C60 derivatives: a proposed sector rule for fullerene absolute configuration,” Tetrahedron. 52, 5131–5142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Diederich, F.

F. Diederich, C. Thilgen, “Covalent fullerene chemistry,” Science 271, 317–323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ehritz, M. E.

A. Kost, J. E. Jensen, M. B. Klein, S. W. McCahon, M. B. Haeri, M. E. Ehritz, “Optical limiting with C60 solutions,” in Nonlinear Optical Materials for Switching and Limiting, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2229, 78–90 (1994);P. J. Hood, B. P. Edmonds, D. G. McLean, D. M. Brandelik, “Comparison of optical power limiting in carbon-black suspensions, C60 in toluene and C60 in chloronaphthalene at 694 nm,” in Nonlinear Optical Materials for Switching and Limiting, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE2229, 91–99 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fleitz, P. A.

Frock, L.

D. G. McLean, D. M. Brandelik, M. C. Brant, R. L. Sutherland, L. Frock, “Solvent effects on C60 excited state cross sections,” Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. 374, 293–298 (1995);D. M. Brandelik, D. G. McLean, M. C. Brant, R. L. Sutherland, L. R. Frock, R. L. Crane, “Complex formations in C60 solutions,” Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. 374, 299–304 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Haeri, M. B.

A. Kost, J. E. Jensen, M. B. Klein, S. W. McCahon, M. B. Haeri, M. E. Ehritz, “Optical limiting with C60 solutions,” in Nonlinear Optical Materials for Switching and Limiting, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2229, 78–90 (1994);P. J. Hood, B. P. Edmonds, D. G. McLean, D. M. Brandelik, “Comparison of optical power limiting in carbon-black suspensions, C60 in toluene and C60 in chloronaphthalene at 694 nm,” in Nonlinear Optical Materials for Switching and Limiting, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE2229, 91–99 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, J. E.

A. Kost, J. E. Jensen, M. B. Klein, S. W. McCahon, M. B. Haeri, M. E. Ehritz, “Optical limiting with C60 solutions,” in Nonlinear Optical Materials for Switching and Limiting, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2229, 78–90 (1994);P. J. Hood, B. P. Edmonds, D. G. McLean, D. M. Brandelik, “Comparison of optical power limiting in carbon-black suspensions, C60 in toluene and C60 in chloronaphthalene at 694 nm,” in Nonlinear Optical Materials for Switching and Limiting, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE2229, 91–99 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Kost, J. E. Jensen, M. B. Klein, J. C. Withers, R. O. Loufty, “Fullerene-based large-area passive broadband laser filters,” in Fullerenes and Photonics, Z. H. Kafafi, ed., Proc. SPIE2284, 208–219 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Joshi, M. P.

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, M. P. Joshi, S. C. Mehendale, “The role of non-linear scattering in optical limiting in C60 solutions,” J. Phys. B 27, L157–L163 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Joshi, S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, “Investigation of optical limiting in C60 solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1763–1765 (1993); Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2578(E) (1993).

Joshim, M. P.

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, M. P. Joshim, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, “Optical limiting in C60 and C70 solutions,” in Fullerenes and Photonics, Z. H. Kafafi, ed., Proc. SPIE2284, 220–229 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Klein, M. B.

A. Kost, J. E. Jensen, M. B. Klein, S. W. McCahon, M. B. Haeri, M. E. Ehritz, “Optical limiting with C60 solutions,” in Nonlinear Optical Materials for Switching and Limiting, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2229, 78–90 (1994);P. J. Hood, B. P. Edmonds, D. G. McLean, D. M. Brandelik, “Comparison of optical power limiting in carbon-black suspensions, C60 in toluene and C60 in chloronaphthalene at 694 nm,” in Nonlinear Optical Materials for Switching and Limiting, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE2229, 91–99 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Kost, J. E. Jensen, M. B. Klein, J. C. Withers, R. O. Loufty, “Fullerene-based large-area passive broadband laser filters,” in Fullerenes and Photonics, Z. H. Kafafi, ed., Proc. SPIE2284, 208–219 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kost, A.

L. W. Tutt, A. Kost, “Optical limiting performance of C60 and C70 solutions,” Nature (London) 356, 225–226 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Kost, J. E. Jensen, M. B. Klein, J. C. Withers, R. O. Loufty, “Fullerene-based large-area passive broadband laser filters,” in Fullerenes and Photonics, Z. H. Kafafi, ed., Proc. SPIE2284, 208–219 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Kost, J. E. Jensen, M. B. Klein, S. W. McCahon, M. B. Haeri, M. E. Ehritz, “Optical limiting with C60 solutions,” in Nonlinear Optical Materials for Switching and Limiting, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2229, 78–90 (1994);P. J. Hood, B. P. Edmonds, D. G. McLean, D. M. Brandelik, “Comparison of optical power limiting in carbon-black suspensions, C60 in toluene and C60 in chloronaphthalene at 694 nm,” in Nonlinear Optical Materials for Switching and Limiting, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE2229, 91–99 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lorents, D. C.

R. S. Ruoff, D. S. Tse, R. Malhotra, D. C. Lorents, “Solubility of C60 in a variety of solvents,” J. Phys. Chem. 97, 3379–3383 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Loufty, R. O.

A. Kost, J. E. Jensen, M. B. Klein, J. C. Withers, R. O. Loufty, “Fullerene-based large-area passive broadband laser filters,” in Fullerenes and Photonics, Z. H. Kafafi, ed., Proc. SPIE2284, 208–219 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Qingyi

S. R. Wilson, Qingyi Lu, Jingrong Cao, Yunhui Wu, C. J. Welch, D. I. Schuster, “Chiral non-racemic C60 derivatives: a proposed sector rule for fullerene absolute configuration,” Tetrahedron. 52, 5131–5142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Malhotra, R.

R. S. Ruoff, D. S. Tse, R. Malhotra, D. C. Lorents, “Solubility of C60 in a variety of solvents,” J. Phys. Chem. 97, 3379–3383 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mattay, J.

J. Averdung, J. Mattay, “Exohedral functionalization of [60]fullerene by [3 + 2] cycloadditions: syntheses and chemical properties of triazolino-[60]fullerenes and 1,2-(3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrrolo)-[60]fullerenes,” Tetrahedron. 52, 5407–5420 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McCahon, S. W.

A. Kost, J. E. Jensen, M. B. Klein, S. W. McCahon, M. B. Haeri, M. E. Ehritz, “Optical limiting with C60 solutions,” in Nonlinear Optical Materials for Switching and Limiting, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2229, 78–90 (1994);P. J. Hood, B. P. Edmonds, D. G. McLean, D. M. Brandelik, “Comparison of optical power limiting in carbon-black suspensions, C60 in toluene and C60 in chloronaphthalene at 694 nm,” in Nonlinear Optical Materials for Switching and Limiting, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE2229, 91–99 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McLean, D. G.

D. G. McLean, D. M. Brandelik, M. C. Brant, R. L. Sutherland, L. Frock, “Solvent effects on C60 excited state cross sections,” Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. 374, 293–298 (1995);D. M. Brandelik, D. G. McLean, M. C. Brant, R. L. Sutherland, L. R. Frock, R. L. Crane, “Complex formations in C60 solutions,” Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. 374, 299–304 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. G. McLean, R. L. Sutherland, M. C. Brant, D. M. Brandelik, P. A. Fleitz, T. Pottenger, “Nonlinear absorption study of a C60-toluene solution,” Opt. Lett. 18, 858–860 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mehendale, S. C.

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, M. P. Joshi, S. C. Mehendale, “The role of non-linear scattering in optical limiting in C60 solutions,” J. Phys. B 27, L157–L163 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Joshi, S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, “Investigation of optical limiting in C60 solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1763–1765 (1993); Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2578(E) (1993).

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, M. P. Joshim, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, “Optical limiting in C60 and C70 solutions,” in Fullerenes and Photonics, Z. H. Kafafi, ed., Proc. SPIE2284, 220–229 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, S. R.

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, M. P. Joshi, S. C. Mehendale, “The role of non-linear scattering in optical limiting in C60 solutions,” J. Phys. B 27, L157–L163 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Joshi, S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, “Investigation of optical limiting in C60 solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1763–1765 (1993); Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2578(E) (1993).

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, M. P. Joshim, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, “Optical limiting in C60 and C70 solutions,” in Fullerenes and Photonics, Z. H. Kafafi, ed., Proc. SPIE2284, 220–229 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pottenger, T.

Rawat, H. S.

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, M. P. Joshi, S. C. Mehendale, “The role of non-linear scattering in optical limiting in C60 solutions,” J. Phys. B 27, L157–L163 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Joshi, S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, “Investigation of optical limiting in C60 solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1763–1765 (1993); Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2578(E) (1993).

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, M. P. Joshim, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, “Optical limiting in C60 and C70 solutions,” in Fullerenes and Photonics, Z. H. Kafafi, ed., Proc. SPIE2284, 220–229 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ruoff, R. S.

R. S. Ruoff, D. S. Tse, R. Malhotra, D. C. Lorents, “Solubility of C60 in a variety of solvents,” J. Phys. Chem. 97, 3379–3383 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rustagi, K. C.

M. P. Joshi, S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, “Investigation of optical limiting in C60 solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1763–1765 (1993); Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2578(E) (1993).

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, M. P. Joshim, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, “Optical limiting in C60 and C70 solutions,” in Fullerenes and Photonics, Z. H. Kafafi, ed., Proc. SPIE2284, 220–229 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schuster, D. I.

S. R. Wilson, Qingyi Lu, Jingrong Cao, Yunhui Wu, C. J. Welch, D. I. Schuster, “Chiral non-racemic C60 derivatives: a proposed sector rule for fullerene absolute configuration,” Tetrahedron. 52, 5131–5142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, R. L.

D. G. McLean, D. M. Brandelik, M. C. Brant, R. L. Sutherland, L. Frock, “Solvent effects on C60 excited state cross sections,” Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. 374, 293–298 (1995);D. M. Brandelik, D. G. McLean, M. C. Brant, R. L. Sutherland, L. R. Frock, R. L. Crane, “Complex formations in C60 solutions,” Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. 374, 299–304 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. G. McLean, R. L. Sutherland, M. C. Brant, D. M. Brandelik, P. A. Fleitz, T. Pottenger, “Nonlinear absorption study of a C60-toluene solution,” Opt. Lett. 18, 858–860 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R.

R. Taylor, D. R. M. Walton, “The chemistry of fullerenes,” Nature (London) 363, 685–693 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Thilgen, C.

F. Diederich, C. Thilgen, “Covalent fullerene chemistry,” Science 271, 317–323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tse, D. S.

R. S. Ruoff, D. S. Tse, R. Malhotra, D. C. Lorents, “Solubility of C60 in a variety of solvents,” J. Phys. Chem. 97, 3379–3383 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tutt, L. W.

L. W. Tutt, T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semi-conductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299–338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Tutt, A. Kost, “Optical limiting performance of C60 and C70 solutions,” Nature (London) 356, 225–226 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Walton, D. R. M.

R. Taylor, D. R. M. Walton, “The chemistry of fullerenes,” Nature (London) 363, 685–693 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Welch, C. J.

S. R. Wilson, Qingyi Lu, Jingrong Cao, Yunhui Wu, C. J. Welch, D. I. Schuster, “Chiral non-racemic C60 derivatives: a proposed sector rule for fullerene absolute configuration,” Tetrahedron. 52, 5131–5142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, S. R.

S. R. Wilson, Qingyi Lu, Jingrong Cao, Yunhui Wu, C. J. Welch, D. I. Schuster, “Chiral non-racemic C60 derivatives: a proposed sector rule for fullerene absolute configuration,” Tetrahedron. 52, 5131–5142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Withers, J. C.

A. Kost, J. E. Jensen, M. B. Klein, J. C. Withers, R. O. Loufty, “Fullerene-based large-area passive broadband laser filters,” in Fullerenes and Photonics, Z. H. Kafafi, ed., Proc. SPIE2284, 208–219 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Yunhui

S. R. Wilson, Qingyi Lu, Jingrong Cao, Yunhui Wu, C. J. Welch, D. I. Schuster, “Chiral non-racemic C60 derivatives: a proposed sector rule for fullerene absolute configuration,” Tetrahedron. 52, 5131–5142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. P. Joshi, S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, “Investigation of optical limiting in C60 solution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1763–1765 (1993); Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2578(E) (1993).

J. Phys. B

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, M. P. Joshi, S. C. Mehendale, “The role of non-linear scattering in optical limiting in C60 solutions,” J. Phys. B 27, L157–L163 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem.

R. S. Ruoff, D. S. Tse, R. Malhotra, D. C. Lorents, “Solubility of C60 in a variety of solvents,” J. Phys. Chem. 97, 3379–3383 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London)

L. W. Tutt, A. Kost, “Optical limiting performance of C60 and C70 solutions,” Nature (London) 356, 225–226 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Taylor, D. R. M. Walton, “The chemistry of fullerenes,” Nature (London) 363, 685–693 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Mat. Res. Soc.

R. Crane, K. Lewis, E. Van Stryland, M. Koshnevisan, eds., Materials for Optical Limiting, Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. 374, (1995).

D. G. McLean, D. M. Brandelik, M. C. Brant, R. L. Sutherland, L. Frock, “Solvent effects on C60 excited state cross sections,” Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. 374, 293–298 (1995);D. M. Brandelik, D. G. McLean, M. C. Brant, R. L. Sutherland, L. R. Frock, R. L. Crane, “Complex formations in C60 solutions,” Proc. Mat. Res. Soc. 374, 299–304 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron.

L. W. Tutt, T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semi-conductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299–338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Science

F. Diederich, C. Thilgen, “Covalent fullerene chemistry,” Science 271, 317–323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tetrahedron.

J. Averdung, J. Mattay, “Exohedral functionalization of [60]fullerene by [3 + 2] cycloadditions: syntheses and chemical properties of triazolino-[60]fullerenes and 1,2-(3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrrolo)-[60]fullerenes,” Tetrahedron. 52, 5407–5420 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Wilson, Qingyi Lu, Jingrong Cao, Yunhui Wu, C. J. Welch, D. I. Schuster, “Chiral non-racemic C60 derivatives: a proposed sector rule for fullerene absolute configuration,” Tetrahedron. 52, 5131–5142 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Kost, J. E. Jensen, M. B. Klein, J. C. Withers, R. O. Loufty, “Fullerene-based large-area passive broadband laser filters,” in Fullerenes and Photonics, Z. H. Kafafi, ed., Proc. SPIE2284, 208–219 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Soileau, ed. Nonlinear Optical Materials for Switching and Limiting, Proc. SPIE2229 (1994).

A. Kost, J. E. Jensen, M. B. Klein, S. W. McCahon, M. B. Haeri, M. E. Ehritz, “Optical limiting with C60 solutions,” in Nonlinear Optical Materials for Switching and Limiting, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE2229, 78–90 (1994);P. J. Hood, B. P. Edmonds, D. G. McLean, D. M. Brandelik, “Comparison of optical power limiting in carbon-black suspensions, C60 in toluene and C60 in chloronaphthalene at 694 nm,” in Nonlinear Optical Materials for Switching and Limiting, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE2229, 91–99 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, M. P. Joshim, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, “Optical limiting in C60 and C70 solutions,” in Fullerenes and Photonics, Z. H. Kafafi, ed., Proc. SPIE2284, 220–229 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison of the clamping levels of CBS and C60; the curve labeled C60 was with toluene used as the solvent. The other points are for C60 in the solvents: a, chlorobenzene; b, toluene; c, 1,2,4,trichlorobenzene; d, cumene; e, tetrachloroethylene; f, 1,2,3,5,tetramethylbenzene; g, 1,methylnaphthalene.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Structures and commercial names provided by MER Corporation for the C60 derivatives.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Laser measurement system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Limiting by C60 in various solvents: a, chlorobenzene; b, toluene; c, 1,2,4,trichlorobenzene; d, cumene; e, tetrachloroethylene; f, 1,2,3,5,tetramethylbenzene; g, 1,methylnaphthalene.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Limiting by various fullerenes in chlorobenzene.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Limiting by C60 derivatives.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Observations of the Cells

Metrics