Abstract

The luminescence of silver bromide crystals doped with praseodymium and erbium ions was investigated over the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. The emission, excitation, and absorption spectra, as well as kinetic parameters, were measured over a broad temperature range. The Judd–Ofelt analysis was used to calculate transition rates, branching ratios, and luminescence quantum efficiencies of rare-earth doped crystals. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results was obtained.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals, 2nd ed., Vol. 14 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences, D. L. MacAam, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990).
  2. F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levine, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, A. Katzir, “Research and development on silver halide fibers at Tel Aviv University,” in Infrared Fiber Optics, J. A. Harrington, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. SPIE1228, 28–39 (1990).
  3. J. P. Spoonhower, C. A. Hamer, “Radiative recombination in iridium-doped silver bromide single crystals,” J. Lumin. 28, 191–201 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. P. Spoonhower, M. S. Burberry, S. M. Baxter, “Infrared radiative recombination in Rh3+-doped AgBr,” Solid State Commun. 59, 843–849 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Bunimovich, L. Nagli, A. Katzir, “IR luminescence of Ni-doped silver bromide crystals,” J. Lumin. 65, 41–44 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Bunimovich, L. Nagli, A. Katzir, “IR luminescence of neodymium-doped silver bromide crystals,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2417–2419 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Bunimovich, L. Nagli, A. Katzir, “Optical characterization of Nd3+:AgBr,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7712–7717 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. J. Weber, “Spontaneous emission probabilities and quantum efficiencies for excited states of Pr3+ in LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys. 48, 4774–4780 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. J. Weber, “Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3,” Phys. Rev. 157, 262–272 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. A. Riseberg, M. J. Weber, “Relaxation phenomena in rare-earth luminescence,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1977), Vol. 14, pp. 89–159.
    [CrossRef]

1997

1995

D. Bunimovich, L. Nagli, A. Katzir, “IR luminescence of neodymium-doped silver bromide crystals,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2417–2419 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Bunimovich, L. Nagli, A. Katzir, “IR luminescence of Ni-doped silver bromide crystals,” J. Lumin. 65, 41–44 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1986

J. P. Spoonhower, M. S. Burberry, S. M. Baxter, “Infrared radiative recombination in Rh3+-doped AgBr,” Solid State Commun. 59, 843–849 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983

J. P. Spoonhower, C. A. Hamer, “Radiative recombination in iridium-doped silver bromide single crystals,” J. Lumin. 28, 191–201 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1968

M. J. Weber, “Spontaneous emission probabilities and quantum efficiencies for excited states of Pr3+ in LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys. 48, 4774–4780 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967

M. J. Weber, “Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3,” Phys. Rev. 157, 262–272 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1962

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Barkay, N.

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levine, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, A. Katzir, “Research and development on silver halide fibers at Tel Aviv University,” in Infrared Fiber Optics, J. A. Harrington, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. SPIE1228, 28–39 (1990).

Baxter, S. M.

J. P. Spoonhower, M. S. Burberry, S. M. Baxter, “Infrared radiative recombination in Rh3+-doped AgBr,” Solid State Commun. 59, 843–849 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bunimovich, D.

Burberry, M. S.

J. P. Spoonhower, M. S. Burberry, S. M. Baxter, “Infrared radiative recombination in Rh3+-doped AgBr,” Solid State Commun. 59, 843–849 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hamer, C. A.

J. P. Spoonhower, C. A. Hamer, “Radiative recombination in iridium-doped silver bromide single crystals,” J. Lumin. 28, 191–201 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Judd, B. R.

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Kaminskii, A. A.

A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals, 2nd ed., Vol. 14 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences, D. L. MacAam, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990).

Katzir, A.

D. Bunimovich, L. Nagli, A. Katzir, “Optical characterization of Nd3+:AgBr,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7712–7717 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Bunimovich, L. Nagli, A. Katzir, “IR luminescence of Ni-doped silver bromide crystals,” J. Lumin. 65, 41–44 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Bunimovich, L. Nagli, A. Katzir, “IR luminescence of neodymium-doped silver bromide crystals,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2417–2419 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levine, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, A. Katzir, “Research and development on silver halide fibers at Tel Aviv University,” in Infrared Fiber Optics, J. A. Harrington, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. SPIE1228, 28–39 (1990).

Levine, A.

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levine, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, A. Katzir, “Research and development on silver halide fibers at Tel Aviv University,” in Infrared Fiber Optics, J. A. Harrington, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. SPIE1228, 28–39 (1990).

Margalit, E.

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levine, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, A. Katzir, “Research and development on silver halide fibers at Tel Aviv University,” in Infrared Fiber Optics, J. A. Harrington, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. SPIE1228, 28–39 (1990).

Moser, F.

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levine, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, A. Katzir, “Research and development on silver halide fibers at Tel Aviv University,” in Infrared Fiber Optics, J. A. Harrington, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. SPIE1228, 28–39 (1990).

Nagli, L.

Ofelt, G. S.

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Paiss, I.

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levine, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, A. Katzir, “Research and development on silver halide fibers at Tel Aviv University,” in Infrared Fiber Optics, J. A. Harrington, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. SPIE1228, 28–39 (1990).

Riseberg, L. A.

L. A. Riseberg, M. J. Weber, “Relaxation phenomena in rare-earth luminescence,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1977), Vol. 14, pp. 89–159.
[CrossRef]

Sa’ar, A.

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levine, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, A. Katzir, “Research and development on silver halide fibers at Tel Aviv University,” in Infrared Fiber Optics, J. A. Harrington, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. SPIE1228, 28–39 (1990).

Schnitzer, I.

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levine, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, A. Katzir, “Research and development on silver halide fibers at Tel Aviv University,” in Infrared Fiber Optics, J. A. Harrington, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. SPIE1228, 28–39 (1990).

Spoonhower, J. P.

J. P. Spoonhower, M. S. Burberry, S. M. Baxter, “Infrared radiative recombination in Rh3+-doped AgBr,” Solid State Commun. 59, 843–849 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Spoonhower, C. A. Hamer, “Radiative recombination in iridium-doped silver bromide single crystals,” J. Lumin. 28, 191–201 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, “Spontaneous emission probabilities and quantum efficiencies for excited states of Pr3+ in LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys. 48, 4774–4780 (1968).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Weber, “Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3,” Phys. Rev. 157, 262–272 (1967).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Riseberg, M. J. Weber, “Relaxation phenomena in rare-earth luminescence,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1977), Vol. 14, pp. 89–159.
[CrossRef]

Zur, A.

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levine, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, A. Katzir, “Research and development on silver halide fibers at Tel Aviv University,” in Infrared Fiber Optics, J. A. Harrington, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. SPIE1228, 28–39 (1990).

Appl. Opt.

J. Chem. Phys.

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Weber, “Spontaneous emission probabilities and quantum efficiencies for excited states of Pr3+ in LaF3,” J. Chem. Phys. 48, 4774–4780 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin.

J. P. Spoonhower, C. A. Hamer, “Radiative recombination in iridium-doped silver bromide single crystals,” J. Lumin. 28, 191–201 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. Bunimovich, L. Nagli, A. Katzir, “IR luminescence of Ni-doped silver bromide crystals,” J. Lumin. 65, 41–44 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev.

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Weber, “Probabilities for radiative and nonradiative decay of Er3+ in LaF3,” Phys. Rev. 157, 262–272 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun.

J. P. Spoonhower, M. S. Burberry, S. M. Baxter, “Infrared radiative recombination in Rh3+-doped AgBr,” Solid State Commun. 59, 843–849 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals, 2nd ed., Vol. 14 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences, D. L. MacAam, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1990).

F. Moser, N. Barkay, A. Levine, E. Margalit, I. Paiss, A. Sa’ar, I. Schnitzer, A. Zur, A. Katzir, “Research and development on silver halide fibers at Tel Aviv University,” in Infrared Fiber Optics, J. A. Harrington, A. Katzir, eds., Proc. SPIE1228, 28–39 (1990).

L. A. Riseberg, M. J. Weber, “Relaxation phenomena in rare-earth luminescence,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1977), Vol. 14, pp. 89–159.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Room temperature luminescence spectra of (a) Pr:AgBr crystal with 1 × 1019-cm-3 Pr3+ ions and (b) Er:AgBr crystal with 1 × 1020-cm-3 Er 3+ ions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Luminescence spectra at 20 K of (a) Pr:AgBr crystal with 1 × 1020-cm-3 Pr3+ ions and (b) Er:AgBr crystal with 1 × 1020-cm-3 Er3+ ions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temperature dependence of the relative emission intensity I/I0 of the Pr-doped AgBr crystal. The circles represent experimental values and the solid curve represents the best fit to the Arrhenius equation.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Absorption Transition Intensities

Tables Icon

Table 3 Transition Rates, Branching Ratios, and Quantum Efficiencies

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