Abstract

Recently, polymeric multimode optical waveguides have been widely studied for low-cost interconnection use. We describe fabrication processes for a low-loss poly(methyl methacrylate) (less than 0.1 dB/cm at 675 nm) waveguide based on the reactive-ion-etching technique and for a slope (45° mirror face) formed on the waveguide. To obtain a ridge core with a crack-free and extremely smooth surface, we applied a heating process at a temperature greater than the glass transition point and a smoothening process by solvent. Furthermore, to fabricate simultaneously both vertical and sloped sidewalls, we applied a unique phenomenon in the process that decreases the etching rate directly under a narrow opening of etching mask. By using the above fabrication techniques, we demonstrated an out-of-plane branching mirror.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Kagami, H. Ito, T. I. Chikawa, S. Kato, M. Matsuda, N. Takahashi, “Fabrication of large-core, high-Δ optical waveguides in polymers,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1041–1046 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Neyer, T. Knoche, L. Muller, “Fabrication of low loss polymer waveguides using injection molding technology,” Electron. Lett. 29, 399–401 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Yoshimura, H. Nakagome, S. Tomaru, S. Imamura, “Fabrication of single-mode polymeric optical waveguides by laser-beam writing,” Electron. Lett. 31, 2169–2171 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. L. Booth, “Optical interconnection polymers,” in Polymers for Lightwave and Integrated Optics: Technology and Applications, L. A. Hornak, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1992), pp. 231–286.
  5. Y. Liu, J. Bristow, T. Marta, S. Bounnak, K. Johnson, “Polymer waveguide applications in multichip modules (MCMs) and board level optical interconnects,” in Organic Thin Films, Vol. 21 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 14.
  6. D. Chin, S. H. Dhong, G. J. Long, “Structural effects on a submicron trench process,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 132, 1705–1707 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Hamamoto, S. Sugou, K. Komatsu, M. Kitamura, “Extremely low loss 4 × 4 GaAs/AlGaAs optical matrix switch,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1580–1582 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. J. Mogab, H. J. Levinstein, “Anisotropic plasma etching of polysilicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 17, 721–730 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Yamada, M. Kawachi, M. Yasu, M. Kobayashi, “Optical-fibre coupling to high-silica channel waveguides with fibre-guiding grooves,” Electron. Lett. 20, 313–314 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. J. Rooks, H. Roussell, L. M. Johnson, “Polyimide optical waveguides fabricated with electron beam lithography,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3880–3882 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Suzuki, M. Kawachi, “Planar lightwave circuits based on silica waveguides on silicon,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. J77-C-I, 184–193 (1994).
  12. T. Kaino, “Polymer optical fibers,” in Polymers for Lightwave and Integrated Optics: Technology and Applications, L. A. Hornak, ed. (Marcell Dekker, New York, 1992), pp. 1–38.

1995

R. Yoshimura, H. Nakagome, S. Tomaru, S. Imamura, “Fabrication of single-mode polymeric optical waveguides by laser-beam writing,” Electron. Lett. 31, 2169–2171 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Kagami, H. Ito, T. I. Chikawa, S. Kato, M. Matsuda, N. Takahashi, “Fabrication of large-core, high-Δ optical waveguides in polymers,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1041–1046 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

S. Suzuki, M. Kawachi, “Planar lightwave circuits based on silica waveguides on silicon,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. J77-C-I, 184–193 (1994).

1993

A. Neyer, T. Knoche, L. Muller, “Fabrication of low loss polymer waveguides using injection molding technology,” Electron. Lett. 29, 399–401 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Hamamoto, S. Sugou, K. Komatsu, M. Kitamura, “Extremely low loss 4 × 4 GaAs/AlGaAs optical matrix switch,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1580–1582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

1985

D. Chin, S. H. Dhong, G. J. Long, “Structural effects on a submicron trench process,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 132, 1705–1707 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

Y. Yamada, M. Kawachi, M. Yasu, M. Kobayashi, “Optical-fibre coupling to high-silica channel waveguides with fibre-guiding grooves,” Electron. Lett. 20, 313–314 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1980

C. J. Mogab, H. J. Levinstein, “Anisotropic plasma etching of polysilicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 17, 721–730 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Booth, B. L.

B. L. Booth, “Optical interconnection polymers,” in Polymers for Lightwave and Integrated Optics: Technology and Applications, L. A. Hornak, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1992), pp. 231–286.

Bounnak, S.

Y. Liu, J. Bristow, T. Marta, S. Bounnak, K. Johnson, “Polymer waveguide applications in multichip modules (MCMs) and board level optical interconnects,” in Organic Thin Films, Vol. 21 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 14.

Bristow, J.

Y. Liu, J. Bristow, T. Marta, S. Bounnak, K. Johnson, “Polymer waveguide applications in multichip modules (MCMs) and board level optical interconnects,” in Organic Thin Films, Vol. 21 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 14.

Chikawa, T. I.

Chin, D.

D. Chin, S. H. Dhong, G. J. Long, “Structural effects on a submicron trench process,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 132, 1705–1707 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Dhong, S. H.

D. Chin, S. H. Dhong, G. J. Long, “Structural effects on a submicron trench process,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 132, 1705–1707 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hamamoto, K.

K. Hamamoto, S. Sugou, K. Komatsu, M. Kitamura, “Extremely low loss 4 × 4 GaAs/AlGaAs optical matrix switch,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1580–1582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Imamura, S.

R. Yoshimura, H. Nakagome, S. Tomaru, S. Imamura, “Fabrication of single-mode polymeric optical waveguides by laser-beam writing,” Electron. Lett. 31, 2169–2171 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

Johnson, K.

Y. Liu, J. Bristow, T. Marta, S. Bounnak, K. Johnson, “Polymer waveguide applications in multichip modules (MCMs) and board level optical interconnects,” in Organic Thin Films, Vol. 21 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 14.

Johnson, L. M.

Kagami, M.

Kaino, T.

T. Kaino, “Polymer optical fibers,” in Polymers for Lightwave and Integrated Optics: Technology and Applications, L. A. Hornak, ed. (Marcell Dekker, New York, 1992), pp. 1–38.

Kato, S.

Kawachi, M.

S. Suzuki, M. Kawachi, “Planar lightwave circuits based on silica waveguides on silicon,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. J77-C-I, 184–193 (1994).

Y. Yamada, M. Kawachi, M. Yasu, M. Kobayashi, “Optical-fibre coupling to high-silica channel waveguides with fibre-guiding grooves,” Electron. Lett. 20, 313–314 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kitamura, M.

K. Hamamoto, S. Sugou, K. Komatsu, M. Kitamura, “Extremely low loss 4 × 4 GaAs/AlGaAs optical matrix switch,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1580–1582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Knoche, T.

A. Neyer, T. Knoche, L. Muller, “Fabrication of low loss polymer waveguides using injection molding technology,” Electron. Lett. 29, 399–401 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, M.

Y. Yamada, M. Kawachi, M. Yasu, M. Kobayashi, “Optical-fibre coupling to high-silica channel waveguides with fibre-guiding grooves,” Electron. Lett. 20, 313–314 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Komatsu, K.

K. Hamamoto, S. Sugou, K. Komatsu, M. Kitamura, “Extremely low loss 4 × 4 GaAs/AlGaAs optical matrix switch,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1580–1582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Levinstein, H. J.

C. J. Mogab, H. J. Levinstein, “Anisotropic plasma etching of polysilicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 17, 721–730 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, J. Bristow, T. Marta, S. Bounnak, K. Johnson, “Polymer waveguide applications in multichip modules (MCMs) and board level optical interconnects,” in Organic Thin Films, Vol. 21 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 14.

Long, G. J.

D. Chin, S. H. Dhong, G. J. Long, “Structural effects on a submicron trench process,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 132, 1705–1707 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Marta, T.

Y. Liu, J. Bristow, T. Marta, S. Bounnak, K. Johnson, “Polymer waveguide applications in multichip modules (MCMs) and board level optical interconnects,” in Organic Thin Films, Vol. 21 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 14.

Matsuda, M.

Mogab, C. J.

C. J. Mogab, H. J. Levinstein, “Anisotropic plasma etching of polysilicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 17, 721–730 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Muller, L.

A. Neyer, T. Knoche, L. Muller, “Fabrication of low loss polymer waveguides using injection molding technology,” Electron. Lett. 29, 399–401 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nakagome, H.

R. Yoshimura, H. Nakagome, S. Tomaru, S. Imamura, “Fabrication of single-mode polymeric optical waveguides by laser-beam writing,” Electron. Lett. 31, 2169–2171 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Neyer, A.

A. Neyer, T. Knoche, L. Muller, “Fabrication of low loss polymer waveguides using injection molding technology,” Electron. Lett. 29, 399–401 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rooks, M. J.

Roussell, H.

Sugou, S.

K. Hamamoto, S. Sugou, K. Komatsu, M. Kitamura, “Extremely low loss 4 × 4 GaAs/AlGaAs optical matrix switch,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1580–1582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, S.

S. Suzuki, M. Kawachi, “Planar lightwave circuits based on silica waveguides on silicon,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. J77-C-I, 184–193 (1994).

Takahashi, N.

Tomaru, S.

R. Yoshimura, H. Nakagome, S. Tomaru, S. Imamura, “Fabrication of single-mode polymeric optical waveguides by laser-beam writing,” Electron. Lett. 31, 2169–2171 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, Y.

Y. Yamada, M. Kawachi, M. Yasu, M. Kobayashi, “Optical-fibre coupling to high-silica channel waveguides with fibre-guiding grooves,” Electron. Lett. 20, 313–314 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Yasu, M.

Y. Yamada, M. Kawachi, M. Yasu, M. Kobayashi, “Optical-fibre coupling to high-silica channel waveguides with fibre-guiding grooves,” Electron. Lett. 20, 313–314 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimura, R.

R. Yoshimura, H. Nakagome, S. Tomaru, S. Imamura, “Fabrication of single-mode polymeric optical waveguides by laser-beam writing,” Electron. Lett. 31, 2169–2171 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Electron. Lett.

A. Neyer, T. Knoche, L. Muller, “Fabrication of low loss polymer waveguides using injection molding technology,” Electron. Lett. 29, 399–401 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Yoshimura, H. Nakagome, S. Tomaru, S. Imamura, “Fabrication of single-mode polymeric optical waveguides by laser-beam writing,” Electron. Lett. 31, 2169–2171 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Hamamoto, S. Sugou, K. Komatsu, M. Kitamura, “Extremely low loss 4 × 4 GaAs/AlGaAs optical matrix switch,” Electron. Lett. 29, 1580–1582 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yamada, M. Kawachi, M. Yasu, M. Kobayashi, “Optical-fibre coupling to high-silica channel waveguides with fibre-guiding grooves,” Electron. Lett. 20, 313–314 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc.

D. Chin, S. H. Dhong, G. J. Long, “Structural effects on a submicron trench process,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 132, 1705–1707 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol.

C. J. Mogab, H. J. Levinstein, “Anisotropic plasma etching of polysilicon,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 17, 721–730 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng.

S. Suzuki, M. Kawachi, “Planar lightwave circuits based on silica waveguides on silicon,” Trans. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. J77-C-I, 184–193 (1994).

Other

T. Kaino, “Polymer optical fibers,” in Polymers for Lightwave and Integrated Optics: Technology and Applications, L. A. Hornak, ed. (Marcell Dekker, New York, 1992), pp. 1–38.

B. L. Booth, “Optical interconnection polymers,” in Polymers for Lightwave and Integrated Optics: Technology and Applications, L. A. Hornak, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1992), pp. 231–286.

Y. Liu, J. Bristow, T. Marta, S. Bounnak, K. Johnson, “Polymer waveguide applications in multichip modules (MCMs) and board level optical interconnects,” in Organic Thin Films, Vol. 21 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 14.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Longitudinal section of an embedded LCHD channel waveguide with out-of-plane branching mirrors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Example of a sidewall fabricated by the flattening treatment outlined in Ref. 1. The collapsed polymer film and flattened sidewall can be seen at the left-hand side of the photograph. However, the treatment was incomplete, and the remainder of the film on the right-hand side of the wall and at all the upper corners of the ridge core was still rough. This photograph was taken from a 45° tilt angle.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fabrication steps of low-loss PMMA optical waveguides.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ridge waveguide after O2 RIE.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Ridge waveguide after etch-inhibiting film removal.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Ridge waveguide after heat treatment.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Ridge waveguide after sidewall flattening.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Trench formation on a PMMA ridge core by O2 RIE: (a) schematic of the longitudinal section of the waveguide and (b) etching depth ratio as a function of slit width.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Photograph of the trench after O2 RIE.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Photograph of the trench (out-of-plane branching mirror) after the flattening treatment.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Radiation pattern dependence on (a) θL, angle from the vertical direction to the longitudinal section and (b) θT, angle from the vertical direction to the cross section.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Photograph of branching light reflected from out-of-branching mirrors. This photograph was taken through a cross filter and shows high-radiance points as star shaped.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Reactive Ion Etching Conditions

Tables Icon

Table 2 Refractive Indices

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