Abstract

The linear electro-optic effect in single crystals of 4-aminobenzphenone (ABP) is reported together with calibration data on LiNbO3. For ABP the linear electro-optic coefficients r 22 and r 32 at 488 nm were found to be 2.12 and 5.05 pm/V, respectively, with the corresponding reduced half-wave voltages being 49.4 ± 0.1 and 9.3 ± 0.1 kV. For LiNbO3 the half-wave voltage was found to be 4.0 ± 0.1 kV at 632.8 nm and 2.4 ± 0.1 kV at 488 nm.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Zyss, J. L. Oudar, “Relation between microscopic and macroscopic lowest-order optical nonlinearities of molecular crystals with one or two dimensional units,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 2028–2048 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  2. F. Pan, “Design, growth, perfection, and properties of organic optical crystals for blue light,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, 1994).
  3. S. Guha, C. C. Frazier, W. Chen, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. SPIE971, 89–96 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. Yariv, Optical Electronics, 4th ed. (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1991), pp. 309–326.
  5. P. V. Lenzo, E. G. Spencer, K. Nassau, “Electro-optic coefficients in single-domain ferroelectric lithium niobate,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 56, 633–635 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. Chirakadze, S. Machavariani, A. Natsvlishvili, B. Hvitia, “Dispersion of the linear electro-optic effect in lithium niobate,” J. Phys. D 23, 1216–1218 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  7. G. J. Edwards, M. Lawrence, “A temperature-dependent dispersion equation for congruently grown lithium niobate,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 16, 373–375 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  8. F. Pan, R. T. Bailey, F. R. Cruickshank, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, S. Wilkie, “The birefringence of the optically nonlinear crystal 4-aminobenzophenone,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4649–4654 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  9. R. T. Bailey, G. H. Bourhill, F. R. Cruickshank, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, K. B. R. Varma, “Linear electro-optic effect and temperature coefficient of birefringence in 4-nitro-4′-methylbenzylidene aniline single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2012–2014 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  10. R. T. Bailey, G. H. Bourhill, F. R. Cruickshank, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, K. B. R. Varma, “Linear electro-optic dispersion in (-)-2-(α-methylbenzylamino)-5-nitropyridine single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 489–492 (1994).
    [Crossref]

1996 (1)

F. Pan, R. T. Bailey, F. R. Cruickshank, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, S. Wilkie, “The birefringence of the optically nonlinear crystal 4-aminobenzophenone,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4649–4654 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

R. T. Bailey, G. H. Bourhill, F. R. Cruickshank, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, K. B. R. Varma, “Linear electro-optic dispersion in (-)-2-(α-methylbenzylamino)-5-nitropyridine single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 489–492 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

R. T. Bailey, G. H. Bourhill, F. R. Cruickshank, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, K. B. R. Varma, “Linear electro-optic effect and temperature coefficient of birefringence in 4-nitro-4′-methylbenzylidene aniline single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2012–2014 (1992).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

A. Chirakadze, S. Machavariani, A. Natsvlishvili, B. Hvitia, “Dispersion of the linear electro-optic effect in lithium niobate,” J. Phys. D 23, 1216–1218 (1990).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

G. J. Edwards, M. Lawrence, “A temperature-dependent dispersion equation for congruently grown lithium niobate,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 16, 373–375 (1984).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

J. Zyss, J. L. Oudar, “Relation between microscopic and macroscopic lowest-order optical nonlinearities of molecular crystals with one or two dimensional units,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 2028–2048 (1982).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

Bailey, R. T.

F. Pan, R. T. Bailey, F. R. Cruickshank, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, S. Wilkie, “The birefringence of the optically nonlinear crystal 4-aminobenzophenone,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4649–4654 (1996).
[Crossref]

R. T. Bailey, G. H. Bourhill, F. R. Cruickshank, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, K. B. R. Varma, “Linear electro-optic dispersion in (-)-2-(α-methylbenzylamino)-5-nitropyridine single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 489–492 (1994).
[Crossref]

R. T. Bailey, G. H. Bourhill, F. R. Cruickshank, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, K. B. R. Varma, “Linear electro-optic effect and temperature coefficient of birefringence in 4-nitro-4′-methylbenzylidene aniline single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2012–2014 (1992).
[Crossref]

Bourhill, G. H.

R. T. Bailey, G. H. Bourhill, F. R. Cruickshank, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, K. B. R. Varma, “Linear electro-optic dispersion in (-)-2-(α-methylbenzylamino)-5-nitropyridine single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 489–492 (1994).
[Crossref]

R. T. Bailey, G. H. Bourhill, F. R. Cruickshank, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, K. B. R. Varma, “Linear electro-optic effect and temperature coefficient of birefringence in 4-nitro-4′-methylbenzylidene aniline single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2012–2014 (1992).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

S. Guha, C. C. Frazier, W. Chen, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. SPIE971, 89–96 (1988).
[Crossref]

Chirakadze, A.

A. Chirakadze, S. Machavariani, A. Natsvlishvili, B. Hvitia, “Dispersion of the linear electro-optic effect in lithium niobate,” J. Phys. D 23, 1216–1218 (1990).
[Crossref]

Cruickshank, F. R.

F. Pan, R. T. Bailey, F. R. Cruickshank, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, S. Wilkie, “The birefringence of the optically nonlinear crystal 4-aminobenzophenone,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4649–4654 (1996).
[Crossref]

R. T. Bailey, G. H. Bourhill, F. R. Cruickshank, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, K. B. R. Varma, “Linear electro-optic dispersion in (-)-2-(α-methylbenzylamino)-5-nitropyridine single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 489–492 (1994).
[Crossref]

R. T. Bailey, G. H. Bourhill, F. R. Cruickshank, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, K. B. R. Varma, “Linear electro-optic effect and temperature coefficient of birefringence in 4-nitro-4′-methylbenzylidene aniline single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2012–2014 (1992).
[Crossref]

Edwards, G. J.

G. J. Edwards, M. Lawrence, “A temperature-dependent dispersion equation for congruently grown lithium niobate,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 16, 373–375 (1984).
[Crossref]

Frazier, C. C.

S. Guha, C. C. Frazier, W. Chen, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. SPIE971, 89–96 (1988).
[Crossref]

Guha, S.

S. Guha, C. C. Frazier, W. Chen, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. SPIE971, 89–96 (1988).
[Crossref]

Hvitia, B.

A. Chirakadze, S. Machavariani, A. Natsvlishvili, B. Hvitia, “Dispersion of the linear electro-optic effect in lithium niobate,” J. Phys. D 23, 1216–1218 (1990).
[Crossref]

Lawrence, M.

G. J. Edwards, M. Lawrence, “A temperature-dependent dispersion equation for congruently grown lithium niobate,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 16, 373–375 (1984).
[Crossref]

Lenzo, P. V.

Machavariani, S.

A. Chirakadze, S. Machavariani, A. Natsvlishvili, B. Hvitia, “Dispersion of the linear electro-optic effect in lithium niobate,” J. Phys. D 23, 1216–1218 (1990).
[Crossref]

Nassau, K.

Natsvlishvili, A.

A. Chirakadze, S. Machavariani, A. Natsvlishvili, B. Hvitia, “Dispersion of the linear electro-optic effect in lithium niobate,” J. Phys. D 23, 1216–1218 (1990).
[Crossref]

Oudar, J. L.

J. Zyss, J. L. Oudar, “Relation between microscopic and macroscopic lowest-order optical nonlinearities of molecular crystals with one or two dimensional units,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 2028–2048 (1982).
[Crossref]

Pan, F.

F. Pan, R. T. Bailey, F. R. Cruickshank, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, S. Wilkie, “The birefringence of the optically nonlinear crystal 4-aminobenzophenone,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4649–4654 (1996).
[Crossref]

F. Pan, “Design, growth, perfection, and properties of organic optical crystals for blue light,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, 1994).

Pugh, D.

F. Pan, R. T. Bailey, F. R. Cruickshank, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, S. Wilkie, “The birefringence of the optically nonlinear crystal 4-aminobenzophenone,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4649–4654 (1996).
[Crossref]

R. T. Bailey, G. H. Bourhill, F. R. Cruickshank, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, K. B. R. Varma, “Linear electro-optic dispersion in (-)-2-(α-methylbenzylamino)-5-nitropyridine single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 489–492 (1994).
[Crossref]

R. T. Bailey, G. H. Bourhill, F. R. Cruickshank, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, K. B. R. Varma, “Linear electro-optic effect and temperature coefficient of birefringence in 4-nitro-4′-methylbenzylidene aniline single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2012–2014 (1992).
[Crossref]

Sherwood, J. N.

F. Pan, R. T. Bailey, F. R. Cruickshank, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, S. Wilkie, “The birefringence of the optically nonlinear crystal 4-aminobenzophenone,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4649–4654 (1996).
[Crossref]

R. T. Bailey, G. H. Bourhill, F. R. Cruickshank, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, K. B. R. Varma, “Linear electro-optic dispersion in (-)-2-(α-methylbenzylamino)-5-nitropyridine single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 489–492 (1994).
[Crossref]

R. T. Bailey, G. H. Bourhill, F. R. Cruickshank, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, K. B. R. Varma, “Linear electro-optic effect and temperature coefficient of birefringence in 4-nitro-4′-methylbenzylidene aniline single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2012–2014 (1992).
[Crossref]

Simpson, G. S.

F. Pan, R. T. Bailey, F. R. Cruickshank, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, S. Wilkie, “The birefringence of the optically nonlinear crystal 4-aminobenzophenone,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4649–4654 (1996).
[Crossref]

R. T. Bailey, G. H. Bourhill, F. R. Cruickshank, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, K. B. R. Varma, “Linear electro-optic dispersion in (-)-2-(α-methylbenzylamino)-5-nitropyridine single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 489–492 (1994).
[Crossref]

R. T. Bailey, G. H. Bourhill, F. R. Cruickshank, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, K. B. R. Varma, “Linear electro-optic effect and temperature coefficient of birefringence in 4-nitro-4′-methylbenzylidene aniline single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2012–2014 (1992).
[Crossref]

Spencer, E. G.

Varma, K. B. R.

R. T. Bailey, G. H. Bourhill, F. R. Cruickshank, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, K. B. R. Varma, “Linear electro-optic dispersion in (-)-2-(α-methylbenzylamino)-5-nitropyridine single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 489–492 (1994).
[Crossref]

R. T. Bailey, G. H. Bourhill, F. R. Cruickshank, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, K. B. R. Varma, “Linear electro-optic effect and temperature coefficient of birefringence in 4-nitro-4′-methylbenzylidene aniline single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2012–2014 (1992).
[Crossref]

Wilkie, S.

F. Pan, R. T. Bailey, F. R. Cruickshank, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, S. Wilkie, “The birefringence of the optically nonlinear crystal 4-aminobenzophenone,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4649–4654 (1996).
[Crossref]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics, 4th ed. (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1991), pp. 309–326.

Zyss, J.

J. Zyss, J. L. Oudar, “Relation between microscopic and macroscopic lowest-order optical nonlinearities of molecular crystals with one or two dimensional units,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 2028–2048 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

F. Pan, R. T. Bailey, F. R. Cruickshank, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, S. Wilkie, “The birefringence of the optically nonlinear crystal 4-aminobenzophenone,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 4649–4654 (1996).
[Crossref]

R. T. Bailey, G. H. Bourhill, F. R. Cruickshank, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, K. B. R. Varma, “Linear electro-optic effect and temperature coefficient of birefringence in 4-nitro-4′-methylbenzylidene aniline single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 2012–2014 (1992).
[Crossref]

R. T. Bailey, G. H. Bourhill, F. R. Cruickshank, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, G. S. Simpson, K. B. R. Varma, “Linear electro-optic dispersion in (-)-2-(α-methylbenzylamino)-5-nitropyridine single crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 489–492 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. D (1)

A. Chirakadze, S. Machavariani, A. Natsvlishvili, B. Hvitia, “Dispersion of the linear electro-optic effect in lithium niobate,” J. Phys. D 23, 1216–1218 (1990).
[Crossref]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. J. Edwards, M. Lawrence, “A temperature-dependent dispersion equation for congruently grown lithium niobate,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 16, 373–375 (1984).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

J. Zyss, J. L. Oudar, “Relation between microscopic and macroscopic lowest-order optical nonlinearities of molecular crystals with one or two dimensional units,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 2028–2048 (1982).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

F. Pan, “Design, growth, perfection, and properties of organic optical crystals for blue light,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, 1994).

S. Guha, C. C. Frazier, W. Chen, in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. SPIE971, 89–96 (1988).
[Crossref]

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics, 4th ed. (Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa., 1991), pp. 309–326.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Charge-transfer-axis plane of ABP in the dielectric axis frame of reference. The Z direction polarizability is largely that of the carbonyl–NH2 molecular-charge-transfer axis denoted by CT.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of experimental apparatus: P, polarizer; L, focusing lens; S, sample with high voltage applied; A, analyzer; Ph, pinhole; F, neutral density filter; PMT, photomultiplier tube; DSA, digitizing signal analyzer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Change in fringe intensity with applied modulating voltage.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Electro-Optic Measurements

Tables Icon

Table 2 Half-Angles, θ, Reduced Half-Wave Voltages, Vπ, and Electro-Optic Coefficients, r ij , of Various Nonlinear Optical Organic Crystals

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ1n21Δ1n22Δ1n23Δ1n24Δ1n25Δ1n26=0r1200r2200r320r410r430r520r610r63E1E2E3.
Vπ=λr22ny3-r12nx3,
Vπ=λr22ny3-r32nz3.
Vπ=λr22ny3.

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