Abstract

We report on interferometric noise limitation of fiber-optic gas sensors with highly coherent lasers and wavelength modulation spectroscopy. Interference between signal wave and reflected waves causes signal fluctuation in the output, which limits the performance of the sensing system. Sensor resolution limited by interferometric noise is calculated for a fiber-optic gas sensor with the Q(6) absorption line of methane gas at approximately 1650 nm. The results are useful for system designers of this particular type of gas sensor.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. P. Dakin, C. A. Wade, D. Pinchbeck, J. S. Wykes, “A novel optical fibre methane sensor,” J. Opt. Sensors 2, 261–267 (1987).
  2. K. Uehara, H. Tai, “Remote detection of methane using a 1.66 µm diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 31, 809–814 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. Yamamoto, H. Tai, M. Uchida, S. Osawa, K. Uehara, “Long distance simultaneous detection of methane and acetylene by using diode lasers in combination with optical fibers,” in Proceedings of Eighth Optical Fiber Sensors Conference, Monterey, Calif., 1992, (IEEE, New York, 1992, pp. 333–336.
  4. V. Weldon, P. Phelan, J. Hegarty, “Methane and carbon dioxide sensing using a DFB laser diode operating at 1.64 µm,” Electron. Lett. 29, 560–561 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Shimose, T. Okamoto, A. Maruyama, M. Aizawa, H. Nagai, “Remote sensing of methane gas by differential absorption measurement using a wavelength-tunable DFB LD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 86–87 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Jin, G. Stewart, B. Culshaw, “Source noise limitation in an optical methane detection system using a broadband source,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2345–2349 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. R. Philp, W. Jin, A. Mencaglia, G. Stewart, B. Culshaw, “Interferometric noise in frequency modulated optical gas sensors,” in Proceedings of 21st Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia, 1996 (Institute of Radio and Electronic Engineers, Sydney, 1996, pp. 185–188.
  8. W. Jin, G. Stewart, W. R. Philp, B. Culshaw, M. S. Demokan, “Limitation of absorption based fiber optic gas sensors by coherent reflections,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6251–6255 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Sensor Unlimited, Inc., Princeton, N.J., 1380-1980 DFB diode laser data sheet.
  10. P. W. Milonni, J. H. Eberly, Lasers (Wiley, New York, 1988), Chap. 3.

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

V. Weldon, P. Phelan, J. Hegarty, “Methane and carbon dioxide sensing using a DFB laser diode operating at 1.64 µm,” Electron. Lett. 29, 560–561 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

Y. Shimose, T. Okamoto, A. Maruyama, M. Aizawa, H. Nagai, “Remote sensing of methane gas by differential absorption measurement using a wavelength-tunable DFB LD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 86–87 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

J. P. Dakin, C. A. Wade, D. Pinchbeck, J. S. Wykes, “A novel optical fibre methane sensor,” J. Opt. Sensors 2, 261–267 (1987).

Aizawa, M.

Y. Shimose, T. Okamoto, A. Maruyama, M. Aizawa, H. Nagai, “Remote sensing of methane gas by differential absorption measurement using a wavelength-tunable DFB LD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 86–87 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Culshaw, B.

W. Jin, G. Stewart, W. R. Philp, B. Culshaw, M. S. Demokan, “Limitation of absorption based fiber optic gas sensors by coherent reflections,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6251–6255 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Jin, G. Stewart, B. Culshaw, “Source noise limitation in an optical methane detection system using a broadband source,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2345–2349 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Philp, W. Jin, A. Mencaglia, G. Stewart, B. Culshaw, “Interferometric noise in frequency modulated optical gas sensors,” in Proceedings of 21st Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia, 1996 (Institute of Radio and Electronic Engineers, Sydney, 1996, pp. 185–188.

Dakin, J. P.

J. P. Dakin, C. A. Wade, D. Pinchbeck, J. S. Wykes, “A novel optical fibre methane sensor,” J. Opt. Sensors 2, 261–267 (1987).

Demokan, M. S.

Eberly, J. H.

P. W. Milonni, J. H. Eberly, Lasers (Wiley, New York, 1988), Chap. 3.

Hegarty, J.

V. Weldon, P. Phelan, J. Hegarty, “Methane and carbon dioxide sensing using a DFB laser diode operating at 1.64 µm,” Electron. Lett. 29, 560–561 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jin, W.

W. Jin, G. Stewart, W. R. Philp, B. Culshaw, M. S. Demokan, “Limitation of absorption based fiber optic gas sensors by coherent reflections,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6251–6255 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Jin, G. Stewart, B. Culshaw, “Source noise limitation in an optical methane detection system using a broadband source,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2345–2349 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Philp, W. Jin, A. Mencaglia, G. Stewart, B. Culshaw, “Interferometric noise in frequency modulated optical gas sensors,” in Proceedings of 21st Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia, 1996 (Institute of Radio and Electronic Engineers, Sydney, 1996, pp. 185–188.

Maruyama, A.

Y. Shimose, T. Okamoto, A. Maruyama, M. Aizawa, H. Nagai, “Remote sensing of methane gas by differential absorption measurement using a wavelength-tunable DFB LD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 86–87 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mencaglia, A.

W. R. Philp, W. Jin, A. Mencaglia, G. Stewart, B. Culshaw, “Interferometric noise in frequency modulated optical gas sensors,” in Proceedings of 21st Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia, 1996 (Institute of Radio and Electronic Engineers, Sydney, 1996, pp. 185–188.

Milonni, P. W.

P. W. Milonni, J. H. Eberly, Lasers (Wiley, New York, 1988), Chap. 3.

Nagai, H.

Y. Shimose, T. Okamoto, A. Maruyama, M. Aizawa, H. Nagai, “Remote sensing of methane gas by differential absorption measurement using a wavelength-tunable DFB LD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 86–87 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, T.

Y. Shimose, T. Okamoto, A. Maruyama, M. Aizawa, H. Nagai, “Remote sensing of methane gas by differential absorption measurement using a wavelength-tunable DFB LD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 86–87 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Osawa, S.

K. Yamamoto, H. Tai, M. Uchida, S. Osawa, K. Uehara, “Long distance simultaneous detection of methane and acetylene by using diode lasers in combination with optical fibers,” in Proceedings of Eighth Optical Fiber Sensors Conference, Monterey, Calif., 1992, (IEEE, New York, 1992, pp. 333–336.

Phelan, P.

V. Weldon, P. Phelan, J. Hegarty, “Methane and carbon dioxide sensing using a DFB laser diode operating at 1.64 µm,” Electron. Lett. 29, 560–561 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Philp, W. R.

W. Jin, G. Stewart, W. R. Philp, B. Culshaw, M. S. Demokan, “Limitation of absorption based fiber optic gas sensors by coherent reflections,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6251–6255 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Philp, W. Jin, A. Mencaglia, G. Stewart, B. Culshaw, “Interferometric noise in frequency modulated optical gas sensors,” in Proceedings of 21st Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia, 1996 (Institute of Radio and Electronic Engineers, Sydney, 1996, pp. 185–188.

Pinchbeck, D.

J. P. Dakin, C. A. Wade, D. Pinchbeck, J. S. Wykes, “A novel optical fibre methane sensor,” J. Opt. Sensors 2, 261–267 (1987).

Shimose, Y.

Y. Shimose, T. Okamoto, A. Maruyama, M. Aizawa, H. Nagai, “Remote sensing of methane gas by differential absorption measurement using a wavelength-tunable DFB LD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 86–87 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, G.

W. Jin, G. Stewart, W. R. Philp, B. Culshaw, M. S. Demokan, “Limitation of absorption based fiber optic gas sensors by coherent reflections,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6251–6255 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Jin, G. Stewart, B. Culshaw, “Source noise limitation in an optical methane detection system using a broadband source,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2345–2349 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Philp, W. Jin, A. Mencaglia, G. Stewart, B. Culshaw, “Interferometric noise in frequency modulated optical gas sensors,” in Proceedings of 21st Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia, 1996 (Institute of Radio and Electronic Engineers, Sydney, 1996, pp. 185–188.

Tai, H.

K. Uehara, H. Tai, “Remote detection of methane using a 1.66 µm diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 31, 809–814 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamamoto, H. Tai, M. Uchida, S. Osawa, K. Uehara, “Long distance simultaneous detection of methane and acetylene by using diode lasers in combination with optical fibers,” in Proceedings of Eighth Optical Fiber Sensors Conference, Monterey, Calif., 1992, (IEEE, New York, 1992, pp. 333–336.

Uchida, M.

K. Yamamoto, H. Tai, M. Uchida, S. Osawa, K. Uehara, “Long distance simultaneous detection of methane and acetylene by using diode lasers in combination with optical fibers,” in Proceedings of Eighth Optical Fiber Sensors Conference, Monterey, Calif., 1992, (IEEE, New York, 1992, pp. 333–336.

Uehara, K.

K. Uehara, H. Tai, “Remote detection of methane using a 1.66 µm diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 31, 809–814 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamamoto, H. Tai, M. Uchida, S. Osawa, K. Uehara, “Long distance simultaneous detection of methane and acetylene by using diode lasers in combination with optical fibers,” in Proceedings of Eighth Optical Fiber Sensors Conference, Monterey, Calif., 1992, (IEEE, New York, 1992, pp. 333–336.

Wade, C. A.

J. P. Dakin, C. A. Wade, D. Pinchbeck, J. S. Wykes, “A novel optical fibre methane sensor,” J. Opt. Sensors 2, 261–267 (1987).

Weldon, V.

V. Weldon, P. Phelan, J. Hegarty, “Methane and carbon dioxide sensing using a DFB laser diode operating at 1.64 µm,” Electron. Lett. 29, 560–561 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wykes, J. S.

J. P. Dakin, C. A. Wade, D. Pinchbeck, J. S. Wykes, “A novel optical fibre methane sensor,” J. Opt. Sensors 2, 261–267 (1987).

Yamamoto, K.

K. Yamamoto, H. Tai, M. Uchida, S. Osawa, K. Uehara, “Long distance simultaneous detection of methane and acetylene by using diode lasers in combination with optical fibers,” in Proceedings of Eighth Optical Fiber Sensors Conference, Monterey, Calif., 1992, (IEEE, New York, 1992, pp. 333–336.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Electron. Lett. (1)

V. Weldon, P. Phelan, J. Hegarty, “Methane and carbon dioxide sensing using a DFB laser diode operating at 1.64 µm,” Electron. Lett. 29, 560–561 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Shimose, T. Okamoto, A. Maruyama, M. Aizawa, H. Nagai, “Remote sensing of methane gas by differential absorption measurement using a wavelength-tunable DFB LD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 86–87 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Sensors (1)

J. P. Dakin, C. A. Wade, D. Pinchbeck, J. S. Wykes, “A novel optical fibre methane sensor,” J. Opt. Sensors 2, 261–267 (1987).

Other (4)

K. Yamamoto, H. Tai, M. Uchida, S. Osawa, K. Uehara, “Long distance simultaneous detection of methane and acetylene by using diode lasers in combination with optical fibers,” in Proceedings of Eighth Optical Fiber Sensors Conference, Monterey, Calif., 1992, (IEEE, New York, 1992, pp. 333–336.

Sensor Unlimited, Inc., Princeton, N.J., 1380-1980 DFB diode laser data sheet.

P. W. Milonni, J. H. Eberly, Lasers (Wiley, New York, 1988), Chap. 3.

W. R. Philp, W. Jin, A. Mencaglia, G. Stewart, B. Culshaw, “Interferometric noise in frequency modulated optical gas sensors,” in Proceedings of 21st Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia, 1996 (Institute of Radio and Electronic Engineers, Sydney, 1996, pp. 185–188.

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