Abstract

A method for diagnosing a silver–dielectric interface is proposed. This method relies on surface plasmon resonance at the Ag–dielectric interface. It yields a good estimate of an air gap between a thin Ag film and a polymer (dielectric). Detection of an air gap thickness of approximately half of the incident probing beam wavelength was monitored. Probing a small air gap is also discussed in the case of poor adhesion at the Ag–polymer interface.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Kano, S. Kawata, “Surface-plasmon sensor for absorption-sensitivity enhancement,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5166–5170 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Matsubara, S. Kawata, S. Minami, “A compact surface plasmon resonance sensor for measurement of water in process,” Appl. Spectrosc. 42, 1375–1379 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Matsubara, S. Kawata, S. Minami, “Optical chemical sensor based on surface plasmon measurement,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1160–1163 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. Lévesque, B. E. Paton, “Precise thickness and refractive index determination of polyimide films using attenuated total reflection (ATR),” Appl. Opt. 33, 8036–8040 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. E. de Bruijn, R. P. H. Kooyman, J. Greve, “Surface plasmon resonance immunosensors: sensitivity considerations,” Ann. Chim. Acta 213, 35–45 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. P. H. Kooyman, H. Kolkman, J. Van Gent, J. Greve, “Determination of dielectric permittivity and thickness of a metal layer from a surface plasmon resonance experiment,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1974–1978 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. L. Lévesque, B. E. Paton, “Light switching in a glass–Ag–polymer structure using attenuated total reflection (ATR),” Can. J. Phys. 72, 651–657 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. O. Solgaard, F. Ho, J. I. Thackara, D. M. Bloom, “High frequency attenuated total internal reflection light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2500–2502 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. M. Yeatman, M. E. Caldwell, “Spatial light modulation using surface plasmon resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 613–615 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. T. Sincerbox, J. C. Gordon, “Small fast large-aperture light modulator using attenuated total reflection,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1491–1494 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. E. de Bruijn, R. P. H. Kooyman, J. Greve, “Surface plasmon resonance microscopy: improvement of the resolution by rotation of the object,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2426–2430 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  13. T. Turbadur, “Complete absorption of light by thin metal films,” Proc. Phys. Soc. 73, 40–44 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. Kretschmann, “Die bestimmung optischer Konstanten von Metallen durch Anregung Von Oberflachenplasmaschwingungen,” Z. Phys. 241, 313–324 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. J. Simon, D. E. Mitchell, J. G. Watson, “Surface plasmons in silver films—a novel undergraduate experiment,” Am. J. Phys. 43, 630–636 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. M. Robertson, E. Fullerton, “Reexamination of the surface-plasma-wave technique for determining the dielectric constant and thickness of metal films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1584–1589 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1980), p. 632.
  19. M. E. Caldwell, E. M. Yeatman, “Optically addressed surface plasmon spatial light modulators,” in High Speed Phenomena in Photonic Materials and Optical Bistability, D. Jaeger, ed., Proc. SPIE1280, 276–288 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. Welford, “Surface plasmon-polaritons and their uses,” J. Opt. Quant. Electron. 23, 1–27 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. K. Tien, “Integrated optics and new wave phenomena in optical waveguides,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 361–420 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  22. W. H. Weber, “Comment on ‘Observation of an index-of-refraction-induced change in the Drude parameters of Ag films,’” Phys. Rev. B 34, 1319–1321 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  23. I. Pockrand, “Surface plasma oscillations at silver surfaces with thin transparent and absorbing coatings,” Surf. Sci. 72, 577–588 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  24. B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, I. Lundstrom, “Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing,” Sensors Actuators 4, 299–304 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. T. Flanagan, R. H. Pantell, “Surface plasmon resonance and immunosensors,” Electron. Lett. 20, 968–970 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  26. R. P. H. Kooyman, H. Kolkman, J. Van Gent, J. Greve, “Surface plasmon resonance immunosensors: sensitivity considerations,” Ann. Chim. Acta 213, 35–45 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  27. W. Hickel, B. Rothenhäusler, W. Knoll, “Surface plasmon microscopic characterization of external surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4832–4836 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  28. B. Rothenhäusler, W. Knoll, “Surface plasmon microscopy,” Nature (London) 332, 615–617 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  29. E. V. Lowenstein, D. R. Smith, “Optical constants of far infrared materials. 1: analysis of channeled spectra and application to Mylar,” Appl. Opt. 10, 577–583 (1971).
    [CrossRef]

1994 (3)

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

O. Solgaard, F. Ho, J. I. Thackara, D. M. Bloom, “High frequency attenuated total internal reflection light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2500–2502 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

K. Welford, “Surface plasmon-polaritons and their uses,” J. Opt. Quant. Electron. 23, 1–27 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1989 (3)

E. M. Yeatman, M. E. Caldwell, “Spatial light modulation using surface plasmon resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 613–615 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Robertson, E. Fullerton, “Reexamination of the surface-plasma-wave technique for determining the dielectric constant and thickness of metal films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1584–1589 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. Hickel, B. Rothenhäusler, W. Knoll, “Surface plasmon microscopic characterization of external surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4832–4836 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (5)

B. Rothenhäusler, W. Knoll, “Surface plasmon microscopy,” Nature (London) 332, 615–617 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. P. H. Kooyman, H. Kolkman, J. Van Gent, J. Greve, “Surface plasmon resonance immunosensors: sensitivity considerations,” Ann. Chim. Acta 213, 35–45 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. E. de Bruijn, R. P. H. Kooyman, J. Greve, “Surface plasmon resonance immunosensors: sensitivity considerations,” Ann. Chim. Acta 213, 35–45 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. Matsubara, S. Kawata, S. Minami, “A compact surface plasmon resonance sensor for measurement of water in process,” Appl. Spectrosc. 42, 1375–1379 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. Matsubara, S. Kawata, S. Minami, “Optical chemical sensor based on surface plasmon measurement,” Appl. Opt. 27, 1160–1163 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

W. H. Weber, “Comment on ‘Observation of an index-of-refraction-induced change in the Drude parameters of Ag films,’” Phys. Rev. B 34, 1319–1321 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

M. T. Flanagan, R. H. Pantell, “Surface plasmon resonance and immunosensors,” Electron. Lett. 20, 968–970 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, I. Lundstrom, “Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing,” Sensors Actuators 4, 299–304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1978 (1)

I. Pockrand, “Surface plasma oscillations at silver surfaces with thin transparent and absorbing coatings,” Surf. Sci. 72, 577–588 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

P. K. Tien, “Integrated optics and new wave phenomena in optical waveguides,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 361–420 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

H. J. Simon, D. E. Mitchell, J. G. Watson, “Surface plasmons in silver films—a novel undergraduate experiment,” Am. J. Phys. 43, 630–636 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (2)

E. Kretschmann, “Die bestimmung optischer Konstanten von Metallen durch Anregung Von Oberflachenplasmaschwingungen,” Z. Phys. 241, 313–324 (1971).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Lowenstein, D. R. Smith, “Optical constants of far infrared materials. 1: analysis of channeled spectra and application to Mylar,” Appl. Opt. 10, 577–583 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

T. Turbadur, “Complete absorption of light by thin metal films,” Proc. Phys. Soc. 73, 40–44 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Bloom, D. M.

O. Solgaard, F. Ho, J. I. Thackara, D. M. Bloom, “High frequency attenuated total internal reflection light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2500–2502 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1980), p. 632.

Caldwell, M. E.

E. M. Yeatman, M. E. Caldwell, “Spatial light modulation using surface plasmon resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 613–615 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Caldwell, E. M. Yeatman, “Optically addressed surface plasmon spatial light modulators,” in High Speed Phenomena in Photonic Materials and Optical Bistability, D. Jaeger, ed., Proc. SPIE1280, 276–288 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

de Bruijn, H. E.

H. E. de Bruijn, R. P. H. Kooyman, J. Greve, “Surface plasmon resonance microscopy: improvement of the resolution by rotation of the object,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2426–2430 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. E. de Bruijn, R. P. H. Kooyman, J. Greve, “Surface plasmon resonance immunosensors: sensitivity considerations,” Ann. Chim. Acta 213, 35–45 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Flanagan, M. T.

M. T. Flanagan, R. H. Pantell, “Surface plasmon resonance and immunosensors,” Electron. Lett. 20, 968–970 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Fullerton, E.

Gordon, J. C.

Greve, J.

H. E. de Bruijn, R. P. H. Kooyman, J. Greve, “Surface plasmon resonance microscopy: improvement of the resolution by rotation of the object,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2426–2430 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. H. Kooyman, H. Kolkman, J. Van Gent, J. Greve, “Determination of dielectric permittivity and thickness of a metal layer from a surface plasmon resonance experiment,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1974–1978 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. E. de Bruijn, R. P. H. Kooyman, J. Greve, “Surface plasmon resonance immunosensors: sensitivity considerations,” Ann. Chim. Acta 213, 35–45 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. P. H. Kooyman, H. Kolkman, J. Van Gent, J. Greve, “Surface plasmon resonance immunosensors: sensitivity considerations,” Ann. Chim. Acta 213, 35–45 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hickel, W.

W. Hickel, B. Rothenhäusler, W. Knoll, “Surface plasmon microscopic characterization of external surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4832–4836 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ho, F.

O. Solgaard, F. Ho, J. I. Thackara, D. M. Bloom, “High frequency attenuated total internal reflection light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2500–2502 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kano, H.

Kawata, S.

Knoll, W.

W. Hickel, B. Rothenhäusler, W. Knoll, “Surface plasmon microscopic characterization of external surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4832–4836 (1989).
[CrossRef]

B. Rothenhäusler, W. Knoll, “Surface plasmon microscopy,” Nature (London) 332, 615–617 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kolkman, H.

R. P. H. Kooyman, H. Kolkman, J. Van Gent, J. Greve, “Determination of dielectric permittivity and thickness of a metal layer from a surface plasmon resonance experiment,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1974–1978 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. H. Kooyman, H. Kolkman, J. Van Gent, J. Greve, “Surface plasmon resonance immunosensors: sensitivity considerations,” Ann. Chim. Acta 213, 35–45 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kooyman, R. P. H.

H. E. de Bruijn, R. P. H. Kooyman, J. Greve, “Surface plasmon resonance microscopy: improvement of the resolution by rotation of the object,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2426–2430 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. H. Kooyman, H. Kolkman, J. Van Gent, J. Greve, “Determination of dielectric permittivity and thickness of a metal layer from a surface plasmon resonance experiment,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1974–1978 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. E. de Bruijn, R. P. H. Kooyman, J. Greve, “Surface plasmon resonance immunosensors: sensitivity considerations,” Ann. Chim. Acta 213, 35–45 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. P. H. Kooyman, H. Kolkman, J. Van Gent, J. Greve, “Surface plasmon resonance immunosensors: sensitivity considerations,” Ann. Chim. Acta 213, 35–45 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kretschmann, E.

E. Kretschmann, “Die bestimmung optischer Konstanten von Metallen durch Anregung Von Oberflachenplasmaschwingungen,” Z. Phys. 241, 313–324 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Lévesque, L.

L. Lévesque, B. E. Paton, “Light switching in a glass–Ag–polymer structure using attenuated total reflection (ATR),” Can. J. Phys. 72, 651–657 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Lévesque, B. E. Paton, “Precise thickness and refractive index determination of polyimide films using attenuated total reflection (ATR),” Appl. Opt. 33, 8036–8040 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liedberg, B.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, I. Lundstrom, “Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing,” Sensors Actuators 4, 299–304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lowenstein, E. V.

Lundstrom, I.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, I. Lundstrom, “Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing,” Sensors Actuators 4, 299–304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Matsubara, K.

Minami, S.

Mitchell, D. E.

H. J. Simon, D. E. Mitchell, J. G. Watson, “Surface plasmons in silver films—a novel undergraduate experiment,” Am. J. Phys. 43, 630–636 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Nylander, C.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, I. Lundstrom, “Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing,” Sensors Actuators 4, 299–304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Pantell, R. H.

M. T. Flanagan, R. H. Pantell, “Surface plasmon resonance and immunosensors,” Electron. Lett. 20, 968–970 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Paton, B. E.

L. Lévesque, B. E. Paton, “Precise thickness and refractive index determination of polyimide films using attenuated total reflection (ATR),” Appl. Opt. 33, 8036–8040 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lévesque, B. E. Paton, “Light switching in a glass–Ag–polymer structure using attenuated total reflection (ATR),” Can. J. Phys. 72, 651–657 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pockrand, I.

I. Pockrand, “Surface plasma oscillations at silver surfaces with thin transparent and absorbing coatings,” Surf. Sci. 72, 577–588 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

H. Raether. Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, Vol. 11 in Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

Robertson, W. M.

Rothenhäusler, B.

W. Hickel, B. Rothenhäusler, W. Knoll, “Surface plasmon microscopic characterization of external surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4832–4836 (1989).
[CrossRef]

B. Rothenhäusler, W. Knoll, “Surface plasmon microscopy,” Nature (London) 332, 615–617 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Simon, H. J.

H. J. Simon, D. E. Mitchell, J. G. Watson, “Surface plasmons in silver films—a novel undergraduate experiment,” Am. J. Phys. 43, 630–636 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Sincerbox, G. T.

Smith, D. R.

Solgaard, O.

O. Solgaard, F. Ho, J. I. Thackara, D. M. Bloom, “High frequency attenuated total internal reflection light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2500–2502 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Thackara, J. I.

O. Solgaard, F. Ho, J. I. Thackara, D. M. Bloom, “High frequency attenuated total internal reflection light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2500–2502 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tien, P. K.

P. K. Tien, “Integrated optics and new wave phenomena in optical waveguides,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 361–420 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Turbadur, T.

T. Turbadur, “Complete absorption of light by thin metal films,” Proc. Phys. Soc. 73, 40–44 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Van Gent, J.

R. P. H. Kooyman, H. Kolkman, J. Van Gent, J. Greve, “Determination of dielectric permittivity and thickness of a metal layer from a surface plasmon resonance experiment,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1974–1978 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. H. Kooyman, H. Kolkman, J. Van Gent, J. Greve, “Surface plasmon resonance immunosensors: sensitivity considerations,” Ann. Chim. Acta 213, 35–45 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Watson, J. G.

H. J. Simon, D. E. Mitchell, J. G. Watson, “Surface plasmons in silver films—a novel undergraduate experiment,” Am. J. Phys. 43, 630–636 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Weber, W. H.

W. H. Weber, “Comment on ‘Observation of an index-of-refraction-induced change in the Drude parameters of Ag films,’” Phys. Rev. B 34, 1319–1321 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Welford, K.

K. Welford, “Surface plasmon-polaritons and their uses,” J. Opt. Quant. Electron. 23, 1–27 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1980), p. 632.

Yeatman, E. M.

E. M. Yeatman, M. E. Caldwell, “Spatial light modulation using surface plasmon resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 613–615 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Caldwell, E. M. Yeatman, “Optically addressed surface plasmon spatial light modulators,” in High Speed Phenomena in Photonic Materials and Optical Bistability, D. Jaeger, ed., Proc. SPIE1280, 276–288 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Phys. (1)

H. J. Simon, D. E. Mitchell, J. G. Watson, “Surface plasmons in silver films—a novel undergraduate experiment,” Am. J. Phys. 43, 630–636 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Chim. Acta (2)

H. E. de Bruijn, R. P. H. Kooyman, J. Greve, “Surface plasmon resonance immunosensors: sensitivity considerations,” Ann. Chim. Acta 213, 35–45 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. P. H. Kooyman, H. Kolkman, J. Van Gent, J. Greve, “Surface plasmon resonance immunosensors: sensitivity considerations,” Ann. Chim. Acta 213, 35–45 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (7)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

O. Solgaard, F. Ho, J. I. Thackara, D. M. Bloom, “High frequency attenuated total internal reflection light modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2500–2502 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Yeatman, M. E. Caldwell, “Spatial light modulation using surface plasmon resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 613–615 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Can. J. Phys. (1)

L. Lévesque, B. E. Paton, “Light switching in a glass–Ag–polymer structure using attenuated total reflection (ATR),” Can. J. Phys. 72, 651–657 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. T. Flanagan, R. H. Pantell, “Surface plasmon resonance and immunosensors,” Electron. Lett. 20, 968–970 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. Hickel, B. Rothenhäusler, W. Knoll, “Surface plasmon microscopic characterization of external surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4832–4836 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Quant. Electron. (1)

K. Welford, “Surface plasmon-polaritons and their uses,” J. Opt. Quant. Electron. 23, 1–27 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (London) (1)

B. Rothenhäusler, W. Knoll, “Surface plasmon microscopy,” Nature (London) 332, 615–617 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

W. H. Weber, “Comment on ‘Observation of an index-of-refraction-induced change in the Drude parameters of Ag films,’” Phys. Rev. B 34, 1319–1321 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Phys. Soc. (1)

T. Turbadur, “Complete absorption of light by thin metal films,” Proc. Phys. Soc. 73, 40–44 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

P. K. Tien, “Integrated optics and new wave phenomena in optical waveguides,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 361–420 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sensors Actuators (1)

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, I. Lundstrom, “Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing,” Sensors Actuators 4, 299–304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci. (1)

I. Pockrand, “Surface plasma oscillations at silver surfaces with thin transparent and absorbing coatings,” Surf. Sci. 72, 577–588 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. (1)

E. Kretschmann, “Die bestimmung optischer Konstanten von Metallen durch Anregung Von Oberflachenplasmaschwingungen,” Z. Phys. 241, 313–324 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

H. Raether. Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, Vol. 11 in Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light, 6th ed. (Pergamon, New York, 1980), p. 632.

M. E. Caldwell, E. M. Yeatman, “Optically addressed surface plasmon spatial light modulators,” in High Speed Phenomena in Photonic Materials and Optical Bistability, D. Jaeger, ed., Proc. SPIE1280, 276–288 (1990).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Kretschmann–Raether configuration; (b) theoretical SPR curve for an Ag film; ∊2 = -18.3 + 0.45j, d 2 = 560 Å, n = 1.515, and λ = 6328 Å.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup showing how reflectivity data points were taken.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross-sectional view of the reflected beam at various values of angle θ for two different regions scanned by the incident beam. On reflection, the portion being examined within the beam cross-sectional area is ∼1 mm in diameter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflectance curves as a function of incident angle. The experimental reflectance R′ defined as (V Det/ V o = I Det/I o) is used for this paper, and the fitted reflectance is denoted as R: (a) for a darkened region (region 1); (b) for a region where a thin air gap exists at the metal–polymer interface (region 2).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Known Values and Results Obtained from Fitted Reflectance Curves

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ksp=ωc232+31/2,
R=r1232=r12+r23 exp2jk2d21+r12r23 exp2jk2d22,
rij=jki-ikjjki+ikj,
ki,j=ωci,j-n2 sin2 θ1/2, i,j=1, 2, 3.

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