Abstract

The use of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films as electrodes for integrated optical electrochemical sensor devices is discussed. The effect of various thicknesses of ITO overlayers exhibiting low resistivity and high transparency on potassium ion-exchanged waveguides fabricated in glass substrates is investigated over the wavelength range 500–900 nm. ITO overlayers are formed by reactive thermal evaporation in oxygen, followed by annealing in air to a maximum temperature of 320 °C. With air as the superstrate, losses in the waveguides were found to increase dramatically above 30-nm ITO thickness for TE polarization and above 50-nm thickness for TM. Losses were increased over the whole wavelength range for a superstrate index close to that of water. A one-dimensional, multilayer waveguide model is used in the interpretation of the experimental results.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  5. C. Piraud, E. K. Mwarania, J. Yao, K. O. Dwyer, D. J. Schiffrin, J. S. Wilkinson, “Optoelectrochemical transduction on planar optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 693–699 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. Kremeskötter, R. Wilson, D. J. Schiffrin, B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, “Detection of glucose via electrochemiluminescence in a thin-layer cell with a planar optical waveguide,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 1325–1328 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. Kremeskötter, R. Wilson, D. J. Schiffrin, B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, “WilsonStudy of luminol electrochemiluminescence with a planar optical waveguide for peroxide sensor application,” in Electrochemical Society Proceedings Vol. 95-1 (Electrochemical Society, 1995), p. 1054.
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  29. T. C. Nason, J. A. Moore, T.-M. Lu, “Deposition of amorphous fluoropolymer thin films by thermolysis of Teflon amorphous fluoropolymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1866–1868 (1992).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  32. J. A. Woollam, W. A. McGahan, B. Johs, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of indium tin oxide and other flat panel display multilayer materials,” Thin Solid Films 241, 44–46 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  33. O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films (Dover, New York, 1965).
  34. R. G. Heideman, R. P. H. Kooyman, J. Greve, “Performance of a highly sensitive optical waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer immunosensor,” Sensors Actuators B 10, 209–217 (1993).
    [Crossref]

1995 (5)

J. Kremeskötter, R. Wilson, D. J. Schiffrin, B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, “Detection of glucose via electrochemiluminescence in a thin-layer cell with a planar optical waveguide,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 1325–1328 (1995).
[Crossref]

C. R. Lavers, R. D. Harris, S. Hao, J. S. Wilkinson, K. O. Dwyer, M. Brust, D. J. Schiffrin, “Electrochemically controlled waveguide-coupled surface plasmon sensing,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 387, 11–22 (1995).
[Crossref]

M. N. Weiss, R. Srivastava, “Determination of ion-exchanged channel waveguide profile parameters by mode index measurements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 455–458 (1995).
[Crossref]

R. Wilson, D. J. Schiffrin, “Use of fluorescamine for the spectrophotometric investigation of primary amines on silanized glass and indium tin oxide-coated glass,” Analyst 120, 175–178 (1995).
[Crossref]

H. Gnewuch, H. Renner, “Mode-independent attenuation in evanescent-field sensors,” Appl. Opt. 34, 1473–1483 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

J. A. Woollam, W. A. McGahan, B. Johs, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of indium tin oxide and other flat panel display multilayer materials,” Thin Solid Films 241, 44–46 (1994).
[Crossref]

R. S. Sethi, “Transducer aspects of biosensors,” Biosensors Bioelectron. 9, 243–263 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (4)

J. Ingenhoff, B. Drapp, G. Gauglitz, “Biosensors using integrated optical devices,” Fresenius Z. Anal. Chem. 346, 580–583 (1993).
[Crossref]

M. Scholten, J. E. A. M. van den Meerakker, “On the mechanism of ITO etching: the specificity of halogen acids,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, 471–475 (1993).
[Crossref]

R. G. Heideman, R. P. H. Kooyman, J. Greve, “Performance of a highly sensitive optical waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer immunosensor,” Sensors Actuators B 10, 209–217 (1993).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, J. V. Magill, R. M. De La Rue, P. J. R. Laybourn, “Evanescent fluorescence immunoassays performed with a disposable ion-exchanged patterned waveguide,” Sensors Actuators B 11, 245–250 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (5)

W. Huber, R. Barner, Ch. Fattinger, J. Hübscher, H. Koller, F. Müller, D. Schlatter, W. Lukosz, “Direct optical immunosensing (sensitivity and selectivity),” Sensors Actuators B 6, 122–126 (1992).
[Crossref]

M. A. Martinez, J. Herrero, M. T. Gutiérrez, “Electrochemical stability of indium tin oxide thin films,” Electrochim. Acta 37, 2565–2571 (1992).
[Crossref]

T. C. Nason, J. A. Moore, T.-M. Lu, “Deposition of amorphous fluoropolymer thin films by thermolysis of Teflon amorphous fluoropolymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1866–1868 (1992).
[Crossref]

C. Piraud, E. K. Mwarania, J. Yao, K. O. Dwyer, D. J. Schiffrin, J. S. Wilkinson, “Optoelectrochemical transduction on planar optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 693–699 (1992).
[Crossref]

P. V. Lambeck, “Integrated opto-chemical sensors,” Sensors Actuators B 8, 103–116 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

R. Latz, K. Michael, M. Scherer, “High conducting large area indium tin oxide electrodes for displays prepared by DC magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L149–L151 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (4)

T. Maruyama, K. Tabata, “Indium tin oxide thin films prepared by chemical vapour deposition from metal acetates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L355–L357 (1990).
[Crossref]

A. N. Sloper, J. K. Deacon, M. T. Flanagan, “A planar indium phosphate monomode waveguide evanescent field immunosensor,” Sensors Actuators B 1, 589–591 (1990).
[Crossref]

E. Marantonio, R. E. Zich, I. Montrosset, “Alternative expression of the dispersion equation in multilayered structures,” IEE Proc. Part J. 137, 357–360 (1990).

J. L. Yao, S. Hao, J. S. Wilkinson, “Indium tin oxide thin films by sequential evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 189, 227–233 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (4)

N. Balasubramanian, A. Subrahmanyam, “Electrical and optical properties of reactively evaporated indium tin oxide (ITO) films—dependence on substrate temperature and tin concentration,” J. Phys. D 22, 206–209 (1989).
[Crossref]

A. Miliou, H. Zhenguang, H. C. Cheng, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Fiber-compatible K+-Na+ ion-exchanged channel waveguides: fabrication and characterization,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1889–1897 (1989).
[Crossref]

P. S. Chung, M. J. Millington, “Post baking characteristics of single-mode and multimode silver/sodium exchanged waveguides,” IEE Proc. Part J 136, (2), 103–107 (1989).

L. Ross, “Integrated optical components in substrate glasses,” Glastech. Ber. 62, 285–297 (1989).

1988 (1)

K. Itoh, A. Fujishima, “An application of optical waveguides to electrochemistry: construction of optical waveguide electrodes,” J. Phys. Chem. 92, 7043–7045 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

Y. Okamura, K. Kitatani, S. Yamamoto, “Low-voltage driving in nematic liquid crystal overlayered waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 360–363 (1986).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

1980 (1)

M. Buchanan, J. B. Webb, D. F. Williams, “Preparation of conducting and transparent thin films of tin-doped indium oxide by magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 213–215 (1980).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

J. Kane, H. P. Schweizer, “Chemical vapour deposition of transparent electrically conducting layers of indium oxide doped with tin,” Thin Solid Films 29, 155–163 (1975).
[Crossref]

Albert, J.

Balasubramanian, N.

N. Balasubramanian, A. Subrahmanyam, “Electrical and optical properties of reactively evaporated indium tin oxide (ITO) films—dependence on substrate temperature and tin concentration,” J. Phys. D 22, 206–209 (1989).
[Crossref]

Barner, R.

W. Huber, R. Barner, Ch. Fattinger, J. Hübscher, H. Koller, F. Müller, D. Schlatter, W. Lukosz, “Direct optical immunosensing (sensitivity and selectivity),” Sensors Actuators B 6, 122–126 (1992).
[Crossref]

Brust, M.

C. R. Lavers, R. D. Harris, S. Hao, J. S. Wilkinson, K. O. Dwyer, M. Brust, D. J. Schiffrin, “Electrochemically controlled waveguide-coupled surface plasmon sensing,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 387, 11–22 (1995).
[Crossref]

Buchanan, M.

M. Buchanan, J. B. Webb, D. F. Williams, “Preparation of conducting and transparent thin films of tin-doped indium oxide by magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 213–215 (1980).
[Crossref]

Cheng, H. C.

A. Miliou, H. Zhenguang, H. C. Cheng, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Fiber-compatible K+-Na+ ion-exchanged channel waveguides: fabrication and characterization,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1889–1897 (1989).
[Crossref]

Chung, P. S.

P. S. Chung, M. J. Millington, “Post baking characteristics of single-mode and multimode silver/sodium exchanged waveguides,” IEE Proc. Part J 136, (2), 103–107 (1989).

De La Rue, R. M.

Y. Zhou, J. V. Magill, R. M. De La Rue, P. J. R. Laybourn, “Evanescent fluorescence immunoassays performed with a disposable ion-exchanged patterned waveguide,” Sensors Actuators B 11, 245–250 (1993).
[Crossref]

Deacon, J. K.

A. N. Sloper, J. K. Deacon, M. T. Flanagan, “A planar indium phosphate monomode waveguide evanescent field immunosensor,” Sensors Actuators B 1, 589–591 (1990).
[Crossref]

Dobrowolski, J. A.

Drapp, B.

J. Ingenhoff, B. Drapp, G. Gauglitz, “Biosensors using integrated optical devices,” Fresenius Z. Anal. Chem. 346, 580–583 (1993).
[Crossref]

Dwyer, K. O.

C. R. Lavers, R. D. Harris, S. Hao, J. S. Wilkinson, K. O. Dwyer, M. Brust, D. J. Schiffrin, “Electrochemically controlled waveguide-coupled surface plasmon sensing,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 387, 11–22 (1995).
[Crossref]

C. Piraud, E. K. Mwarania, J. Yao, K. O. Dwyer, D. J. Schiffrin, J. S. Wilkinson, “Optoelectrochemical transduction on planar optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 693–699 (1992).
[Crossref]

Fattinger, Ch.

W. Huber, R. Barner, Ch. Fattinger, J. Hübscher, H. Koller, F. Müller, D. Schlatter, W. Lukosz, “Direct optical immunosensing (sensitivity and selectivity),” Sensors Actuators B 6, 122–126 (1992).
[Crossref]

Flanagan, M. T.

A. N. Sloper, J. K. Deacon, M. T. Flanagan, “A planar indium phosphate monomode waveguide evanescent field immunosensor,” Sensors Actuators B 1, 589–591 (1990).
[Crossref]

Fujishima, A.

K. Itoh, A. Fujishima, “An application of optical waveguides to electrochemistry: construction of optical waveguide electrodes,” J. Phys. Chem. 92, 7043–7045 (1988).
[Crossref]

Gauglitz, G.

J. Ingenhoff, B. Drapp, G. Gauglitz, “Biosensors using integrated optical devices,” Fresenius Z. Anal. Chem. 346, 580–583 (1993).
[Crossref]

Gnewuch, H.

Gnewuch, H. W.

H. W. Gnewuch, Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK (personal communication, 1996).

Greve, J.

R. G. Heideman, R. P. H. Kooyman, J. Greve, “Performance of a highly sensitive optical waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer immunosensor,” Sensors Actuators B 10, 209–217 (1993).
[Crossref]

Gutiérrez, M. T.

M. A. Martinez, J. Herrero, M. T. Gutiérrez, “Electrochemical stability of indium tin oxide thin films,” Electrochim. Acta 37, 2565–2571 (1992).
[Crossref]

Hao, S.

C. R. Lavers, R. D. Harris, S. Hao, J. S. Wilkinson, K. O. Dwyer, M. Brust, D. J. Schiffrin, “Electrochemically controlled waveguide-coupled surface plasmon sensing,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 387, 11–22 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. L. Yao, S. Hao, J. S. Wilkinson, “Indium tin oxide thin films by sequential evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 189, 227–233 (1990).
[Crossref]

Harris, R. D.

C. R. Lavers, R. D. Harris, S. Hao, J. S. Wilkinson, K. O. Dwyer, M. Brust, D. J. Schiffrin, “Electrochemically controlled waveguide-coupled surface plasmon sensing,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 387, 11–22 (1995).
[Crossref]

Heavens, O. S.

O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films (Dover, New York, 1965).

Heideman, R. G.

R. G. Heideman, R. P. H. Kooyman, J. Greve, “Performance of a highly sensitive optical waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer immunosensor,” Sensors Actuators B 10, 209–217 (1993).
[Crossref]

Herrero, J.

M. A. Martinez, J. Herrero, M. T. Gutiérrez, “Electrochemical stability of indium tin oxide thin films,” Electrochim. Acta 37, 2565–2571 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ho, F. C.

Huber, W.

W. Huber, R. Barner, Ch. Fattinger, J. Hübscher, H. Koller, F. Müller, D. Schlatter, W. Lukosz, “Direct optical immunosensing (sensitivity and selectivity),” Sensors Actuators B 6, 122–126 (1992).
[Crossref]

Hübscher, J.

W. Huber, R. Barner, Ch. Fattinger, J. Hübscher, H. Koller, F. Müller, D. Schlatter, W. Lukosz, “Direct optical immunosensing (sensitivity and selectivity),” Sensors Actuators B 6, 122–126 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ingenhoff, J.

J. Ingenhoff, B. Drapp, G. Gauglitz, “Biosensors using integrated optical devices,” Fresenius Z. Anal. Chem. 346, 580–583 (1993).
[Crossref]

Itoh, K.

K. Itoh, A. Fujishima, “An application of optical waveguides to electrochemistry: construction of optical waveguide electrodes,” J. Phys. Chem. 92, 7043–7045 (1988).
[Crossref]

Johs, B.

J. A. Woollam, W. A. McGahan, B. Johs, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of indium tin oxide and other flat panel display multilayer materials,” Thin Solid Films 241, 44–46 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kane, J.

J. Kane, H. P. Schweizer, “Chemical vapour deposition of transparent electrically conducting layers of indium oxide doped with tin,” Thin Solid Films 29, 155–163 (1975).
[Crossref]

Kitatani, K.

Y. Okamura, K. Kitatani, S. Yamamoto, “Low-voltage driving in nematic liquid crystal overlayered waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 360–363 (1986).
[Crossref]

Koller, H.

W. Huber, R. Barner, Ch. Fattinger, J. Hübscher, H. Koller, F. Müller, D. Schlatter, W. Lukosz, “Direct optical immunosensing (sensitivity and selectivity),” Sensors Actuators B 6, 122–126 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kooyman, R. P. H.

R. G. Heideman, R. P. H. Kooyman, J. Greve, “Performance of a highly sensitive optical waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer immunosensor,” Sensors Actuators B 10, 209–217 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kremeskötter, J.

J. Kremeskötter, R. Wilson, D. J. Schiffrin, B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, “Detection of glucose via electrochemiluminescence in a thin-layer cell with a planar optical waveguide,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 1325–1328 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Kremeskötter, R. Wilson, D. J. Schiffrin, B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, “WilsonStudy of luminol electrochemiluminescence with a planar optical waveguide for peroxide sensor application,” in Electrochemical Society Proceedings Vol. 95-1 (Electrochemical Society, 1995), p. 1054.

Lambeck, P. V.

P. V. Lambeck, “Integrated opto-chemical sensors,” Sensors Actuators B 8, 103–116 (1992).
[Crossref]

Latz, R.

R. Latz, K. Michael, M. Scherer, “High conducting large area indium tin oxide electrodes for displays prepared by DC magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L149–L151 (1991).
[Crossref]

Lavers, C. R.

C. R. Lavers, R. D. Harris, S. Hao, J. S. Wilkinson, K. O. Dwyer, M. Brust, D. J. Schiffrin, “Electrochemically controlled waveguide-coupled surface plasmon sensing,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 387, 11–22 (1995).
[Crossref]

Laybourn, P. J. R.

Y. Zhou, J. V. Magill, R. M. De La Rue, P. J. R. Laybourn, “Evanescent fluorescence immunoassays performed with a disposable ion-exchanged patterned waveguide,” Sensors Actuators B 11, 245–250 (1993).
[Crossref]

Lu, T.-M.

T. C. Nason, J. A. Moore, T.-M. Lu, “Deposition of amorphous fluoropolymer thin films by thermolysis of Teflon amorphous fluoropolymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1866–1868 (1992).
[Crossref]

Luff, B. J.

J. Kremeskötter, R. Wilson, D. J. Schiffrin, B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, “Detection of glucose via electrochemiluminescence in a thin-layer cell with a planar optical waveguide,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 1325–1328 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Kremeskötter, R. Wilson, D. J. Schiffrin, B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, “WilsonStudy of luminol electrochemiluminescence with a planar optical waveguide for peroxide sensor application,” in Electrochemical Society Proceedings Vol. 95-1 (Electrochemical Society, 1995), p. 1054.

Lukosz, W.

W. Huber, R. Barner, Ch. Fattinger, J. Hübscher, H. Koller, F. Müller, D. Schlatter, W. Lukosz, “Direct optical immunosensing (sensitivity and selectivity),” Sensors Actuators B 6, 122–126 (1992).
[Crossref]

Magill, J. V.

Y. Zhou, J. V. Magill, R. M. De La Rue, P. J. R. Laybourn, “Evanescent fluorescence immunoassays performed with a disposable ion-exchanged patterned waveguide,” Sensors Actuators B 11, 245–250 (1993).
[Crossref]

Marantonio, E.

E. Marantonio, R. E. Zich, I. Montrosset, “Alternative expression of the dispersion equation in multilayered structures,” IEE Proc. Part J. 137, 357–360 (1990).

Martinez, M. A.

M. A. Martinez, J. Herrero, M. T. Gutiérrez, “Electrochemical stability of indium tin oxide thin films,” Electrochim. Acta 37, 2565–2571 (1992).
[Crossref]

Maruyama, T.

T. Maruyama, K. Tabata, “Indium tin oxide thin films prepared by chemical vapour deposition from metal acetates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L355–L357 (1990).
[Crossref]

McGahan, W. A.

J. A. Woollam, W. A. McGahan, B. Johs, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of indium tin oxide and other flat panel display multilayer materials,” Thin Solid Films 241, 44–46 (1994).
[Crossref]

Menagh, D.

Michael, K.

R. Latz, K. Michael, M. Scherer, “High conducting large area indium tin oxide electrodes for displays prepared by DC magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L149–L151 (1991).
[Crossref]

Miliou, A.

A. Miliou, H. Zhenguang, H. C. Cheng, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Fiber-compatible K+-Na+ ion-exchanged channel waveguides: fabrication and characterization,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1889–1897 (1989).
[Crossref]

Millington, M. J.

P. S. Chung, M. J. Millington, “Post baking characteristics of single-mode and multimode silver/sodium exchanged waveguides,” IEE Proc. Part J 136, (2), 103–107 (1989).

Montrosset, I.

E. Marantonio, R. E. Zich, I. Montrosset, “Alternative expression of the dispersion equation in multilayered structures,” IEE Proc. Part J. 137, 357–360 (1990).

Moore, J. A.

T. C. Nason, J. A. Moore, T.-M. Lu, “Deposition of amorphous fluoropolymer thin films by thermolysis of Teflon amorphous fluoropolymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1866–1868 (1992).
[Crossref]

Müller, F.

W. Huber, R. Barner, Ch. Fattinger, J. Hübscher, H. Koller, F. Müller, D. Schlatter, W. Lukosz, “Direct optical immunosensing (sensitivity and selectivity),” Sensors Actuators B 6, 122–126 (1992).
[Crossref]

Mwarania, E. K.

C. Piraud, E. K. Mwarania, J. Yao, K. O. Dwyer, D. J. Schiffrin, J. S. Wilkinson, “Optoelectrochemical transduction on planar optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 693–699 (1992).
[Crossref]

Nason, T. C.

T. C. Nason, J. A. Moore, T.-M. Lu, “Deposition of amorphous fluoropolymer thin films by thermolysis of Teflon amorphous fluoropolymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1866–1868 (1992).
[Crossref]

Okamura, Y.

Y. Okamura, K. Kitatani, S. Yamamoto, “Low-voltage driving in nematic liquid crystal overlayered waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 360–363 (1986).
[Crossref]

Piraud, C.

C. Piraud, E. K. Mwarania, J. Yao, K. O. Dwyer, D. J. Schiffrin, J. S. Wilkinson, “Optoelectrochemical transduction on planar optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 693–699 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ramaswamy, R. V.

A. Miliou, H. Zhenguang, H. C. Cheng, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Fiber-compatible K+-Na+ ion-exchanged channel waveguides: fabrication and characterization,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1889–1897 (1989).
[Crossref]

Renner, H.

Ross, L.

L. Ross, “Integrated optical components in substrate glasses,” Glastech. Ber. 62, 285–297 (1989).

Scherer, M.

R. Latz, K. Michael, M. Scherer, “High conducting large area indium tin oxide electrodes for displays prepared by DC magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L149–L151 (1991).
[Crossref]

Schiffrin, D. J.

J. Kremeskötter, R. Wilson, D. J. Schiffrin, B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, “Detection of glucose via electrochemiluminescence in a thin-layer cell with a planar optical waveguide,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 1325–1328 (1995).
[Crossref]

C. R. Lavers, R. D. Harris, S. Hao, J. S. Wilkinson, K. O. Dwyer, M. Brust, D. J. Schiffrin, “Electrochemically controlled waveguide-coupled surface plasmon sensing,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 387, 11–22 (1995).
[Crossref]

R. Wilson, D. J. Schiffrin, “Use of fluorescamine for the spectrophotometric investigation of primary amines on silanized glass and indium tin oxide-coated glass,” Analyst 120, 175–178 (1995).
[Crossref]

C. Piraud, E. K. Mwarania, J. Yao, K. O. Dwyer, D. J. Schiffrin, J. S. Wilkinson, “Optoelectrochemical transduction on planar optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 693–699 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Kremeskötter, R. Wilson, D. J. Schiffrin, B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, “WilsonStudy of luminol electrochemiluminescence with a planar optical waveguide for peroxide sensor application,” in Electrochemical Society Proceedings Vol. 95-1 (Electrochemical Society, 1995), p. 1054.

Schlatter, D.

W. Huber, R. Barner, Ch. Fattinger, J. Hübscher, H. Koller, F. Müller, D. Schlatter, W. Lukosz, “Direct optical immunosensing (sensitivity and selectivity),” Sensors Actuators B 6, 122–126 (1992).
[Crossref]

Scholten, M.

M. Scholten, J. E. A. M. van den Meerakker, “On the mechanism of ITO etching: the specificity of halogen acids,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, 471–475 (1993).
[Crossref]

Schweizer, H. P.

J. Kane, H. P. Schweizer, “Chemical vapour deposition of transparent electrically conducting layers of indium oxide doped with tin,” Thin Solid Films 29, 155–163 (1975).
[Crossref]

Sethi, R. S.

R. S. Sethi, “Transducer aspects of biosensors,” Biosensors Bioelectron. 9, 243–263 (1994).
[Crossref]

Simpson, R.

Sloper, A. N.

A. N. Sloper, J. K. Deacon, M. T. Flanagan, “A planar indium phosphate monomode waveguide evanescent field immunosensor,” Sensors Actuators B 1, 589–591 (1990).
[Crossref]

Srivastava, R.

M. N. Weiss, R. Srivastava, “Determination of ion-exchanged channel waveguide profile parameters by mode index measurements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 455–458 (1995).
[Crossref]

A. Miliou, H. Zhenguang, H. C. Cheng, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Fiber-compatible K+-Na+ ion-exchanged channel waveguides: fabrication and characterization,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1889–1897 (1989).
[Crossref]

Subrahmanyam, A.

N. Balasubramanian, A. Subrahmanyam, “Electrical and optical properties of reactively evaporated indium tin oxide (ITO) films—dependence on substrate temperature and tin concentration,” J. Phys. D 22, 206–209 (1989).
[Crossref]

Tabata, K.

T. Maruyama, K. Tabata, “Indium tin oxide thin films prepared by chemical vapour deposition from metal acetates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L355–L357 (1990).
[Crossref]

van den Meerakker, J. E. A. M.

M. Scholten, J. E. A. M. van den Meerakker, “On the mechanism of ITO etching: the specificity of halogen acids,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, 471–475 (1993).
[Crossref]

Waldorf, A.

Webb, J. B.

M. Buchanan, J. B. Webb, D. F. Williams, “Preparation of conducting and transparent thin films of tin-doped indium oxide by magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 213–215 (1980).
[Crossref]

Weiss, M. N.

M. N. Weiss, R. Srivastava, “Determination of ion-exchanged channel waveguide profile parameters by mode index measurements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 455–458 (1995).
[Crossref]

Wilkinson, J. S.

C. R. Lavers, R. D. Harris, S. Hao, J. S. Wilkinson, K. O. Dwyer, M. Brust, D. J. Schiffrin, “Electrochemically controlled waveguide-coupled surface plasmon sensing,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 387, 11–22 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Kremeskötter, R. Wilson, D. J. Schiffrin, B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, “Detection of glucose via electrochemiluminescence in a thin-layer cell with a planar optical waveguide,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 1325–1328 (1995).
[Crossref]

C. Piraud, E. K. Mwarania, J. Yao, K. O. Dwyer, D. J. Schiffrin, J. S. Wilkinson, “Optoelectrochemical transduction on planar optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 693–699 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. L. Yao, S. Hao, J. S. Wilkinson, “Indium tin oxide thin films by sequential evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 189, 227–233 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Kremeskötter, R. Wilson, D. J. Schiffrin, B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, “WilsonStudy of luminol electrochemiluminescence with a planar optical waveguide for peroxide sensor application,” in Electrochemical Society Proceedings Vol. 95-1 (Electrochemical Society, 1995), p. 1054.

Williams, D. F.

M. Buchanan, J. B. Webb, D. F. Williams, “Preparation of conducting and transparent thin films of tin-doped indium oxide by magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 213–215 (1980).
[Crossref]

Wilson, R.

J. Kremeskötter, R. Wilson, D. J. Schiffrin, B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, “Detection of glucose via electrochemiluminescence in a thin-layer cell with a planar optical waveguide,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 1325–1328 (1995).
[Crossref]

R. Wilson, D. J. Schiffrin, “Use of fluorescamine for the spectrophotometric investigation of primary amines on silanized glass and indium tin oxide-coated glass,” Analyst 120, 175–178 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Kremeskötter, R. Wilson, D. J. Schiffrin, B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, “WilsonStudy of luminol electrochemiluminescence with a planar optical waveguide for peroxide sensor application,” in Electrochemical Society Proceedings Vol. 95-1 (Electrochemical Society, 1995), p. 1054.

Woollam, J. A.

J. A. Woollam, W. A. McGahan, B. Johs, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of indium tin oxide and other flat panel display multilayer materials,” Thin Solid Films 241, 44–46 (1994).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, S.

Y. Okamura, K. Kitatani, S. Yamamoto, “Low-voltage driving in nematic liquid crystal overlayered waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 360–363 (1986).
[Crossref]

Yao, J.

C. Piraud, E. K. Mwarania, J. Yao, K. O. Dwyer, D. J. Schiffrin, J. S. Wilkinson, “Optoelectrochemical transduction on planar optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 693–699 (1992).
[Crossref]

Yao, J. L.

J. L. Yao, S. Hao, J. S. Wilkinson, “Indium tin oxide thin films by sequential evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 189, 227–233 (1990).
[Crossref]

Yip, G. L.

Zhenguang, H.

A. Miliou, H. Zhenguang, H. C. Cheng, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Fiber-compatible K+-Na+ ion-exchanged channel waveguides: fabrication and characterization,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1889–1897 (1989).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y.

Y. Zhou, J. V. Magill, R. M. De La Rue, P. J. R. Laybourn, “Evanescent fluorescence immunoassays performed with a disposable ion-exchanged patterned waveguide,” Sensors Actuators B 11, 245–250 (1993).
[Crossref]

Zich, R. E.

E. Marantonio, R. E. Zich, I. Montrosset, “Alternative expression of the dispersion equation in multilayered structures,” IEE Proc. Part J. 137, 357–360 (1990).

Analyst (1)

R. Wilson, D. J. Schiffrin, “Use of fluorescamine for the spectrophotometric investigation of primary amines on silanized glass and indium tin oxide-coated glass,” Analyst 120, 175–178 (1995).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

T. C. Nason, J. A. Moore, T.-M. Lu, “Deposition of amorphous fluoropolymer thin films by thermolysis of Teflon amorphous fluoropolymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1866–1868 (1992).
[Crossref]

M. Buchanan, J. B. Webb, D. F. Williams, “Preparation of conducting and transparent thin films of tin-doped indium oxide by magnetron sputtering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 213–215 (1980).
[Crossref]

Biosensors Bioelectron. (1)

R. S. Sethi, “Transducer aspects of biosensors,” Biosensors Bioelectron. 9, 243–263 (1994).
[Crossref]

Electrochim. Acta (1)

M. A. Martinez, J. Herrero, M. T. Gutiérrez, “Electrochemical stability of indium tin oxide thin films,” Electrochim. Acta 37, 2565–2571 (1992).
[Crossref]

Fresenius Z. Anal. Chem. (1)

J. Ingenhoff, B. Drapp, G. Gauglitz, “Biosensors using integrated optical devices,” Fresenius Z. Anal. Chem. 346, 580–583 (1993).
[Crossref]

Glastech. Ber. (1)

L. Ross, “Integrated optical components in substrate glasses,” Glastech. Ber. 62, 285–297 (1989).

IEE Proc. Part J (1)

P. S. Chung, M. J. Millington, “Post baking characteristics of single-mode and multimode silver/sodium exchanged waveguides,” IEE Proc. Part J 136, (2), 103–107 (1989).

IEE Proc. Part J. (1)

E. Marantonio, R. E. Zich, I. Montrosset, “Alternative expression of the dispersion equation in multilayered structures,” IEE Proc. Part J. 137, 357–360 (1990).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Miliou, H. Zhenguang, H. C. Cheng, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Fiber-compatible K+-Na+ ion-exchanged channel waveguides: fabrication and characterization,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1889–1897 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. Electroanal. Chem. (1)

C. R. Lavers, R. D. Harris, S. Hao, J. S. Wilkinson, K. O. Dwyer, M. Brust, D. J. Schiffrin, “Electrochemically controlled waveguide-coupled surface plasmon sensing,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 387, 11–22 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

M. Scholten, J. E. A. M. van den Meerakker, “On the mechanism of ITO etching: the specificity of halogen acids,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140, 471–475 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Y. Okamura, K. Kitatani, S. Yamamoto, “Low-voltage driving in nematic liquid crystal overlayered waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 360–363 (1986).
[Crossref]

C. Piraud, E. K. Mwarania, J. Yao, K. O. Dwyer, D. J. Schiffrin, J. S. Wilkinson, “Optoelectrochemical transduction on planar optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 693–699 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

K. Itoh, A. Fujishima, “An application of optical waveguides to electrochemistry: construction of optical waveguide electrodes,” J. Phys. Chem. 92, 7043–7045 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D (1)

N. Balasubramanian, A. Subrahmanyam, “Electrical and optical properties of reactively evaporated indium tin oxide (ITO) films—dependence on substrate temperature and tin concentration,” J. Phys. D 22, 206–209 (1989).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

R. Latz, K. Michael, M. Scherer, “High conducting large area indium tin oxide electrodes for displays prepared by DC magnetron sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, L149–L151 (1991).
[Crossref]

T. Maruyama, K. Tabata, “Indium tin oxide thin films prepared by chemical vapour deposition from metal acetates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L355–L357 (1990).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. Kremeskötter, R. Wilson, D. J. Schiffrin, B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, “Detection of glucose via electrochemiluminescence in a thin-layer cell with a planar optical waveguide,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 6, 1325–1328 (1995).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Sensors Actuators B (5)

P. V. Lambeck, “Integrated opto-chemical sensors,” Sensors Actuators B 8, 103–116 (1992).
[Crossref]

W. Huber, R. Barner, Ch. Fattinger, J. Hübscher, H. Koller, F. Müller, D. Schlatter, W. Lukosz, “Direct optical immunosensing (sensitivity and selectivity),” Sensors Actuators B 6, 122–126 (1992).
[Crossref]

A. N. Sloper, J. K. Deacon, M. T. Flanagan, “A planar indium phosphate monomode waveguide evanescent field immunosensor,” Sensors Actuators B 1, 589–591 (1990).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, J. V. Magill, R. M. De La Rue, P. J. R. Laybourn, “Evanescent fluorescence immunoassays performed with a disposable ion-exchanged patterned waveguide,” Sensors Actuators B 11, 245–250 (1993).
[Crossref]

R. G. Heideman, R. P. H. Kooyman, J. Greve, “Performance of a highly sensitive optical waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer immunosensor,” Sensors Actuators B 10, 209–217 (1993).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (3)

J. A. Woollam, W. A. McGahan, B. Johs, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of indium tin oxide and other flat panel display multilayer materials,” Thin Solid Films 241, 44–46 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Kane, H. P. Schweizer, “Chemical vapour deposition of transparent electrically conducting layers of indium oxide doped with tin,” Thin Solid Films 29, 155–163 (1975).
[Crossref]

J. L. Yao, S. Hao, J. S. Wilkinson, “Indium tin oxide thin films by sequential evaporation,” Thin Solid Films 189, 227–233 (1990).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films (Dover, New York, 1965).

J. Kremeskötter, R. Wilson, D. J. Schiffrin, B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, “WilsonStudy of luminol electrochemiluminescence with a planar optical waveguide for peroxide sensor application,” in Electrochemical Society Proceedings Vol. 95-1 (Electrochemical Society, 1995), p. 1054.

H. W. Gnewuch, Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK (personal communication, 1996).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

One-dimensional multilayer waveguide parameters: nsup, superstrate index; nf, film index; tf, film thickness; d, diffusion depth.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Waveguide attenuation measurement apparatus.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effect of anneal on a non-ITO coated waveguide (TE polarization).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of TE and TM spectra for the annealed, uncoated sample (nsup = 1.00).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Bulk transmission spectra of the ITO films.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Effect of (a) 30- and (b) 50-nm ITO film on waveguide attenuation spectra, measured for nsup = 1.00 and 1.31.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Attenuation at 633 nm owing to ITO overlayers for (a) nsup = 1.00 and (b) nsup = 1.31. Individual points show measured values; solid and dotted curves show the modeled attenuation for TE and TM polarizations, respectively.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 ITO Film Sheet Resistances R a

Tables Icon

Table 2 ITO Film Transmissions at 633 nm, Measured without a Reference Samplea

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

nx=Δn exp-x2d2.
Ey=Ey0 exp-βzexp-iβz,
α=4.34×1074πneffλ,
fΔn, d=gViLci2Lmi2-1,
gV=1V<Vc103V>Vc,
V=2πλdnsub+Δn2-nsub21/2,

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