Abstract

We provide an analysis of the influence of instrument polarization sensitivity on the radiance measured by spaceborne ocean color sensors. Simulated examples demonstrate the influence of polarization sensitivity on the retrieval of the water-leaving reflectance ρw. A simple method for partially correcting for polarization sensitivity—replacing the linear polarization properties of the top-of-atmosphere reflectance with those from a Rayleigh-scattering atmosphere—is provided and its efficacy is evaluated. It is shown that this scheme improves ρw retrievals as long as the polarization sensitivity of the instrument does not vary strongly from band to band. Of course, a complete polarization-sensitivity characterization of the ocean color sensor is required to implement the correction.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. R. Gordon, A. Y. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments derived from the Nimbus-7 CZCS: initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 63–66 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, “An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” in SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, Vol. 1, NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, July1992 (NASA, Greenbelt, Md.).
  5. V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 145–152 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. R. Gordon, “Calibration requirements and methodology for remote sensors viewing the oceans in the visible,” Remote Sensing Environ. 22, 103–126 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. W. Kattawar, G. N. Plass, J. A. Guinn, “Monte Carlo calculations of the polarization of radiation in the Earth’s atmosphere-ocean system,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 3, 353–372 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. D. Mill, R. R. O’Neil, S. Price, G. J. Romick, O. M. Uy, E. M. Gaposchkin, G. C. Light, W. W. Moore, T. L. Murdock, A. T. Stair, “Midcourse space experiment: introduction to the spacecraft instruments, and scientific objectives,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 31, 900–907 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).
  10. H. C. van de Hulst, Multiple Light Scattering (Academic, New York, 1980).
  11. S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1950).
  12. W. A. Shurcliff, Polarized Light (Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., 1962).
  13. C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).
  14. J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. W. Kattawar, G. N. Plass, S. J. Hitzfelder, “Multiple scattered radiation emerging from Rayleigh and continental haze layers. 1: Radiance, polarization, and neutral points,” Appl. Opt. 15, 632–647 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, S. J. Hitzfelder, “Multiple scattered radiation emerging from Rayleigh and continental haze layers. 2: Ellipticity and direction of polarization,” Appl. Opt. 15, 1003–1011 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the Aerosols of the Lower Atmosphere and the Effects of Humidity Variations on Their Optical Properties, , 1979 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb AFB, Mass.).
  18. H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observing System era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102D, 17,081–17,106 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. J. Reddy, F. W. Kreiner, J. J. Deluisi, Y. Kim, “Aerosol optical depths over the Atlantic derived from shipboard sunphotometer observations during the 1988 Global Change Expedition,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 4, 225–240 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y. V. Villevalde, A. V. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, S. P. Smyshlyaev, V. V. Yakovlev, “Measurement of aerosol optical depth in the Pacific Ocean and North Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 99D, 20,983–20,988 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  22. G. K. Korotaev, S. M. Sakerin, A. M. Ignatov, L. L. Stowe, E. P. McClain, “Sun-photometer observations of aerosol optical thickness over the North Atlantic from a Soviet research vessel for validation of satellite measurements,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 10, 725–735 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Ivanoff, “Polarization measurements in the sea,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. S. Nielsen, eds. (Academic, London, 1974) pp. 151–175.
  24. G. W. Kattawar, C. N. Adams, “Stokes vector calculations of the submarine light field in an atmosphere-ocean with scattering according to a Rayleigh phase matrix: effect of interface refractive index on radiance and polarization,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1453–1472 (1989).
    [CrossRef]

1997

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observing System era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102D, 17,081–17,106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. D. Mill, R. R. O’Neil, S. Price, G. J. Romick, O. M. Uy, E. M. Gaposchkin, G. C. Light, W. W. Moore, T. L. Murdock, A. T. Stair, “Midcourse space experiment: introduction to the spacecraft instruments, and scientific objectives,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 31, 900–907 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. V. Villevalde, A. V. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, S. P. Smyshlyaev, V. V. Yakovlev, “Measurement of aerosol optical depth in the Pacific Ocean and North Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 99D, 20,983–20,988 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

G. K. Korotaev, S. M. Sakerin, A. M. Ignatov, L. L. Stowe, E. P. McClain, “Sun-photometer observations of aerosol optical thickness over the North Atlantic from a Soviet research vessel for validation of satellite measurements,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 10, 725–735 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

P. J. Reddy, F. W. Kreiner, J. J. Deluisi, Y. Kim, “Aerosol optical depths over the Atlantic derived from shipboard sunphotometer observations during the 1988 Global Change Expedition,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 4, 225–240 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 145–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Kattawar, C. N. Adams, “Stokes vector calculations of the submarine light field in an atmosphere-ocean with scattering according to a Rayleigh phase matrix: effect of interface refractive index on radiance and polarization,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1453–1472 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987

H. R. Gordon, “Calibration requirements and methodology for remote sensors viewing the oceans in the visible,” Remote Sensing Environ. 22, 103–126 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1980

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments derived from the Nimbus-7 CZCS: initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 63–66 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976

1974

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973

G. W. Kattawar, G. N. Plass, J. A. Guinn, “Monte Carlo calculations of the polarization of radiation in the Earth’s atmosphere-ocean system,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 3, 353–372 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Adams, C. N.

G. W. Kattawar, C. N. Adams, “Stokes vector calculations of the submarine light field in an atmosphere-ocean with scattering according to a Rayleigh phase matrix: effect of interface refractive index on radiance and polarization,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1453–1472 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, F.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Austin, R. W.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, E. T.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ball, D.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 145–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Chandrasekhar, S.

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1950).

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments derived from the Nimbus-7 CZCS: initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 63–66 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deluisi, J. J.

P. J. Reddy, F. W. Kreiner, J. J. Deluisi, Y. Kim, “Aerosol optical depths over the Atlantic derived from shipboard sunphotometer observations during the 1988 Global Change Expedition,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 4, 225–240 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Esaias, W. E.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, “An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” in SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, Vol. 1, NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, July1992 (NASA, Greenbelt, Md.).

Feldman, G. C.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, “An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” in SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, Vol. 1, NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, July1992 (NASA, Greenbelt, Md.).

Fenn, R. W.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the Aerosols of the Lower Atmosphere and the Effects of Humidity Variations on Their Optical Properties, , 1979 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb AFB, Mass.).

Gaposchkin, E. M.

J. D. Mill, R. R. O’Neil, S. Price, G. J. Romick, O. M. Uy, E. M. Gaposchkin, G. C. Light, W. W. Moore, T. L. Murdock, A. T. Stair, “Midcourse space experiment: introduction to the spacecraft instruments, and scientific objectives,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 31, 900–907 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observing System era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102D, 17,081–17,106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, M. Wang, “Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 33, 443–452 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, “Calibration requirements and methodology for remote sensors viewing the oceans in the visible,” Remote Sensing Environ. 22, 103–126 (1987).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments derived from the Nimbus-7 CZCS: initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 63–66 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, A. Y. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983).
[CrossRef]

Gregg, W. W.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, “An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” in SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, Vol. 1, NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, July1992 (NASA, Greenbelt, Md.).

Guinn, J. A.

G. W. Kattawar, G. N. Plass, J. A. Guinn, “Monte Carlo calculations of the polarization of radiation in the Earth’s atmosphere-ocean system,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 3, 353–372 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, J. E.

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hitzfelder, S. J.

Hooker, S. B.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, “An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” in SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, Vol. 1, NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, July1992 (NASA, Greenbelt, Md.).

Hovis, W. A.

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments derived from the Nimbus-7 CZCS: initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 63–66 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Ignatov, A. M.

G. K. Korotaev, S. M. Sakerin, A. M. Ignatov, L. L. Stowe, E. P. McClain, “Sun-photometer observations of aerosol optical thickness over the North Atlantic from a Soviet research vessel for validation of satellite measurements,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 10, 725–735 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ivanoff, A.

A. Ivanoff, “Polarization measurements in the sea,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. S. Nielsen, eds. (Academic, London, 1974) pp. 151–175.

Kattawar, G. W.

G. W. Kattawar, C. N. Adams, “Stokes vector calculations of the submarine light field in an atmosphere-ocean with scattering according to a Rayleigh phase matrix: effect of interface refractive index on radiance and polarization,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1453–1472 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Kattawar, G. N. Plass, S. J. Hitzfelder, “Multiple scattered radiation emerging from Rayleigh and continental haze layers. 1: Radiance, polarization, and neutral points,” Appl. Opt. 15, 632–647 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, S. J. Hitzfelder, “Multiple scattered radiation emerging from Rayleigh and continental haze layers. 2: Ellipticity and direction of polarization,” Appl. Opt. 15, 1003–1011 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Kattawar, G. N. Plass, J. A. Guinn, “Monte Carlo calculations of the polarization of radiation in the Earth’s atmosphere-ocean system,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 3, 353–372 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

P. J. Reddy, F. W. Kreiner, J. J. Deluisi, Y. Kim, “Aerosol optical depths over the Atlantic derived from shipboard sunphotometer observations during the 1988 Global Change Expedition,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 4, 225–240 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Korotaev, G. K.

G. K. Korotaev, S. M. Sakerin, A. M. Ignatov, L. L. Stowe, E. P. McClain, “Sun-photometer observations of aerosol optical thickness over the North Atlantic from a Soviet research vessel for validation of satellite measurements,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 10, 725–735 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kreiner, F. W.

P. J. Reddy, F. W. Kreiner, J. J. Deluisi, Y. Kim, “Aerosol optical depths over the Atlantic derived from shipboard sunphotometer observations during the 1988 Global Change Expedition,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 4, 225–240 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Light, G. C.

J. D. Mill, R. R. O’Neil, S. Price, G. J. Romick, O. M. Uy, E. M. Gaposchkin, G. C. Light, W. W. Moore, T. L. Murdock, A. T. Stair, “Midcourse space experiment: introduction to the spacecraft instruments, and scientific objectives,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 31, 900–907 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Maymon, P. W.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 145–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C. R.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, “An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” in SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, Vol. 1, NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, July1992 (NASA, Greenbelt, Md.).

McClain, E. P.

G. K. Korotaev, S. M. Sakerin, A. M. Ignatov, L. L. Stowe, E. P. McClain, “Sun-photometer observations of aerosol optical thickness over the North Atlantic from a Soviet research vessel for validation of satellite measurements,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 10, 725–735 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mill, J. D.

J. D. Mill, R. R. O’Neil, S. Price, G. J. Romick, O. M. Uy, E. M. Gaposchkin, G. C. Light, W. W. Moore, T. L. Murdock, A. T. Stair, “Midcourse space experiment: introduction to the spacecraft instruments, and scientific objectives,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 31, 900–907 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Montgomery, H. E.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 145–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Moore, W. W.

J. D. Mill, R. R. O’Neil, S. Price, G. J. Romick, O. M. Uy, E. M. Gaposchkin, G. C. Light, W. W. Moore, T. L. Murdock, A. T. Stair, “Midcourse space experiment: introduction to the spacecraft instruments, and scientific objectives,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 31, 900–907 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A. Y.

H. R. Gordon, A. Y. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, J. L.

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments derived from the Nimbus-7 CZCS: initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 63–66 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murdock, T. L.

J. D. Mill, R. R. O’Neil, S. Price, G. J. Romick, O. M. Uy, E. M. Gaposchkin, G. C. Light, W. W. Moore, T. L. Murdock, A. T. Stair, “Midcourse space experiment: introduction to the spacecraft instruments, and scientific objectives,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 31, 900–907 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O’Neil, R. R.

J. D. Mill, R. R. O’Neil, S. Price, G. J. Romick, O. M. Uy, E. M. Gaposchkin, G. C. Light, W. W. Moore, T. L. Murdock, A. T. Stair, “Midcourse space experiment: introduction to the spacecraft instruments, and scientific objectives,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 31, 900–907 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O’Neill, N. T.

Y. V. Villevalde, A. V. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, S. P. Smyshlyaev, V. V. Yakovlev, “Measurement of aerosol optical depth in the Pacific Ocean and North Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 99D, 20,983–20,988 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ostrow, H.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 145–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Plass, G. N.

Price, S.

J. D. Mill, R. R. O’Neil, S. Price, G. J. Romick, O. M. Uy, E. M. Gaposchkin, G. C. Light, W. W. Moore, T. L. Murdock, A. T. Stair, “Midcourse space experiment: introduction to the spacecraft instruments, and scientific objectives,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 31, 900–907 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Reddy, P. J.

P. J. Reddy, F. W. Kreiner, J. J. Deluisi, Y. Kim, “Aerosol optical depths over the Atlantic derived from shipboard sunphotometer observations during the 1988 Global Change Expedition,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 4, 225–240 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Romick, G. J.

J. D. Mill, R. R. O’Neil, S. Price, G. J. Romick, O. M. Uy, E. M. Gaposchkin, G. C. Light, W. W. Moore, T. L. Murdock, A. T. Stair, “Midcourse space experiment: introduction to the spacecraft instruments, and scientific objectives,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 31, 900–907 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sakerin, S. M.

G. K. Korotaev, S. M. Sakerin, A. M. Ignatov, L. L. Stowe, E. P. McClain, “Sun-photometer observations of aerosol optical thickness over the North Atlantic from a Soviet research vessel for validation of satellite measurements,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 10, 725–735 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Salomonson, V. V.

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 145–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sayed, S. Y. E.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shettle, E. P.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the Aerosols of the Lower Atmosphere and the Effects of Humidity Variations on Their Optical Properties, , 1979 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb AFB, Mass.).

Shurcliff, W. A.

W. A. Shurcliff, Polarized Light (Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., 1962).

Smirnov, A. V.

Y. V. Villevalde, A. V. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, S. P. Smyshlyaev, V. V. Yakovlev, “Measurement of aerosol optical depth in the Pacific Ocean and North Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 99D, 20,983–20,988 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Smyshlyaev, S. P.

Y. V. Villevalde, A. V. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, S. P. Smyshlyaev, V. V. Yakovlev, “Measurement of aerosol optical depth in the Pacific Ocean and North Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 99D, 20,983–20,988 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stair, A. T.

J. D. Mill, R. R. O’Neil, S. Price, G. J. Romick, O. M. Uy, E. M. Gaposchkin, G. C. Light, W. W. Moore, T. L. Murdock, A. T. Stair, “Midcourse space experiment: introduction to the spacecraft instruments, and scientific objectives,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 31, 900–907 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stowe, L. L.

G. K. Korotaev, S. M. Sakerin, A. M. Ignatov, L. L. Stowe, E. P. McClain, “Sun-photometer observations of aerosol optical thickness over the North Atlantic from a Soviet research vessel for validation of satellite measurements,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 10, 725–735 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Strum, B.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Travis, L. D.

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Uy, O. M.

J. D. Mill, R. R. O’Neil, S. Price, G. J. Romick, O. M. Uy, E. M. Gaposchkin, G. C. Light, W. W. Moore, T. L. Murdock, A. T. Stair, “Midcourse space experiment: introduction to the spacecraft instruments, and scientific objectives,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 31, 900–907 (1994).
[CrossRef]

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Multiple Light Scattering (Academic, New York, 1980).

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).

Villevalde, Y. V.

Y. V. Villevalde, A. V. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, S. P. Smyshlyaev, V. V. Yakovlev, “Measurement of aerosol optical depth in the Pacific Ocean and North Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 99D, 20,983–20,988 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

Wilson, W. H.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wrigley, R. C.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V. V.

Y. V. Villevalde, A. V. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, S. P. Smyshlyaev, V. V. Yakovlev, “Measurement of aerosol optical depth in the Pacific Ocean and North Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 99D, 20,983–20,988 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yentsch, C. S.

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Global Biogeochem. Cycles

P. J. Reddy, F. W. Kreiner, J. J. Deluisi, Y. Kim, “Aerosol optical depths over the Atlantic derived from shipboard sunphotometer observations during the 1988 Global Change Expedition,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 4, 225–240 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Geosci. Remote Sensing

V. V. Salomonson, W. L. Barnes, P. W. Maymon, H. E. Montgomery, H. Ostrow, “MODIS: advanced facility instrument for studies of the Earth as a system,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sensing 27, 145–152 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.

G. K. Korotaev, S. M. Sakerin, A. M. Ignatov, L. L. Stowe, E. P. McClain, “Sun-photometer observations of aerosol optical thickness over the North Atlantic from a Soviet research vessel for validation of satellite measurements,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 10, 725–735 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

Y. V. Villevalde, A. V. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, S. P. Smyshlyaev, V. V. Yakovlev, “Measurement of aerosol optical depth in the Pacific Ocean and North Atlantic,” J. Geophys. Res. 99D, 20,983–20,988 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth Observing System era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102D, 17,081–17,106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Oceanogr.

G. W. Kattawar, G. N. Plass, J. A. Guinn, “Monte Carlo calculations of the polarization of radiation in the Earth’s atmosphere-ocean system,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 3, 353–372 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Spacecr. Rockets

J. D. Mill, R. R. O’Neil, S. Price, G. J. Romick, O. M. Uy, E. M. Gaposchkin, G. C. Light, W. W. Moore, T. L. Murdock, A. T. Stair, “Midcourse space experiment: introduction to the spacecraft instruments, and scientific objectives,” J. Spacecr. Rockets 31, 900–907 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr.

G. W. Kattawar, C. N. Adams, “Stokes vector calculations of the submarine light field in an atmosphere-ocean with scattering according to a Rayleigh phase matrix: effect of interface refractive index on radiance and polarization,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1453–1472 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sensing Environ.

H. R. Gordon, “Calibration requirements and methodology for remote sensors viewing the oceans in the visible,” Remote Sensing Environ. 22, 103–126 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Science

W. A. Hovis, D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. Y. E. Sayed, B. Strum, R. C. Wrigley, C. S. Yentsch, “Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner: system description and initial imagery,” Science 210, 60–63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton pigments derived from the Nimbus-7 CZCS: initial comparisons with surface measurements,” Science 210, 63–66 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Space Sci. Rev.

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. R. Gordon, A. Y. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery: A Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the Aerosols of the Lower Atmosphere and the Effects of Humidity Variations on Their Optical Properties, , 1979 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb AFB, Mass.).

A. Ivanoff, “Polarization measurements in the sea,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. S. Nielsen, eds. (Academic, London, 1974) pp. 151–175.

S. B. Hooker, W. E. Esaias, G. C. Feldman, W. W. Gregg, C. R. McClain, “An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color,” in SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, Vol. 1, NASA Technical Memorandum 104566, July1992 (NASA, Greenbelt, Md.).

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).

H. C. van de Hulst, Multiple Light Scattering (Academic, New York, 1980).

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1950).

W. A. Shurcliff, Polarized Light (Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., 1962).

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scattering phase matrix element P12 for aerosols at 443, 765, and 865 nm, and Rayleigh: (a) M80 aerosol model and (b) T80 aerosol model.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ratios Qt/It and Ut/It as a function of θv for the M80 aerosol model with ϕ = 90°: (a) θ0 = 20° and (b) θ0 = 60°.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Retrieved error tΔρw at 443 nm as a function of θ0 for the M80 aerosol model with τa(865) = 0.2, in the presence of polarization sensitivity, for viewing at the edge of the scan with (a) m12 = (0.10, 0.10, 0.10); (b) m12 = (0.05, 0.05, 0.05); (c) m12 = (0.05, 0.03, 0.03); (d) m12 = (0.02, 0.02, 0.02); (e) m12 = (0.05, -0.05, -0.05); (f) m12 = (0.02, -0.02, -0.02).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ratios Q/I and U/I for Rayleigh scattering and total scattering as a function of viewing zenith angle θv for the M80 aerosol model with τa(865) = 0.2 and θ0 = 60°: (a) λ = 443 nm; (b) λ = 765 nm; (c) λ = 865 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Retrieved error tΔρw at 443 nm as a function of θ0 for the M80 aerosol model with τa(865) = 0.2, after applying the removal algorithm, for viewing at the edge of the scan with (a) m12 = (0.10, 0.10, 0.10); (b) m12 = (0.05, 0.05, 0.05); (c) m12 = (0.05, 0.03, 0.03); (d) m12 = (0.02, 0.02, 0.02); (e) m12 = (0.05, -0.05, -0.05); (f) m12 = (0.02, -0.02, -0.02).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Frequently Used Symbols

Equations (30)

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IQUV,
I=ElEl*+ErEr*,  Q=ElEl*-ErEr*,  U=ElEr*+ErEl*, V=iElEr*-ErEl*,
P=Q2+U2+V21/2I,
I=IQUV=1-PI000+PIQUV.
Im=MI,
ErElm=AErEl=A1A4A3A2ErEl,
Im=MRαIt,
Rα10000cos 2αsin 2α00-sin 2αcos 2α00001,
Im=M11It+M12cos 2αQt+sin 2αUt+M13-sin 2αQt+cos 2αUt+M14Vt,
Im=M11It+M12cos 2αQt+sin 2αUt+M13-sin 2αQt+cos 2αUt.
Ilˆ=M11+M12I0.
Irˆ=M11-M12I0.
Ilrˆ=M11+M13I0.
M11=Ilˆ+Irˆ2I0,  M12=Ilˆ-Irˆ2I0,  M13=IlˆrI0-M11.
qt=QtIt,  ut=UtIt,
Im=It1+m12cos 2αqt+sin 2αut+m13-sin 2αqt+cos 2αut,
m12=M12M11, m13=M13M11.
m12=Ilˆ-IrˆIlˆ+Irˆ, m13=2IlrˆIlˆ+Irˆ-1.
It=Ir+Ia+Ira+tIw,
It=Ir+Ia+Ira+tIw.
cos θdIλ, τ, θ, ϕdτ=-Iλ, τ, θ, ϕ+ω04πRαPλ, τ, θ, ϕθ, ϕ×RαIλ, τ, θ,ϕdΩ,
I0; θ, ϕ=F0000δcos θ-cos θ0×δϕ-ϕ0,  θ0<π/2.
Iτ1; θr, ϕr=FθiIτ1; θi, ϕi,
Fθi=ρ+θiρ-θi00ρ-θiρ+θi0000ρ33θi0000ρ33θi,
ρ±θi=12cos θi-n2-sin2θi1/2cos θi+n2-sin2 θi1/22×sin2 θi-cos θin2-sin2 θi1/2sin2 θi+cos θin2-sin2 θi1/22±1, ρ33θi=cos θi-n2-sin2θi1/2cos θi+n2-sin2 θi1/22×sin2 θi-cos θin2-sin2 θi1/2sin2 θi+cos θin2-sin2 θi1/2.
PaΘ=P11P1200P12P110000P33P3400-P34P33,
PrΘ=316π1+cos2 Θ-sin2 Θ00-sin2 Θ1+cos2 Θ00002 cos Θ00002 cos Θ,
ItQtUtVt=F0 cos θ0ω0cos θ0-cos θ1-expτ1cos θ-τ1cos θ0×P11ΘP12Θ cos 2α-P12Θ sin 2α0,
ΔItItIm-ItIt=m12qt cos 2α+ut sin 2α.
ΔItItm12Pl.

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