Abstract

A dual-wavelength, diode-seeded, flash-lamp-pumped Ti:sapphire laser system has been developed. Injection seeding allowed the attainment of high output energies (130 mJ), narrow linewidth (250 MHz), and high reliability. Furthermore, an original method is presented for dual-wavelength operation, using diode current sweeping. These specifications are ideal for differential absorption lidar applications, and the example of NO2 detection is presented. Extension to other pollutants is discussed.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Chemical Analysis, (Wiley, New York, 1988).
  2. M. Ulbricht, P. Rairoux, J. Reif, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, “Calibration procedures of lidar systems,” in Optical Sensing in Environmental Monitoring, Proc. SPIE 2112, 194–197 (1993).
  3. J. P. Wolf, “3D monitoring of air pollution using mobile all solid state lidar systems,” Opt. Photon. News 6, 27–29 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. P. Wolf, M. Douard, K. Fritzsche, P. Rairoux, G. Schubert, M. Ulbricht, D. Weidauer, L. Wöste, “All solid state lidar systems,” in Optical Sensing in Environmental Monitoring, Proc. SPIE 2119, 200–207, (1993).
  5. H. Bair, P. Brockman, R. Hess, E. Moldin, “Demonstration of frequency control and cw diode laser injection control of a titanium doped sapphire ring laser with no internal optical elements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1045–1048 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. C. Barnes, N. P. Barnes, L. G. Wang, W. Edwards, “Injection seeding II: Ti:Al2O3 experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2684–2692 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Yu, M. Douard, P. Rambaldi, B. Vezin, J. P. Wolf, “Laser diode injection seeding of a flashlamp-pumped Q-switched Ti:Al2O3 laser oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 132, 263–268 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Ismail, E. V. Browell, “Airborne and spaceborne lidar measurements of water vapor profiles: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3603–3615 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. Gillispie, A. Khan, “The electronic structure of NO2. II. The A and B absorption systems,” J. Chem. Phys. 65, 1624–1633 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. Fry, Q. Hu, X. Li, “Single frequency operation of an injection seeded Nd:YAG laser in high noise and vibration environments,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1015–1017 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. D. Raymond, V. A. Smith, “Injection seeded titanium doped sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 33–35 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

J. Yu, M. Douard, P. Rambaldi, B. Vezin, J. P. Wolf, “Laser diode injection seeding of a flashlamp-pumped Q-switched Ti:Al2O3 laser oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 132, 263–268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. P. Wolf, “3D monitoring of air pollution using mobile all solid state lidar systems,” Opt. Photon. News 6, 27–29 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. C. Barnes, N. P. Barnes, L. G. Wang, W. Edwards, “Injection seeding II: Ti:Al2O3 experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2684–2692 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

H. Bair, P. Brockman, R. Hess, E. Moldin, “Demonstration of frequency control and cw diode laser injection control of a titanium doped sapphire ring laser with no internal optical elements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1045–1048 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

G. Gillispie, A. Khan, “The electronic structure of NO2. II. The A and B absorption systems,” J. Chem. Phys. 65, 1624–1633 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Bair, H.

H. Bair, P. Brockman, R. Hess, E. Moldin, “Demonstration of frequency control and cw diode laser injection control of a titanium doped sapphire ring laser with no internal optical elements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1045–1048 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, J. C.

J. C. Barnes, N. P. Barnes, L. G. Wang, W. Edwards, “Injection seeding II: Ti:Al2O3 experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2684–2692 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, N. P.

J. C. Barnes, N. P. Barnes, L. G. Wang, W. Edwards, “Injection seeding II: Ti:Al2O3 experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2684–2692 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brockman, P.

H. Bair, P. Brockman, R. Hess, E. Moldin, “Demonstration of frequency control and cw diode laser injection control of a titanium doped sapphire ring laser with no internal optical elements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1045–1048 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Browell, E. V.

Douard, M.

J. Yu, M. Douard, P. Rambaldi, B. Vezin, J. P. Wolf, “Laser diode injection seeding of a flashlamp-pumped Q-switched Ti:Al2O3 laser oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 132, 263–268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Wolf, M. Douard, K. Fritzsche, P. Rairoux, G. Schubert, M. Ulbricht, D. Weidauer, L. Wöste, “All solid state lidar systems,” in Optical Sensing in Environmental Monitoring, Proc. SPIE 2119, 200–207, (1993).

Edwards, W.

J. C. Barnes, N. P. Barnes, L. G. Wang, W. Edwards, “Injection seeding II: Ti:Al2O3 experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2684–2692 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fritzsche, K.

J. P. Wolf, M. Douard, K. Fritzsche, P. Rairoux, G. Schubert, M. Ulbricht, D. Weidauer, L. Wöste, “All solid state lidar systems,” in Optical Sensing in Environmental Monitoring, Proc. SPIE 2119, 200–207, (1993).

Fry, E.

Gillispie, G.

G. Gillispie, A. Khan, “The electronic structure of NO2. II. The A and B absorption systems,” J. Chem. Phys. 65, 1624–1633 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hess, R.

H. Bair, P. Brockman, R. Hess, E. Moldin, “Demonstration of frequency control and cw diode laser injection control of a titanium doped sapphire ring laser with no internal optical elements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1045–1048 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Q.

Ismail, S.

Khan, A.

G. Gillispie, A. Khan, “The electronic structure of NO2. II. The A and B absorption systems,” J. Chem. Phys. 65, 1624–1633 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Measures, R. M.

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Chemical Analysis, (Wiley, New York, 1988).

Moldin, E.

H. Bair, P. Brockman, R. Hess, E. Moldin, “Demonstration of frequency control and cw diode laser injection control of a titanium doped sapphire ring laser with no internal optical elements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1045–1048 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rairoux, P.

J. P. Wolf, M. Douard, K. Fritzsche, P. Rairoux, G. Schubert, M. Ulbricht, D. Weidauer, L. Wöste, “All solid state lidar systems,” in Optical Sensing in Environmental Monitoring, Proc. SPIE 2119, 200–207, (1993).

M. Ulbricht, P. Rairoux, J. Reif, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, “Calibration procedures of lidar systems,” in Optical Sensing in Environmental Monitoring, Proc. SPIE 2112, 194–197 (1993).

Rambaldi, P.

J. Yu, M. Douard, P. Rambaldi, B. Vezin, J. P. Wolf, “Laser diode injection seeding of a flashlamp-pumped Q-switched Ti:Al2O3 laser oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 132, 263–268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Raymond, T. D.

Reif, J.

M. Ulbricht, P. Rairoux, J. Reif, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, “Calibration procedures of lidar systems,” in Optical Sensing in Environmental Monitoring, Proc. SPIE 2112, 194–197 (1993).

Schubert, G.

J. P. Wolf, M. Douard, K. Fritzsche, P. Rairoux, G. Schubert, M. Ulbricht, D. Weidauer, L. Wöste, “All solid state lidar systems,” in Optical Sensing in Environmental Monitoring, Proc. SPIE 2119, 200–207, (1993).

Smith, V. A.

Ulbricht, M.

J. P. Wolf, M. Douard, K. Fritzsche, P. Rairoux, G. Schubert, M. Ulbricht, D. Weidauer, L. Wöste, “All solid state lidar systems,” in Optical Sensing in Environmental Monitoring, Proc. SPIE 2119, 200–207, (1993).

M. Ulbricht, P. Rairoux, J. Reif, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, “Calibration procedures of lidar systems,” in Optical Sensing in Environmental Monitoring, Proc. SPIE 2112, 194–197 (1993).

Vezin, B.

J. Yu, M. Douard, P. Rambaldi, B. Vezin, J. P. Wolf, “Laser diode injection seeding of a flashlamp-pumped Q-switched Ti:Al2O3 laser oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 132, 263–268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. G.

J. C. Barnes, N. P. Barnes, L. G. Wang, W. Edwards, “Injection seeding II: Ti:Al2O3 experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2684–2692 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Weidauer, D.

M. Ulbricht, P. Rairoux, J. Reif, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, “Calibration procedures of lidar systems,” in Optical Sensing in Environmental Monitoring, Proc. SPIE 2112, 194–197 (1993).

J. P. Wolf, M. Douard, K. Fritzsche, P. Rairoux, G. Schubert, M. Ulbricht, D. Weidauer, L. Wöste, “All solid state lidar systems,” in Optical Sensing in Environmental Monitoring, Proc. SPIE 2119, 200–207, (1993).

Wolf, J. P.

J. Yu, M. Douard, P. Rambaldi, B. Vezin, J. P. Wolf, “Laser diode injection seeding of a flashlamp-pumped Q-switched Ti:Al2O3 laser oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 132, 263–268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Wolf, “3D monitoring of air pollution using mobile all solid state lidar systems,” Opt. Photon. News 6, 27–29 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Wolf, M. Douard, K. Fritzsche, P. Rairoux, G. Schubert, M. Ulbricht, D. Weidauer, L. Wöste, “All solid state lidar systems,” in Optical Sensing in Environmental Monitoring, Proc. SPIE 2119, 200–207, (1993).

M. Ulbricht, P. Rairoux, J. Reif, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, “Calibration procedures of lidar systems,” in Optical Sensing in Environmental Monitoring, Proc. SPIE 2112, 194–197 (1993).

Wöste, L.

J. P. Wolf, M. Douard, K. Fritzsche, P. Rairoux, G. Schubert, M. Ulbricht, D. Weidauer, L. Wöste, “All solid state lidar systems,” in Optical Sensing in Environmental Monitoring, Proc. SPIE 2119, 200–207, (1993).

Yu, J.

J. Yu, M. Douard, P. Rambaldi, B. Vezin, J. P. Wolf, “Laser diode injection seeding of a flashlamp-pumped Q-switched Ti:Al2O3 laser oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 132, 263–268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

H. Bair, P. Brockman, R. Hess, E. Moldin, “Demonstration of frequency control and cw diode laser injection control of a titanium doped sapphire ring laser with no internal optical elements,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1045–1048 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Barnes, N. P. Barnes, L. G. Wang, W. Edwards, “Injection seeding II: Ti:Al2O3 experiments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2684–2692 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

G. Gillispie, A. Khan, “The electronic structure of NO2. II. The A and B absorption systems,” J. Chem. Phys. 65, 1624–1633 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Yu, M. Douard, P. Rambaldi, B. Vezin, J. P. Wolf, “Laser diode injection seeding of a flashlamp-pumped Q-switched Ti:Al2O3 laser oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 132, 263–268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Photon. News (1)

J. P. Wolf, “3D monitoring of air pollution using mobile all solid state lidar systems,” Opt. Photon. News 6, 27–29 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J. P. Wolf, M. Douard, K. Fritzsche, P. Rairoux, G. Schubert, M. Ulbricht, D. Weidauer, L. Wöste, “All solid state lidar systems,” in Optical Sensing in Environmental Monitoring, Proc. SPIE 2119, 200–207, (1993).

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Chemical Analysis, (Wiley, New York, 1988).

M. Ulbricht, P. Rairoux, J. Reif, D. Weidauer, J. P. Wolf, “Calibration procedures of lidar systems,” in Optical Sensing in Environmental Monitoring, Proc. SPIE 2112, 194–197 (1993).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Emission spectra of the seeded (narrow peak) and unseeded (broad feature) Ti:sapphire laser. Absolute maximum and width of the seeded pulse were limited by OMA resolution and CCD dynamic range.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fabry–Perot output exhibiting the narrow linewidth of the seeded Ti:sapphire laser.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Emission spectra by the dual-wavelength operation showing the output of 50 averaged pulse pairs.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Example of Detectable Pollutants Obtained with a Three-Diode Seeder

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