Abstract

From lidar signals detected with a shot per shot differential absorption lidar instrument tuned for tropospheric ozone measurements and recording each individual return, we reconstruct histograms of their sampled values for each channel of our digitizers. The analysis of their shape permits the correction of our measurements for experimental biases. In particular, a negative correlation is found between the skew of the histograms and the intensity of the backscattered light. The skew comes from a tail at high sampled values, interpreted as due to a raise of the relative contribution to the signal of a signal-induced noise when this intensity diminishes. By fitting a Gaussian function to the histograms without considering their tails, we calculate average signals unbiased by the corresponding noise. This approach allows us to increase the range of our ozone profiles, up to as much as double it in some cases.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing (Krieger, Malabar, Fla., 1992).
  2. I. S. McDermid, D. A. Haner, M. M. Kleiman, T. D. Walsh, M. L. White, “Differential absorption lidar systems for tropospheric and stratospheric ozone measurements,” Opt. Eng. 30, 22–30 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Edner, K. Fredriksson, A. Sunesson, S. Svanberg, L. Unéus, W. Wendt, “Mobile remote sensing system for atmospheric monitoring,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4330–4338 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. Ancellet, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “DIAL tropospheric ozone measurement using Nd:YAG laser and the Raman shifting technique,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 6, 832–839 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, H. Bergwerff, G. von Cossart, H. Edner, J. Fiedler, B. Galle, C. de Jonge, J. Mellqvist, V. Mitev, T. Schaberl, G. Sonnemann, J. Spakman, D. Swart, E. Wallinder, “Tropospheric ozone lidar intercomparison experiment, TROLIX ’91, field phase report,” (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1993).
  6. U. Kempfer, W. Carnuth, R. Lotz, T. Trickl, “A wide-range ultraviolet lidar system for tropospheric ozone measurements: development and application,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3145–3164 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Papayannis, “Instruments,” in Instrument Development for Atmospheric Research and Monitoring, J. Bösenberg, D. Brassington, P. Simon, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 1997), pp. 33–88.
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, E. Durieux, “A combined determination of wind velocities and ozone concentrations for a first measurement of ozone fluxes with a DIAL instrument during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign,” Atmos. Environ. (to be published).
  9. R. E. W. Pettifer, “Signal induced noise in lidar experiments,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 37, 669–673 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. J. Grund, E. W. Eloranta, “University of Wisconsin high spectral resolution lidar,” Opt. Eng. 30, 6–12 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. A. Sunesson, A. Apituley, D. P. J. Swart, “Differential absorption lidar system for routine monitoring of tropospheric ozone,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7045–7058 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. E. Durieux, B. Calpini, A. Clappier, L. Fiorani, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “An innovative high repetition rate shot per shot acquisition system and its application to a new kind of tropospheric lidar measurements,” in Excimer Lasers, L. D. Laude, ed. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1994), pp. 245–267.
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. V. Browell, “Lidar measurements of tropospheric gases,” Opt. Eng. 21, 128–132 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “Tropospheric ozone measurements over the Great Athens Area during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign with a new shot-per-shot DIAL instrument. Experimental system and results,” Atmos. Environ. (to be published).
  15. I. Ziomas, “Proposal for the Mediterranean campaign of photochemical tracers—transport and chemical evolution (MEDCAPHOT-TRACE),” 1993 (Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece).
  16. E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, “Data analysis,” in Instrument Development for Atmospheric Research and Monitoring, J. Bösenberg, D. Brassington, P. Simon, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 1997), pp. 89–116.
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Elbaum, P. Diament, “SNR in the photocounting images of rough objects in partially coherent light,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2268–2275 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Ozone monitoring in the troposphere and lower stratosphere: evaluation and operation of a ground-based lidar station,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4947–4955 (1982).
    [CrossRef]

1994 (2)

U. Kempfer, W. Carnuth, R. Lotz, T. Trickl, “A wide-range ultraviolet lidar system for tropospheric ozone measurements: development and application,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3145–3164 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Sunesson, A. Apituley, D. P. J. Swart, “Differential absorption lidar system for routine monitoring of tropospheric ozone,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7045–7058 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

C. J. Grund, E. W. Eloranta, “University of Wisconsin high spectral resolution lidar,” Opt. Eng. 30, 6–12 (1991).
[CrossRef]

I. S. McDermid, D. A. Haner, M. M. Kleiman, T. D. Walsh, M. L. White, “Differential absorption lidar systems for tropospheric and stratospheric ozone measurements,” Opt. Eng. 30, 22–30 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

G. Ancellet, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “DIAL tropospheric ozone measurement using Nd:YAG laser and the Raman shifting technique,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 6, 832–839 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1982 (2)

E. V. Browell, “Lidar measurements of tropospheric gases,” Opt. Eng. 21, 128–132 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Ozone monitoring in the troposphere and lower stratosphere: evaluation and operation of a ground-based lidar station,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4947–4955 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

1975 (1)

R. E. W. Pettifer, “Signal induced noise in lidar experiments,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 37, 669–673 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ancellet, G.

G. Ancellet, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “DIAL tropospheric ozone measurement using Nd:YAG laser and the Raman shifting technique,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 6, 832–839 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, H. Bergwerff, G. von Cossart, H. Edner, J. Fiedler, B. Galle, C. de Jonge, J. Mellqvist, V. Mitev, T. Schaberl, G. Sonnemann, J. Spakman, D. Swart, E. Wallinder, “Tropospheric ozone lidar intercomparison experiment, TROLIX ’91, field phase report,” (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1993).

Apituley, A.

J. A. Sunesson, A. Apituley, D. P. J. Swart, “Differential absorption lidar system for routine monitoring of tropospheric ozone,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7045–7058 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, H. Bergwerff, G. von Cossart, H. Edner, J. Fiedler, B. Galle, C. de Jonge, J. Mellqvist, V. Mitev, T. Schaberl, G. Sonnemann, J. Spakman, D. Swart, E. Wallinder, “Tropospheric ozone lidar intercomparison experiment, TROLIX ’91, field phase report,” (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1993).

Bergwerff, H.

J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, H. Bergwerff, G. von Cossart, H. Edner, J. Fiedler, B. Galle, C. de Jonge, J. Mellqvist, V. Mitev, T. Schaberl, G. Sonnemann, J. Spakman, D. Swart, E. Wallinder, “Tropospheric ozone lidar intercomparison experiment, TROLIX ’91, field phase report,” (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1993).

Bösenberg, J.

J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, H. Bergwerff, G. von Cossart, H. Edner, J. Fiedler, B. Galle, C. de Jonge, J. Mellqvist, V. Mitev, T. Schaberl, G. Sonnemann, J. Spakman, D. Swart, E. Wallinder, “Tropospheric ozone lidar intercomparison experiment, TROLIX ’91, field phase report,” (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1993).

Browell, E. V.

E. V. Browell, “Lidar measurements of tropospheric gases,” Opt. Eng. 21, 128–132 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Calpini, B.

E. Durieux, B. Calpini, A. Clappier, L. Fiorani, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “An innovative high repetition rate shot per shot acquisition system and its application to a new kind of tropospheric lidar measurements,” in Excimer Lasers, L. D. Laude, ed. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1994), pp. 245–267.
[CrossRef]

L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, E. Durieux, “A combined determination of wind velocities and ozone concentrations for a first measurement of ozone fluxes with a DIAL instrument during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign,” Atmos. Environ. (to be published).

E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “Tropospheric ozone measurements over the Great Athens Area during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign with a new shot-per-shot DIAL instrument. Experimental system and results,” Atmos. Environ. (to be published).

Carnuth, W.

U. Kempfer, W. Carnuth, R. Lotz, T. Trickl, “A wide-range ultraviolet lidar system for tropospheric ozone measurements: development and application,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3145–3164 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Clappier, A.

E. Durieux, B. Calpini, A. Clappier, L. Fiorani, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “An innovative high repetition rate shot per shot acquisition system and its application to a new kind of tropospheric lidar measurements,” in Excimer Lasers, L. D. Laude, ed. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1994), pp. 245–267.
[CrossRef]

de Jonge, C.

J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, H. Bergwerff, G. von Cossart, H. Edner, J. Fiedler, B. Galle, C. de Jonge, J. Mellqvist, V. Mitev, T. Schaberl, G. Sonnemann, J. Spakman, D. Swart, E. Wallinder, “Tropospheric ozone lidar intercomparison experiment, TROLIX ’91, field phase report,” (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1993).

Diament, P.

Durieux, E.

E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, “Data analysis,” in Instrument Development for Atmospheric Research and Monitoring, J. Bösenberg, D. Brassington, P. Simon, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 1997), pp. 89–116.
[CrossRef]

E. Durieux, B. Calpini, A. Clappier, L. Fiorani, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “An innovative high repetition rate shot per shot acquisition system and its application to a new kind of tropospheric lidar measurements,” in Excimer Lasers, L. D. Laude, ed. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1994), pp. 245–267.
[CrossRef]

E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “Tropospheric ozone measurements over the Great Athens Area during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign with a new shot-per-shot DIAL instrument. Experimental system and results,” Atmos. Environ. (to be published).

L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, E. Durieux, “A combined determination of wind velocities and ozone concentrations for a first measurement of ozone fluxes with a DIAL instrument during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign,” Atmos. Environ. (to be published).

Edner, H.

H. Edner, K. Fredriksson, A. Sunesson, S. Svanberg, L. Unéus, W. Wendt, “Mobile remote sensing system for atmospheric monitoring,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4330–4338 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, H. Bergwerff, G. von Cossart, H. Edner, J. Fiedler, B. Galle, C. de Jonge, J. Mellqvist, V. Mitev, T. Schaberl, G. Sonnemann, J. Spakman, D. Swart, E. Wallinder, “Tropospheric ozone lidar intercomparison experiment, TROLIX ’91, field phase report,” (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1993).

Elbaum, M.

Eloranta, E. W.

C. J. Grund, E. W. Eloranta, “University of Wisconsin high spectral resolution lidar,” Opt. Eng. 30, 6–12 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fiedler, J.

J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, H. Bergwerff, G. von Cossart, H. Edner, J. Fiedler, B. Galle, C. de Jonge, J. Mellqvist, V. Mitev, T. Schaberl, G. Sonnemann, J. Spakman, D. Swart, E. Wallinder, “Tropospheric ozone lidar intercomparison experiment, TROLIX ’91, field phase report,” (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1993).

Fiorani, L.

L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, E. Durieux, “A combined determination of wind velocities and ozone concentrations for a first measurement of ozone fluxes with a DIAL instrument during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign,” Atmos. Environ. (to be published).

E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “Tropospheric ozone measurements over the Great Athens Area during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign with a new shot-per-shot DIAL instrument. Experimental system and results,” Atmos. Environ. (to be published).

E. Durieux, B. Calpini, A. Clappier, L. Fiorani, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “An innovative high repetition rate shot per shot acquisition system and its application to a new kind of tropospheric lidar measurements,” in Excimer Lasers, L. D. Laude, ed. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1994), pp. 245–267.
[CrossRef]

E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, “Data analysis,” in Instrument Development for Atmospheric Research and Monitoring, J. Bösenberg, D. Brassington, P. Simon, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 1997), pp. 89–116.
[CrossRef]

Flamm, M.

E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “Tropospheric ozone measurements over the Great Athens Area during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign with a new shot-per-shot DIAL instrument. Experimental system and results,” Atmos. Environ. (to be published).

E. Durieux, B. Calpini, A. Clappier, L. Fiorani, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “An innovative high repetition rate shot per shot acquisition system and its application to a new kind of tropospheric lidar measurements,” in Excimer Lasers, L. D. Laude, ed. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1994), pp. 245–267.
[CrossRef]

Fredriksson, K.

Galle, B.

J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, H. Bergwerff, G. von Cossart, H. Edner, J. Fiedler, B. Galle, C. de Jonge, J. Mellqvist, V. Mitev, T. Schaberl, G. Sonnemann, J. Spakman, D. Swart, E. Wallinder, “Tropospheric ozone lidar intercomparison experiment, TROLIX ’91, field phase report,” (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1993).

Grund, C. J.

C. J. Grund, E. W. Eloranta, “University of Wisconsin high spectral resolution lidar,” Opt. Eng. 30, 6–12 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Haner, D. A.

I. S. McDermid, D. A. Haner, M. M. Kleiman, T. D. Walsh, M. L. White, “Differential absorption lidar systems for tropospheric and stratospheric ozone measurements,” Opt. Eng. 30, 22–30 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jaquet, L.

L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, E. Durieux, “A combined determination of wind velocities and ozone concentrations for a first measurement of ozone fluxes with a DIAL instrument during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign,” Atmos. Environ. (to be published).

E. Durieux, B. Calpini, A. Clappier, L. Fiorani, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “An innovative high repetition rate shot per shot acquisition system and its application to a new kind of tropospheric lidar measurements,” in Excimer Lasers, L. D. Laude, ed. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1994), pp. 245–267.
[CrossRef]

E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “Tropospheric ozone measurements over the Great Athens Area during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign with a new shot-per-shot DIAL instrument. Experimental system and results,” Atmos. Environ. (to be published).

Kempfer, U.

U. Kempfer, W. Carnuth, R. Lotz, T. Trickl, “A wide-range ultraviolet lidar system for tropospheric ozone measurements: development and application,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3145–3164 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kleiman, M. M.

I. S. McDermid, D. A. Haner, M. M. Kleiman, T. D. Walsh, M. L. White, “Differential absorption lidar systems for tropospheric and stratospheric ozone measurements,” Opt. Eng. 30, 22–30 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lotz, R.

U. Kempfer, W. Carnuth, R. Lotz, T. Trickl, “A wide-range ultraviolet lidar system for tropospheric ozone measurements: development and application,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3145–3164 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McDermid, I. S.

I. S. McDermid, D. A. Haner, M. M. Kleiman, T. D. Walsh, M. L. White, “Differential absorption lidar systems for tropospheric and stratospheric ozone measurements,” Opt. Eng. 30, 22–30 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Measures, R. M.

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing (Krieger, Malabar, Fla., 1992).

Mégie, G.

G. Ancellet, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “DIAL tropospheric ozone measurement using Nd:YAG laser and the Raman shifting technique,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 6, 832–839 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Ozone monitoring in the troposphere and lower stratosphere: evaluation and operation of a ground-based lidar station,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4947–4955 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Mellqvist, J.

J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, H. Bergwerff, G. von Cossart, H. Edner, J. Fiedler, B. Galle, C. de Jonge, J. Mellqvist, V. Mitev, T. Schaberl, G. Sonnemann, J. Spakman, D. Swart, E. Wallinder, “Tropospheric ozone lidar intercomparison experiment, TROLIX ’91, field phase report,” (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1993).

Mitev, V.

J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, H. Bergwerff, G. von Cossart, H. Edner, J. Fiedler, B. Galle, C. de Jonge, J. Mellqvist, V. Mitev, T. Schaberl, G. Sonnemann, J. Spakman, D. Swart, E. Wallinder, “Tropospheric ozone lidar intercomparison experiment, TROLIX ’91, field phase report,” (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1993).

Papayannis, A.

G. Ancellet, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “DIAL tropospheric ozone measurement using Nd:YAG laser and the Raman shifting technique,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 6, 832–839 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Papayannis, “Instruments,” in Instrument Development for Atmospheric Research and Monitoring, J. Bösenberg, D. Brassington, P. Simon, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 1997), pp. 33–88.
[CrossRef]

Pelon, J.

G. Ancellet, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “DIAL tropospheric ozone measurement using Nd:YAG laser and the Raman shifting technique,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 6, 832–839 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Ozone monitoring in the troposphere and lower stratosphere: evaluation and operation of a ground-based lidar station,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4947–4955 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Pettifer, R. E. W.

R. E. W. Pettifer, “Signal induced noise in lidar experiments,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 37, 669–673 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Schaberl, T.

J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, H. Bergwerff, G. von Cossart, H. Edner, J. Fiedler, B. Galle, C. de Jonge, J. Mellqvist, V. Mitev, T. Schaberl, G. Sonnemann, J. Spakman, D. Swart, E. Wallinder, “Tropospheric ozone lidar intercomparison experiment, TROLIX ’91, field phase report,” (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1993).

Sonnemann, G.

J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, H. Bergwerff, G. von Cossart, H. Edner, J. Fiedler, B. Galle, C. de Jonge, J. Mellqvist, V. Mitev, T. Schaberl, G. Sonnemann, J. Spakman, D. Swart, E. Wallinder, “Tropospheric ozone lidar intercomparison experiment, TROLIX ’91, field phase report,” (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1993).

Spakman, J.

J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, H. Bergwerff, G. von Cossart, H. Edner, J. Fiedler, B. Galle, C. de Jonge, J. Mellqvist, V. Mitev, T. Schaberl, G. Sonnemann, J. Spakman, D. Swart, E. Wallinder, “Tropospheric ozone lidar intercomparison experiment, TROLIX ’91, field phase report,” (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1993).

Sunesson, A.

Sunesson, J. A.

Svanberg, S.

Swart, D.

J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, H. Bergwerff, G. von Cossart, H. Edner, J. Fiedler, B. Galle, C. de Jonge, J. Mellqvist, V. Mitev, T. Schaberl, G. Sonnemann, J. Spakman, D. Swart, E. Wallinder, “Tropospheric ozone lidar intercomparison experiment, TROLIX ’91, field phase report,” (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1993).

Swart, D. P. J.

Trickl, T.

U. Kempfer, W. Carnuth, R. Lotz, T. Trickl, “A wide-range ultraviolet lidar system for tropospheric ozone measurements: development and application,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3145–3164 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Unéus, L.

Van den Bergh, H.

E. Durieux, B. Calpini, A. Clappier, L. Fiorani, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “An innovative high repetition rate shot per shot acquisition system and its application to a new kind of tropospheric lidar measurements,” in Excimer Lasers, L. D. Laude, ed. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1994), pp. 245–267.
[CrossRef]

L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, E. Durieux, “A combined determination of wind velocities and ozone concentrations for a first measurement of ozone fluxes with a DIAL instrument during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign,” Atmos. Environ. (to be published).

E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “Tropospheric ozone measurements over the Great Athens Area during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign with a new shot-per-shot DIAL instrument. Experimental system and results,” Atmos. Environ. (to be published).

von Cossart, G.

J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, H. Bergwerff, G. von Cossart, H. Edner, J. Fiedler, B. Galle, C. de Jonge, J. Mellqvist, V. Mitev, T. Schaberl, G. Sonnemann, J. Spakman, D. Swart, E. Wallinder, “Tropospheric ozone lidar intercomparison experiment, TROLIX ’91, field phase report,” (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1993).

Wallinder, E.

J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, H. Bergwerff, G. von Cossart, H. Edner, J. Fiedler, B. Galle, C. de Jonge, J. Mellqvist, V. Mitev, T. Schaberl, G. Sonnemann, J. Spakman, D. Swart, E. Wallinder, “Tropospheric ozone lidar intercomparison experiment, TROLIX ’91, field phase report,” (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1993).

Walsh, T. D.

I. S. McDermid, D. A. Haner, M. M. Kleiman, T. D. Walsh, M. L. White, “Differential absorption lidar systems for tropospheric and stratospheric ozone measurements,” Opt. Eng. 30, 22–30 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wendt, W.

White, M. L.

I. S. McDermid, D. A. Haner, M. M. Kleiman, T. D. Walsh, M. L. White, “Differential absorption lidar systems for tropospheric and stratospheric ozone measurements,” Opt. Eng. 30, 22–30 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ziomas, I.

I. Ziomas, “Proposal for the Mediterranean campaign of photochemical tracers—transport and chemical evolution (MEDCAPHOT-TRACE),” 1993 (Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece).

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. (1)

G. Ancellet, A. Papayannis, J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “DIAL tropospheric ozone measurement using Nd:YAG laser and the Raman shifting technique,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 6, 832–839 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. (1)

R. E. W. Pettifer, “Signal induced noise in lidar experiments,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 37, 669–673 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

J. Pelon, G. Mégie, “Ozone monitoring in the troposphere and lower stratosphere: evaluation and operation of a ground-based lidar station,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4947–4955 (1982).
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Opt. Eng. (3)

E. V. Browell, “Lidar measurements of tropospheric gases,” Opt. Eng. 21, 128–132 (1982).
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C. J. Grund, E. W. Eloranta, “University of Wisconsin high spectral resolution lidar,” Opt. Eng. 30, 6–12 (1991).
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I. S. McDermid, D. A. Haner, M. M. Kleiman, T. D. Walsh, M. L. White, “Differential absorption lidar systems for tropospheric and stratospheric ozone measurements,” Opt. Eng. 30, 22–30 (1991).
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Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

U. Kempfer, W. Carnuth, R. Lotz, T. Trickl, “A wide-range ultraviolet lidar system for tropospheric ozone measurements: development and application,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3145–3164 (1994).
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Other (8)

A. Papayannis, “Instruments,” in Instrument Development for Atmospheric Research and Monitoring, J. Bösenberg, D. Brassington, P. Simon, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 1997), pp. 33–88.
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L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, E. Durieux, “A combined determination of wind velocities and ozone concentrations for a first measurement of ozone fluxes with a DIAL instrument during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign,” Atmos. Environ. (to be published).

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing (Krieger, Malabar, Fla., 1992).

J. Bösenberg, G. Ancellet, A. Apituley, H. Bergwerff, G. von Cossart, H. Edner, J. Fiedler, B. Galle, C. de Jonge, J. Mellqvist, V. Mitev, T. Schaberl, G. Sonnemann, J. Spakman, D. Swart, E. Wallinder, “Tropospheric ozone lidar intercomparison experiment, TROLIX ’91, field phase report,” (Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 1993).

E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “Tropospheric ozone measurements over the Great Athens Area during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign with a new shot-per-shot DIAL instrument. Experimental system and results,” Atmos. Environ. (to be published).

I. Ziomas, “Proposal for the Mediterranean campaign of photochemical tracers—transport and chemical evolution (MEDCAPHOT-TRACE),” 1993 (Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece).

E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, “Data analysis,” in Instrument Development for Atmospheric Research and Monitoring, J. Bösenberg, D. Brassington, P. Simon, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 1997), pp. 89–116.
[CrossRef]

E. Durieux, B. Calpini, A. Clappier, L. Fiorani, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, H. Van den Bergh, “An innovative high repetition rate shot per shot acquisition system and its application to a new kind of tropospheric lidar measurements,” in Excimer Lasers, L. D. Laude, ed. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1994), pp. 245–267.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Temporal evolution of the lidar signal at the on wavelength, averaged between 570 and 1485 m.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Histogram of the ADC counts for energy monitoring.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Histograms of the ADC counts for the lidar signal recorded at three ranges. A Gaussian curve with mean and standard deviation parameters set equal to those calculated from the data by using Gaussian estimators is superimposed on each histogram.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Evolution of histogram skew for both wavelength ranges. Only one to 12 sampling channels has been represented.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison between the fitted Gaussian curve and the curve calculated from the application of Gaussian estimators to the data for an extreme case of large skew at the on wavelength.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Effect of the correction scheme on the histogram mean value at both wavelengths for one to 12 sampling channels.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Evolution with the histogram skew of the gain in SNR obtained when we applied the correction scheme. Symbols mark different experimental conditions.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of corrected and uncorrected ozone profiles to simultaneous airplane data that have a 57.4-ppb average. Only statistical error bars are reported on the data points.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of corrected and uncorrected ozone profiles to a constant ozone level of 55 ± 5 ppb, typical of a well-mixed atmosphere over greater Athens in the first two weeks of September 1994.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Identification of ozone accumulation in the planetary boundary layer derived from a corrected profile.

Equations (2)

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s=-+p-p¯3Fpdp-+p-p¯2Fpdp3/2
p¯=-+pFpdp.

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