Abstract

We develop a modeless dye laser for broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and investigate the operational characteristics of the modeless laser. The energy efficiency of the modeless laser is 6%, and the beam divergence is 0.65 mrad. We construct a compact movable CARS system with the modeless laser and a graphite tube furnace to assess the accuracy of the CARS temperature. It is found that the difference between the averaged CARS temperature and the radiation temperature measured with an optical pyrometer is <2% at a temperature range from 1000 to 2400 K. We also measure the averaged CARS temperature drift owing to the variation of the spectral distribution of the modeless laser, which is <1.5% during 5 h of operation.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. J. Hall, A. C. Eckbreth, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy(CARS): application to combustion diagnostics,” in Laser Applications, J. F. Ready, R. K. Erf, eds. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1984), Vol. 5, pp. 213–309.
  2. A. C. Eckbreth, G. M. Dobbs, J. H. Stufflebeam, P. A. Tellex, “CARS temperature and species measurements in augmented jet engine exhausts,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1328–1339 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. L. Switzer, W. M. Roquemore, R. B. Bradley, P. W. Schreiber, W. B. Rho, “CARS measurements in a bluff-body stabilized diffusion flame,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2343–2345 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Lefebvre, M. Pealat, J. P. Taran, “CARS in plasma physics,” in Frontiers in Nonlinear Optics, H. Walter, N. Koroteev, M. O. Scully, eds. (Institute of Physics, London, 1993), pp. 52–83.
  5. J. W. Hahn, S. N. Park, E. S. Lee, C. Rhee, K. T. Kang, S. H. Chung, C. Y. Choi, Y. D. Huh, “Measuring the concentration of minor species from the modulation dip of the nonresonant background of broadband CARS spectra,” Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 710–714 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. A. England, J. M. Milne, S. N. Jenny, D. A. Greenhalgh, “Application of CARS to an operating chemical reactor,” Appl. Spectrosc. 38, 867–875 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. A. J. Druet, J. P. E. Taran, “CARS spectroscopy,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 7, 1–72 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. L. Koszykowski, L. A. Rahn, R. E. Palmer, M. E. Coltrin, “Theoretical and experimental studies of high-resolution inverse Raman spectra of N2 at 1-10 atm,” J. Phys. Chem. 91, 41–46 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. C. Eckbreth, “BOXCARS: Cross-beam phase-matched CARS generation in gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 421–423 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. A. Rahn, L. J. Zych, P. L. Mattern, “Background-free CARS studies of carbon monoxide in a flame,” Opt. Commun. 30, 249–252 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. C. Eckbreth, J. H. Stufflebeam, “Considerations of the application of CARS to turbulent reacting flows,” Exp. Fluids 3, 301–314 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Snowdon, S. M. Skippon, P. Ewart, “Improved precision of single-shot temperature measurements by broadband CARS by use of a modeless laser,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1008–1010 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. P. Ewart, “A modeless, variable bandwidth, tunable laser,” Opt. Commun. 55, 124–126 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Pealat, P. Bouchardy, M. Lefevre, J. P. Taran, “Precision of multiplex CARS temperature measurements,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1012–1022 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D. R. Snelling, G. J. Smallwood, R. A. Sawchuk, T. Paramesaran, “Precision of multiplex CARS temperatures using both single-mode and multimode pump lasers,” Appl. Opt. 26, 99–110 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. F. M. Porter, D. A. Greenhalgh, P. J. Stopford, D. R. Williams, C. A. Baker, “A study of CARS nitrogen thermometry at high pressure,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 31–38 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  17. N. Wenzel, B. Lange, G. Marowsky, “High temperature N2-CARS thermometry,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 61–62 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Kroll, D. Sandell, “Influence of laser-mode statistics on noise in nonlinear optical processes - application to single-shot broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering thermometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1910–1925 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. R. Snelling, R. A. Sawchuk, R. E. Mueller, “Single pulse CARS noise: a comparison between single-mode and multimode pump lasers,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2771–2778 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. D. R. Snelling, R. A. Sawchuk, T. Parameswaran, “Noise in single-shot broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy that employs a modeless laser,” Appl. Opt. 33, 8295–8301 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. D. R. Snelling, R. A. Sawchuk, T. Parameswaran, “Effect of detector nonlinearity and image persistence on CARS derived temperatures,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3233–3241 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. D. R. Snelling, R. A. Sawchuk, G. J. Smallwood, “An improved CARS spectrometer for single shot measurements in turbulent combustion,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5556–5564 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  23. I. G. Shepherd, F. M. Porter, D. A. Greenhalgh, “Spatial resolution effects of CARS in turbulent premixed combustion thermometry,” Combust. Flame 82, 106–109 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. Y. Zhu, D. Dunn-Rankin, “CARS thermometry in high temperature gradients,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 47–56 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  25. H. Preston-Thomas, “The international temperature scale of 1990 (ITS-90),” Metrologia 27, 3–10 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  26. R. L. Farrow, P. L. Mattern, L. A. Rahn, “Comparison between CARS and corrected thermocouple temperature measurements in a diffusion flame,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3119–3125 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. T. J. Anderson, G. M. Dobbs, A. C. Eckbreth, “Mobile CARS instrument for combustion and plasma diagnostics,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4076–4085 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. H. Kataoka, S. Maeda, C. Hirose, “Effects of laser linewidth on the coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy spectral profile,” Appl. Spectrosc. 36, 565–569 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  29. L. A. Rahn, R. L. Farrow, R. P. Lucht, “Effects of laser field statistics on coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy intensities,” Opt. Lett. 9, 223–225 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. S. N. Park, J. W. Hahn, C. Rhee, “Effect of the slit function of the detection system and a fast-fitting algorithm on accuracy of CARS temperature,” Appl. Spectrosc. 48, 737–747 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

1994

1993

1992

D. R. Snelling, R. A. Sawchuk, G. J. Smallwood, “An improved CARS spectrometer for single shot measurements in turbulent combustion,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5556–5564 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

1990

I. G. Shepherd, F. M. Porter, D. A. Greenhalgh, “Spatial resolution effects of CARS in turbulent premixed combustion thermometry,” Combust. Flame 82, 106–109 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Preston-Thomas, “The international temperature scale of 1990 (ITS-90),” Metrologia 27, 3–10 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Porter, D. A. Greenhalgh, P. J. Stopford, D. R. Williams, C. A. Baker, “A study of CARS nitrogen thermometry at high pressure,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 31–38 (1990).
[CrossRef]

N. Wenzel, B. Lange, G. Marowsky, “High temperature N2-CARS thermometry,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 61–62 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

1988

1987

D. R. Snelling, G. J. Smallwood, R. A. Sawchuk, T. Paramesaran, “Precision of multiplex CARS temperatures using both single-mode and multimode pump lasers,” Appl. Opt. 26, 99–110 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Koszykowski, L. A. Rahn, R. E. Palmer, M. E. Coltrin, “Theoretical and experimental studies of high-resolution inverse Raman spectra of N2 at 1-10 atm,” J. Phys. Chem. 91, 41–46 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

1985

1984

1982

1981

S. A. J. Druet, J. P. E. Taran, “CARS spectroscopy,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 7, 1–72 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979

L. A. Rahn, L. J. Zych, P. L. Mattern, “Background-free CARS studies of carbon monoxide in a flame,” Opt. Commun. 30, 249–252 (1979).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Switzer, W. M. Roquemore, R. B. Bradley, P. W. Schreiber, W. B. Rho, “CARS measurements in a bluff-body stabilized diffusion flame,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2343–2345 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978

A. C. Eckbreth, “BOXCARS: Cross-beam phase-matched CARS generation in gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 421–423 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, T. J.

Baker, C. A.

F. M. Porter, D. A. Greenhalgh, P. J. Stopford, D. R. Williams, C. A. Baker, “A study of CARS nitrogen thermometry at high pressure,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 31–38 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bouchardy, P.

Bradley, R. B.

Choi, C. Y.

Chung, S. H.

Coltrin, M. E.

M. L. Koszykowski, L. A. Rahn, R. E. Palmer, M. E. Coltrin, “Theoretical and experimental studies of high-resolution inverse Raman spectra of N2 at 1-10 atm,” J. Phys. Chem. 91, 41–46 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dobbs, G. M.

Druet, S. A. J.

S. A. J. Druet, J. P. E. Taran, “CARS spectroscopy,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 7, 1–72 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Dunn-Rankin, D.

J. Y. Zhu, D. Dunn-Rankin, “CARS thermometry in high temperature gradients,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 47–56 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Eckbreth, A. C.

T. J. Anderson, G. M. Dobbs, A. C. Eckbreth, “Mobile CARS instrument for combustion and plasma diagnostics,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4076–4085 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Eckbreth, J. H. Stufflebeam, “Considerations of the application of CARS to turbulent reacting flows,” Exp. Fluids 3, 301–314 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, G. M. Dobbs, J. H. Stufflebeam, P. A. Tellex, “CARS temperature and species measurements in augmented jet engine exhausts,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1328–1339 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Eckbreth, “BOXCARS: Cross-beam phase-matched CARS generation in gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 421–423 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Hall, A. C. Eckbreth, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy(CARS): application to combustion diagnostics,” in Laser Applications, J. F. Ready, R. K. Erf, eds. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1984), Vol. 5, pp. 213–309.

England, W. A.

Ewart, P.

Farrow, R. L.

Greenhalgh, D. A.

I. G. Shepherd, F. M. Porter, D. A. Greenhalgh, “Spatial resolution effects of CARS in turbulent premixed combustion thermometry,” Combust. Flame 82, 106–109 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Porter, D. A. Greenhalgh, P. J. Stopford, D. R. Williams, C. A. Baker, “A study of CARS nitrogen thermometry at high pressure,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 31–38 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. A. England, J. M. Milne, S. N. Jenny, D. A. Greenhalgh, “Application of CARS to an operating chemical reactor,” Appl. Spectrosc. 38, 867–875 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, J. W.

Hall, R. J.

R. J. Hall, A. C. Eckbreth, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy(CARS): application to combustion diagnostics,” in Laser Applications, J. F. Ready, R. K. Erf, eds. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1984), Vol. 5, pp. 213–309.

Hirose, C.

Huh, Y. D.

Jenny, S. N.

Kang, K. T.

Kataoka, H.

Koszykowski, M. L.

M. L. Koszykowski, L. A. Rahn, R. E. Palmer, M. E. Coltrin, “Theoretical and experimental studies of high-resolution inverse Raman spectra of N2 at 1-10 atm,” J. Phys. Chem. 91, 41–46 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kroll, S.

Lange, B.

N. Wenzel, B. Lange, G. Marowsky, “High temperature N2-CARS thermometry,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 61–62 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lee, E. S.

Lefebvre, M.

M. Lefebvre, M. Pealat, J. P. Taran, “CARS in plasma physics,” in Frontiers in Nonlinear Optics, H. Walter, N. Koroteev, M. O. Scully, eds. (Institute of Physics, London, 1993), pp. 52–83.

Lefevre, M.

Lucht, R. P.

Maeda, S.

Marowsky, G.

N. Wenzel, B. Lange, G. Marowsky, “High temperature N2-CARS thermometry,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 61–62 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mattern, P. L.

R. L. Farrow, P. L. Mattern, L. A. Rahn, “Comparison between CARS and corrected thermocouple temperature measurements in a diffusion flame,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3119–3125 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. Rahn, L. J. Zych, P. L. Mattern, “Background-free CARS studies of carbon monoxide in a flame,” Opt. Commun. 30, 249–252 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Milne, J. M.

Mueller, R. E.

Palmer, R. E.

M. L. Koszykowski, L. A. Rahn, R. E. Palmer, M. E. Coltrin, “Theoretical and experimental studies of high-resolution inverse Raman spectra of N2 at 1-10 atm,” J. Phys. Chem. 91, 41–46 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Paramesaran, T.

Parameswaran, T.

Park, S. N.

Pealat, M.

M. Pealat, P. Bouchardy, M. Lefevre, J. P. Taran, “Precision of multiplex CARS temperature measurements,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1012–1022 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lefebvre, M. Pealat, J. P. Taran, “CARS in plasma physics,” in Frontiers in Nonlinear Optics, H. Walter, N. Koroteev, M. O. Scully, eds. (Institute of Physics, London, 1993), pp. 52–83.

Porter, F. M.

I. G. Shepherd, F. M. Porter, D. A. Greenhalgh, “Spatial resolution effects of CARS in turbulent premixed combustion thermometry,” Combust. Flame 82, 106–109 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Porter, D. A. Greenhalgh, P. J. Stopford, D. R. Williams, C. A. Baker, “A study of CARS nitrogen thermometry at high pressure,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 31–38 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Preston-Thomas, H.

H. Preston-Thomas, “The international temperature scale of 1990 (ITS-90),” Metrologia 27, 3–10 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rahn, L. A.

M. L. Koszykowski, L. A. Rahn, R. E. Palmer, M. E. Coltrin, “Theoretical and experimental studies of high-resolution inverse Raman spectra of N2 at 1-10 atm,” J. Phys. Chem. 91, 41–46 (1987).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Rahn, R. L. Farrow, R. P. Lucht, “Effects of laser field statistics on coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy intensities,” Opt. Lett. 9, 223–225 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Farrow, P. L. Mattern, L. A. Rahn, “Comparison between CARS and corrected thermocouple temperature measurements in a diffusion flame,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3119–3125 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. Rahn, L. J. Zych, P. L. Mattern, “Background-free CARS studies of carbon monoxide in a flame,” Opt. Commun. 30, 249–252 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Rhee, C.

Rho, W. B.

Roquemore, W. M.

Sandell, D.

Sawchuk, R. A.

Schreiber, P. W.

Shepherd, I. G.

I. G. Shepherd, F. M. Porter, D. A. Greenhalgh, “Spatial resolution effects of CARS in turbulent premixed combustion thermometry,” Combust. Flame 82, 106–109 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Skippon, S. M.

Smallwood, G. J.

D. R. Snelling, R. A. Sawchuk, G. J. Smallwood, “An improved CARS spectrometer for single shot measurements in turbulent combustion,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5556–5564 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Snelling, G. J. Smallwood, R. A. Sawchuk, T. Paramesaran, “Precision of multiplex CARS temperatures using both single-mode and multimode pump lasers,” Appl. Opt. 26, 99–110 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snelling, D. R.

Snowdon, P.

Stopford, P. J.

F. M. Porter, D. A. Greenhalgh, P. J. Stopford, D. R. Williams, C. A. Baker, “A study of CARS nitrogen thermometry at high pressure,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 31–38 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Stufflebeam, J. H.

A. C. Eckbreth, J. H. Stufflebeam, “Considerations of the application of CARS to turbulent reacting flows,” Exp. Fluids 3, 301–314 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, G. M. Dobbs, J. H. Stufflebeam, P. A. Tellex, “CARS temperature and species measurements in augmented jet engine exhausts,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1328–1339 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Switzer, G. L.

Taran, J. P.

M. Pealat, P. Bouchardy, M. Lefevre, J. P. Taran, “Precision of multiplex CARS temperature measurements,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1012–1022 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lefebvre, M. Pealat, J. P. Taran, “CARS in plasma physics,” in Frontiers in Nonlinear Optics, H. Walter, N. Koroteev, M. O. Scully, eds. (Institute of Physics, London, 1993), pp. 52–83.

Taran, J. P. E.

S. A. J. Druet, J. P. E. Taran, “CARS spectroscopy,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 7, 1–72 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Tellex, P. A.

Wenzel, N.

N. Wenzel, B. Lange, G. Marowsky, “High temperature N2-CARS thermometry,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 61–62 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. R.

F. M. Porter, D. A. Greenhalgh, P. J. Stopford, D. R. Williams, C. A. Baker, “A study of CARS nitrogen thermometry at high pressure,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 31–38 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J. Y.

J. Y. Zhu, D. Dunn-Rankin, “CARS thermometry in high temperature gradients,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 47–56 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zych, L. J.

L. A. Rahn, L. J. Zych, P. L. Mattern, “Background-free CARS studies of carbon monoxide in a flame,” Opt. Commun. 30, 249–252 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

G. L. Switzer, W. M. Roquemore, R. B. Bradley, P. W. Schreiber, W. B. Rho, “CARS measurements in a bluff-body stabilized diffusion flame,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2343–2345 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Farrow, P. L. Mattern, L. A. Rahn, “Comparison between CARS and corrected thermocouple temperature measurements in a diffusion flame,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3119–3125 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Eckbreth, G. M. Dobbs, J. H. Stufflebeam, P. A. Tellex, “CARS temperature and species measurements in augmented jet engine exhausts,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1328–1339 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pealat, P. Bouchardy, M. Lefevre, J. P. Taran, “Precision of multiplex CARS temperature measurements,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1012–1022 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Snelling, R. A. Sawchuk, R. E. Mueller, “Single pulse CARS noise: a comparison between single-mode and multimode pump lasers,” Appl. Opt. 24, 2771–2778 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Anderson, G. M. Dobbs, A. C. Eckbreth, “Mobile CARS instrument for combustion and plasma diagnostics,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4076–4085 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Snelling, G. J. Smallwood, R. A. Sawchuk, T. Paramesaran, “Precision of multiplex CARS temperatures using both single-mode and multimode pump lasers,” Appl. Opt. 26, 99–110 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Snelling, R. A. Sawchuk, T. Parameswaran, “Effect of detector nonlinearity and image persistence on CARS derived temperatures,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3233–3241 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Snowdon, S. M. Skippon, P. Ewart, “Improved precision of single-shot temperature measurements by broadband CARS by use of a modeless laser,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1008–1010 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Snelling, R. A. Sawchuk, T. Parameswaran, “Noise in single-shot broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy that employs a modeless laser,” Appl. Opt. 33, 8295–8301 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B

F. M. Porter, D. A. Greenhalgh, P. J. Stopford, D. R. Williams, C. A. Baker, “A study of CARS nitrogen thermometry at high pressure,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 31–38 (1990).
[CrossRef]

N. Wenzel, B. Lange, G. Marowsky, “High temperature N2-CARS thermometry,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 61–62 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Zhu, D. Dunn-Rankin, “CARS thermometry in high temperature gradients,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 47–56 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. C. Eckbreth, “BOXCARS: Cross-beam phase-matched CARS generation in gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 421–423 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc.

Combust. Flame

I. G. Shepherd, F. M. Porter, D. A. Greenhalgh, “Spatial resolution effects of CARS in turbulent premixed combustion thermometry,” Combust. Flame 82, 106–109 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Fluids

A. C. Eckbreth, J. H. Stufflebeam, “Considerations of the application of CARS to turbulent reacting flows,” Exp. Fluids 3, 301–314 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Chem.

M. L. Koszykowski, L. A. Rahn, R. E. Palmer, M. E. Coltrin, “Theoretical and experimental studies of high-resolution inverse Raman spectra of N2 at 1-10 atm,” J. Phys. Chem. 91, 41–46 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia

H. Preston-Thomas, “The international temperature scale of 1990 (ITS-90),” Metrologia 27, 3–10 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

P. Ewart, “A modeless, variable bandwidth, tunable laser,” Opt. Commun. 55, 124–126 (1985).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Rahn, L. J. Zych, P. L. Mattern, “Background-free CARS studies of carbon monoxide in a flame,” Opt. Commun. 30, 249–252 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Prog. Quantum Electron.

S. A. J. Druet, J. P. E. Taran, “CARS spectroscopy,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 7, 1–72 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

D. R. Snelling, R. A. Sawchuk, G. J. Smallwood, “An improved CARS spectrometer for single shot measurements in turbulent combustion,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 5556–5564 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. J. Hall, A. C. Eckbreth, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy(CARS): application to combustion diagnostics,” in Laser Applications, J. F. Ready, R. K. Erf, eds. (Academic, Orlando, Fla., 1984), Vol. 5, pp. 213–309.

M. Lefebvre, M. Pealat, J. P. Taran, “CARS in plasma physics,” in Frontiers in Nonlinear Optics, H. Walter, N. Koroteev, M. O. Scully, eds. (Institute of Physics, London, 1993), pp. 52–83.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the modeless dye laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Energy conversion efficiency and output energy of the ASE measured as a function of the pump beam energy.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Center wavelength and output energy of the ASE measured as a function of the concentration of KR620 dye solution.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Center wavelength and ASE output variations that were obtained by adding R640 dye in a base solution of 7.5 × 10-4-M KR620 dye.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spatial variation of the center wavelength of ASE measured at five different locations of the beam.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optical schematic diagram of the broadband mobile CARS system: A, screen for alignment; B, beam divider; C, Galilean telescope; D, detector; F, absorption filter; P, crystal polarizer.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic diagram of the high-temperature blackbody furnace: A, lens; B, dichroic mirror; C, copper gasket; D, fused quartz window; E, electrode/water line; O, optical pyrometer; P, pressure transducer; R, molybdenum radiation shield; V, vacuum line/gas inlet; W, water jacket.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Histogram of 200 single-shot CARS temperatures.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measured temperature difference between the averaged CARS temperature and the radiation temperature.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Averaged CARS temperature drift at 1500 K.

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