Abstract

We describe basic principles of wavelength-tuning interferometry and demonstrate its application in ophthalmology. The advantage of this technique compared with conventional low-coherence interferometry ranging is the simultaneous measurement of the object structure without the need for a moving reference mirror. Shifting the wavelength of an external-cavity tunable laser diode causes intensity oscillations in the interference pattern of light beams remitted from the intraocular structure. A Fourier transform of the corresponding wave-number-dependent photodetector signal yields the distribution of the scattering potential along the light beam illuminating the eye. We use an external interferometer to linearize the wave-number axis. We obtain high resolution in a model eye by slow tuning over a wide wavelength range. With lower resolution we demonstrate the simultaneous measurement of anterior segment length, vitreous chamber depth, and axial eye length in human eyes in vivo with data-acquisition times in the millisecond range.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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1996

K. Takada, H. Yamada, “Narrow-band light source with acousto-optic tunable filter for optical low-coherence reflectometry,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 8, 658–660 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, “Optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 157–173 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

L. Schmetterer, F. Lexer, C. J. Unfried, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, “Topical measurement of fundus pulsations,” Opt. Eng. 34, 711–716 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, “Measurement of the thickness of fundus layers by partial coherence tomography,” Opt. Eng. 34, 701–710 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117, 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Kovacs, K. Osvay, Zs. Bor, “Group-delay measurement on laser mirrors by spectrally resolved white-light interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 20, 788–790 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Pan, R. Birngruber, J. Rosperich, R. Engelhardt, “Low-coherence optical tomography in turbid tissue: theoretical analysis,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6564–6574 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, ‘In vivo retinal imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, C. Dolezal, F. Skorpik, M. Juchem, A. F. Fercher, H. D. Gnad, “Measurement of the axial length of cataract eyes by laser Doppler interferometry,” Inv. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 1886–1893 (1993).

A. Sekine, I. Minegishi, H. Koizumi, “Axial eye-length measurement by wavelength-shift interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1651–1655 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

1991

A. F. Fercher, C. Hitzenberger, M. Juchem, “Measurement of intraocular optical distances using partially coherent laser light,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1327–1333 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hitzenberger, “Optical measurement of the axial eye length by laser Doppler interferometry,” Inv. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 32, 616–624 (1991).

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micron-resolution ranging of cornea anterior chamber by optical reflectometry,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 419–425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

T. L. Koch, U. Koren, “Semiconductor lasers for coherent optical fiber communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 274–293 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

1988

1985

K.-P. Koch, M. Maechler, F. Glueck, “Application of diode array spectrometers in microscope photometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 56, 2243–2247 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1981

W. Eickhoff, R. Ulrich, “Optical frequency domain reflectometry in single-mode fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 693–695 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. I. MacDonald, “Frequency domain optical reflector,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1840–1844 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979

1970

R. Dändliker, K. Weiss, “Reconstruction of the three-dimensional refractive index from scattered waves,” Opt. Commun. 1, 323–328 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969

E. Wolf, “Three-dimensional structure determination of semi-transparent objects from holographic data,” Opt. Commun. 1, 153–156 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1966

1960

A. Hymans, M. A. Lait, “Analysis of a frequency-modulated continuous-wave ranging system,” Proc. Inst. Electron. Eng. 107, 365–372 (1960).

1950

1928

H. Kopfermann, R. Ladenburg, “Untersuchungen über die anomale Dispersion angeregter Gase,” Z. Phys. 48, 15–61 (1928).
[CrossRef]

1912

D. Roschdestwensky, “Anomale Dispersion im Natriumdampf,” Ann. Phys. 39, 307–345 (1912).
[CrossRef]

Bartelt, H.

Baumgartner, A.

A. Baumgartner, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, “Measurement of the anterior structures of the human eye by partial coherence interferometry,” in Lasers in Ophthalmology II, R. Brancato, A. F. Fercher, A. S. Melamed, P. O. Rol, eds., Proc. SPIE2330, 146–151, (1995).
[CrossRef]

Becker, H.

Birngruber, R.

Bor, Zs.

Bracewell, R.

R. Bracewell, The Fourier Transform and Its Applications (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965).

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dändliker, R.

R. Dändliker, K. Weiss, “Reconstruction of the three-dimensional refractive index from scattered waves,” Opt. Commun. 1, 323–328 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Dobson, C. C.

Dolezal, C.

C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, C. Dolezal, F. Skorpik, M. Juchem, A. F. Fercher, H. D. Gnad, “Measurement of the axial length of cataract eyes by laser Doppler interferometry,” Inv. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 1886–1893 (1993).

Dresel, T.

Drexler, W.

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, “Measurement of the thickness of fundus layers by partial coherence tomography,” Opt. Eng. 34, 701–710 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, C. Dolezal, F. Skorpik, M. Juchem, A. F. Fercher, H. D. Gnad, “Measurement of the axial length of cataract eyes by laser Doppler interferometry,” Inv. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 1886–1893 (1993).

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, “Measurement of ocular distances by optical spectrum modulation,” in Microscopy, Holography, and Interferometry in Biomedicine, A. F. Fercher, A. Lewis, H. Podbielska, H. Schneckenburger, T. Wilson, eds., Proc. SPIE2083, 263–267 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, “OCT techniques,” in Lasers in Ophthalmology IV, R. Birngruber, A. F. Fercher, P. Sourdille, eds., Proc. SPIE2930, 164–174 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Baumgartner, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, “Measurement of the anterior structures of the human eye by partial coherence interferometry,” in Lasers in Ophthalmology II, R. Brancato, A. F. Fercher, A. S. Melamed, P. O. Rol, eds., Proc. SPIE2330, 146–151, (1995).
[CrossRef]

Eickhoff, W.

W. Eickhoff, R. Ulrich, “Optical frequency domain reflectometry in single-mode fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 693–695 (1981).
[CrossRef]

El-Zaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117, 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Engelhardt, R.

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, “Optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 157–173 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Schmetterer, F. Lexer, C. J. Unfried, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, “Topical measurement of fundus pulsations,” Opt. Eng. 34, 711–716 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117, 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, “Measurement of the thickness of fundus layers by partial coherence tomography,” Opt. Eng. 34, 701–710 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, C. Dolezal, F. Skorpik, M. Juchem, A. F. Fercher, H. D. Gnad, “Measurement of the axial length of cataract eyes by laser Doppler interferometry,” Inv. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 1886–1893 (1993).

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. Hitzenberger, M. Juchem, “Measurement of intraocular optical distances using partially coherent laser light,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1327–1333 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, K. Mengedoht, W. Werner, “Eye length measurement by interferometry with partially coherent light,” Opt. Lett. 13, 186–188 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, H. Bartelt, H. Becker, E. Wiltschko, “Image formation by inversion of scattered field data: experiments and computational simulation,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2427–2439 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, “Measurement of ocular distances by optical spectrum modulation,” in Microscopy, Holography, and Interferometry in Biomedicine, A. F. Fercher, A. Lewis, H. Podbielska, H. Schneckenburger, T. Wilson, eds., Proc. SPIE2083, 263–267 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, “OCT techniques,” in Lasers in Ophthalmology IV, R. Birngruber, A. F. Fercher, P. Sourdille, eds., Proc. SPIE2930, 164–174 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Baumgartner, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, “Measurement of the anterior structures of the human eye by partial coherence interferometry,” in Lasers in Ophthalmology II, R. Brancato, A. F. Fercher, A. S. Melamed, P. O. Rol, eds., Proc. SPIE2330, 146–151, (1995).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fochs, P. D.

Fujimoto, J. G.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, ‘In vivo retinal imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micron-resolution ranging of cornea anterior chamber by optical reflectometry,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 419–425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glueck, F.

K.-P. Koch, M. Maechler, F. Glueck, “Application of diode array spectrometers in microscope photometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 56, 2243–2247 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Gnad, H. D.

C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, C. Dolezal, F. Skorpik, M. Juchem, A. F. Fercher, H. D. Gnad, “Measurement of the axial length of cataract eyes by laser Doppler interferometry,” Inv. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 1886–1893 (1993).

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Häusler, G.

T. Dresel, G. Häusler, H. Venzke, “Three-dimensional sensing of rough surfaces by coherence radar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 919–925 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Häusler, J. Herrmann, J. Neumann, “Verfahren zur Ermittlung der Entfernung und Streuintensität von streuenden Punkten,” Patent ApplicationDE 43 09 056 A1 (22September1994).

Hee, M. R.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, ‘In vivo retinal imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herrmann, J.

G. Häusler, J. Herrmann, J. Neumann, “Verfahren zur Ermittlung der Entfernung und Streuintensität von streuenden Punkten,” Patent ApplicationDE 43 09 056 A1 (22September1994).

Hitzenberger, C.

A. F. Fercher, C. Hitzenberger, M. Juchem, “Measurement of intraocular optical distances using partially coherent laser light,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1327–1333 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117, 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, “Measurement of the thickness of fundus layers by partial coherence tomography,” Opt. Eng. 34, 701–710 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, C. Dolezal, F. Skorpik, M. Juchem, A. F. Fercher, H. D. Gnad, “Measurement of the axial length of cataract eyes by laser Doppler interferometry,” Inv. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 1886–1893 (1993).

C. K. Hitzenberger, “Optical measurement of the axial eye length by laser Doppler interferometry,” Inv. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 32, 616–624 (1991).

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, “OCT techniques,” in Lasers in Ophthalmology IV, R. Birngruber, A. F. Fercher, P. Sourdille, eds., Proc. SPIE2930, 164–174 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, “Measurement of ocular distances by optical spectrum modulation,” in Microscopy, Holography, and Interferometry in Biomedicine, A. F. Fercher, A. Lewis, H. Podbielska, H. Schneckenburger, T. Wilson, eds., Proc. SPIE2083, 263–267 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Baumgartner, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, “Measurement of the anterior structures of the human eye by partial coherence interferometry,” in Lasers in Ophthalmology II, R. Brancato, A. F. Fercher, A. S. Melamed, P. O. Rol, eds., Proc. SPIE2330, 146–151, (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, ‘In vivo retinal imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micron-resolution ranging of cornea anterior chamber by optical reflectometry,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 419–425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hymans, A.

A. Hymans, M. A. Lait, “Analysis of a frequency-modulated continuous-wave ranging system,” Proc. Inst. Electron. Eng. 107, 365–372 (1960).

Izatt, J. A.

Jeppesen, M. A.

Juchem, M.

C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, C. Dolezal, F. Skorpik, M. Juchem, A. F. Fercher, H. D. Gnad, “Measurement of the axial length of cataract eyes by laser Doppler interferometry,” Inv. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 1886–1893 (1993).

A. F. Fercher, C. Hitzenberger, M. Juchem, “Measurement of intraocular optical distances using partially coherent laser light,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1327–1333 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kak, A. C.

A. C. Kak, M. Slaney, Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging (IEEE, New York, 1988).

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117, 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, “Measurement of ocular distances by optical spectrum modulation,” in Microscopy, Holography, and Interferometry in Biomedicine, A. F. Fercher, A. Lewis, H. Podbielska, H. Schneckenburger, T. Wilson, eds., Proc. SPIE2083, 263–267 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Koch, K.-P.

K.-P. Koch, M. Maechler, F. Glueck, “Application of diode array spectrometers in microscope photometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 56, 2243–2247 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Koch, T. L.

T. L. Koch, U. Koren, “Semiconductor lasers for coherent optical fiber communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 274–293 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Koizumi, H.

Kopfermann, H.

H. Kopfermann, R. Ladenburg, “Untersuchungen über die anomale Dispersion angeregter Gase,” Z. Phys. 48, 15–61 (1928).
[CrossRef]

Koren, U.

T. L. Koch, U. Koren, “Semiconductor lasers for coherent optical fiber communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 274–293 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kovacs, A. P.

Ladenburg, R.

H. Kopfermann, R. Ladenburg, “Untersuchungen über die anomale Dispersion angeregter Gase,” Z. Phys. 48, 15–61 (1928).
[CrossRef]

Lait, M. A.

A. Hymans, M. A. Lait, “Analysis of a frequency-modulated continuous-wave ranging system,” Proc. Inst. Electron. Eng. 107, 365–372 (1960).

Lexer, F.

L. Schmetterer, F. Lexer, C. J. Unfried, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, “Topical measurement of fundus pulsations,” Opt. Eng. 34, 711–716 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, ‘In vivo retinal imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micron-resolution ranging of cornea anterior chamber by optical reflectometry,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 419–425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacDonald, R. I.

Maechler, M.

K.-P. Koch, M. Maechler, F. Glueck, “Application of diode array spectrometers in microscope photometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 56, 2243–2247 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mengedoht, K.

Minegishi, I.

Montgomery Smith, L.

Neumann, J.

G. Häusler, J. Herrmann, J. Neumann, “Verfahren zur Ermittlung der Entfernung und Streuintensität von streuenden Punkten,” Patent ApplicationDE 43 09 056 A1 (22September1994).

Osvay, K.

Pan, Y.

Puliafito, C. A.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, ‘In vivo retinal imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micron-resolution ranging of cornea anterior chamber by optical reflectometry,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 419–425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roschdestwensky, D.

D. Roschdestwensky, “Anomale Dispersion im Natriumdampf,” Ann. Phys. 39, 307–345 (1912).
[CrossRef]

Rosperich, J.

Sattmann, H.

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, “Measurement of the thickness of fundus layers by partial coherence tomography,” Opt. Eng. 34, 701–710 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Schmetterer, F. Lexer, C. J. Unfried, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, “Topical measurement of fundus pulsations,” Opt. Eng. 34, 711–716 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

A. Baumgartner, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, “Measurement of the anterior structures of the human eye by partial coherence interferometry,” in Lasers in Ophthalmology II, R. Brancato, A. F. Fercher, A. S. Melamed, P. O. Rol, eds., Proc. SPIE2330, 146–151, (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schmetterer, L.

L. Schmetterer, F. Lexer, C. J. Unfried, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, “Topical measurement of fundus pulsations,” Opt. Eng. 34, 711–716 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sekine, A.

Shuman, J. S.

Skorpik, F.

C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, C. Dolezal, F. Skorpik, M. Juchem, A. F. Fercher, H. D. Gnad, “Measurement of the axial length of cataract eyes by laser Doppler interferometry,” Inv. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 1886–1893 (1993).

Slaney, M.

A. C. Kak, M. Slaney, Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging (IEEE, New York, 1988).

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, ‘In vivo retinal imaging using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1864–1866 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takada, K.

K. Takada, H. Yamada, “Narrow-band light source with acousto-optic tunable filter for optical low-coherence reflectometry,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 8, 658–660 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. M.

Ulrich, R.

W. Eickhoff, R. Ulrich, “Optical frequency domain reflectometry in single-mode fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 693–695 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Unfried, C. J.

L. Schmetterer, F. Lexer, C. J. Unfried, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, “Topical measurement of fundus pulsations,” Opt. Eng. 34, 711–716 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Venzke, H.

Wang, J.

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micron-resolution ranging of cornea anterior chamber by optical reflectometry,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 419–425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, K.

R. Dändliker, K. Weiss, “Reconstruction of the three-dimensional refractive index from scattered waves,” Opt. Commun. 1, 323–328 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Werner, W.

Wiltschko, E.

Wolf, E.

E. Wolf, “Three-dimensional structure determination of semi-transparent objects from holographic data,” Opt. Commun. 1, 153–156 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, H.

K. Takada, H. Yamada, “Narrow-band light source with acousto-optic tunable filter for optical low-coherence reflectometry,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 8, 658–660 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Ophthalmol.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, H. Sattmann, “In vivo optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113–114 (1993).
[PubMed]

Ann. Phys.

D. Roschdestwensky, “Anomale Dispersion im Natriumdampf,” Ann. Phys. 39, 307–345 (1912).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. Eickhoff, R. Ulrich, “Optical frequency domain reflectometry in single-mode fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 693–695 (1981).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.

K. Takada, H. Yamada, “Narrow-band light source with acousto-optic tunable filter for optical low-coherence reflectometry,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 8, 658–660 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Inv. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.

C. K. Hitzenberger, “Optical measurement of the axial eye length by laser Doppler interferometry,” Inv. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 32, 616–624 (1991).

C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, C. Dolezal, F. Skorpik, M. Juchem, A. F. Fercher, H. D. Gnad, “Measurement of the axial length of cataract eyes by laser Doppler interferometry,” Inv. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 34, 1886–1893 (1993).

J. Biomed. Opt.

A. F. Fercher, “Optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 157–173 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lightwave Technol.

T. L. Koch, U. Koren, “Semiconductor lasers for coherent optical fiber communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 274–293 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

A. F. Fercher, C. Hitzenberger, M. Juchem, “Measurement of intraocular optical distances using partially coherent laser light,” J. Mod. Opt. 38, 1327–1333 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Lasers Surg. Med.

D. Huang, J. Wang, C. P. Lin, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Micron-resolution ranging of cornea anterior chamber by optical reflectometry,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 419–425 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

E. Wolf, “Three-dimensional structure determination of semi-transparent objects from holographic data,” Opt. Commun. 1, 153–156 (1969).
[CrossRef]

R. Dändliker, K. Weiss, “Reconstruction of the three-dimensional refractive index from scattered waves,” Opt. Commun. 1, 323–328 (1970).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117, 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

L. Schmetterer, F. Lexer, C. J. Unfried, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, “Topical measurement of fundus pulsations,” Opt. Eng. 34, 711–716 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, “Measurement of the thickness of fundus layers by partial coherence tomography,” Opt. Eng. 34, 701–710 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Inst. Electron. Eng.

A. Hymans, M. A. Lait, “Analysis of a frequency-modulated continuous-wave ranging system,” Proc. Inst. Electron. Eng. 107, 365–372 (1960).

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

K.-P. Koch, M. Maechler, F. Glueck, “Application of diode array spectrometers in microscope photometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 56, 2243–2247 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254, 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Phys.

H. Kopfermann, R. Ladenburg, “Untersuchungen über die anomale Dispersion angeregter Gase,” Z. Phys. 48, 15–61 (1928).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, “Measurement of ocular distances by optical spectrum modulation,” in Microscopy, Holography, and Interferometry in Biomedicine, A. F. Fercher, A. Lewis, H. Podbielska, H. Schneckenburger, T. Wilson, eds., Proc. SPIE2083, 263–267 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Häusler, J. Herrmann, J. Neumann, “Verfahren zur Ermittlung der Entfernung und Streuintensität von streuenden Punkten,” Patent ApplicationDE 43 09 056 A1 (22September1994).

A. C. Kak, M. Slaney, Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging (IEEE, New York, 1988).

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, “OCT techniques,” in Lasers in Ophthalmology IV, R. Birngruber, A. F. Fercher, P. Sourdille, eds., Proc. SPIE2930, 164–174 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Bracewell, The Fourier Transform and Its Applications (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1965).

Acceptance Test Data Sheet (New Focus Inc., Santa Clara, Calif., 1996).

American National Standards Institute, Safe Use of Lasers, ANSI Z 136.1 (American National Standards Institute, New York, 1986).

A. Baumgartner, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, “Measurement of the anterior structures of the human eye by partial coherence interferometry,” in Lasers in Ophthalmology II, R. Brancato, A. F. Fercher, A. S. Melamed, P. O. Rol, eds., Proc. SPIE2330, 146–151, (1995).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fourier space representation of forward and backward scattering: O, origin of the scattering geometry; OS, object signal; TL, tunable laser; IB, illuminating light beam; BS, beam splitter; OB, object; PD, photodetector; RM, reference mirror; RW, reference wave. Shown are the Ewald spheres corresponding to wavelengths λ1 andλ2 and the Fourier data spaces available by forward and backward scattering. WTI is the Fourier data range used by wavelength-tuning interferometry.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scheme of the wavelength tuning interferometer: OS, object signal; RS, reference signal; SP, scattering potential; MI, reference Michelson interferometer; FT, Fourier transform; NC, numerical correction; PD1, PD2, photodetectors; TL, tunable laser.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Power spectrum of the tunable laser diode from New Focus Model 6224.33

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

WTI scan of an eye model obtained by Fourier transform of the photodetector signal I(k) by slow tuning over 9 nm. Frequency ν is related by Eqs. (5) and (7)to optical distance. Note the broad peaks due to nonlinear.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) WTI scan of an eye model after numerical correction of the photodetector signal I(k) for constant . The signal peaks indicate the different optical distances measured: lens thickness, 9.16 mm; posterior lens surface–anterior foil surface, 29.08mm; anterior lens surface–anterior foil surface, 38.24 mm. (b) Double peak caused by the 0.17-mm-thick foil.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

WTI scan of a human eye in vivoobtained by high-speed piezotuning over 0.15 nm: ASL, anterior segment length; VCD, vitreous chamber depth; AEL, axial eye length; ACP, peak indicating anterior chamber depth (see text).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measurement of Optical Distances in Three Eyes in Vivoa

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E s k s   F r exp - i · K · r · d 3 r = FT F r = F ˜ K .
FT - 1 F ˜ 0 ,   0 ,   K z = FT - 1 E s 0 ,   0 ,   k z s =   F x ,   y ,   z d x d y P z ;
Δ z Δ K z = 8   ln   2 ,
Δ z = 2   ln   2 π   λ 2 Δ λ .
I k = E R k + E O k 2 = E R k 2 + E O k 2 + 2 E R k E O k × cos ϕ O k + Δ Φ k ,
Δ Φ = 4 π d / λ .
I k C 1 + C 2 E O k cos ϕ O k + Δ Φ k ,
ν = 2   1 π   d Δ Φ k d k   k ˙ = d π   k ˙
I t C 1 + C 2 | E O k ˙ t | cos ϕ O k ˙ t + 2 π ν t .
Δ ν = max 1 2 π   d Φ O k d k   k ˙

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