Abstract

The adjoint form of the photon transport equation is applied to a generalized fluorescence detection problem, and its accuracy is empirically tested. This approach can be interpreted as mathematically reversing the temporal flow of fluorescent photons; that is, they are tracked from the detector back to potential sites of origin in the scattering medium. The result is a distribution of potential fluorescing sites that, when properly normalized, gives a probability field of the relative importance of the photon starting position and direction to the resulting signal. This adjoint solution can be combined with the temporally forward-derived distribution of absorbed excitation photons to evaluate the fluorescence excitation detection scheme. This bypasses the normal, temporal derivation wherein the fluorescence transport solution is dependent on the result of the excitation transport solution.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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1995 (7)

S. Warren, K. Pope, Y. Yazdi, A. J. Welch, S. Thomsen, A. L. Johnston, M. J. Davis, R. Richards-Kortum, “Combined ultrasound and fluorescence spectroscopy for physico-chemical imaging of atherosclerosis,” IEEE Trans. Biochem. Eng. 42, 121–132 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W.-D. Yan, M. Perk, A. Chagpar, Y. Wen, S. Stratoff, W. J. Schneider, B. I. Jugdutt, J. Tulip, A. Lucas, “Laser-induced fluorescence: III. Quantitative analysis of atheroscerotic plaque content,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 164–178 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. Wiegand, A. A. Thaer, P. Kroll, O.-C. Geyer, A. J. Garcia, “Optical sectioning of the corea with a new confocal in vivo slit-scanning videomicroscope,” Ophthalomol. 102, 568–575, (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Bottiroli, A. C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. D. Palma, M. Dalfante, P. Spinelli, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon: a comprehensive ‘ex vivo’ Study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60, (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Vo-Dinh, M. Panjehpour, B. F. Overholt, C. Farris, F. P. I. Buckley, R. Sneed, “In vivo cancer diagnosis of the esophagus using differential normalized fluorescence (DNF) indices,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 41–47, (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Römer, M. Fitzmaurice, R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, R. Petras, M. V. Sivak, J. R. Kramer, “Laser-induced fluorescence microscopy of normal colon and dysplasia in colonic adenomas: implications for spectroscopic diagnosis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 90, 81–87 (1995).
[PubMed]

M. S. Patterson, S. Andersson-Engels, B. Wilson, “Absorption spectroscopy in tissue-simulating materials: a theoretical and experimental study of photon paths,” Appl. Opt. 34, 22–30 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (3)

A. J. Durkin, S. Jaikumar, N. Ramanujam, R. Richards-Kortum, “Relation between fluorescence spectra of dilute and turbid samples,” Appl. Opt. 33, 414–423 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Morguet, B. Körber, B. Abel, H. Hippler, V. Wiegand, H. Kreuzer, “Autofluorescence spectroscopy using a XeCl excimer laser system for simultaneous plaque ablation and fluorescence excitation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 238–248 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Richards-Kortum, M. F. Mitchell, N. Ramanujam, A. Mahadevan, S. Thomsen, “In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy:potential for non-invasive, automated diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and use as a surrogate endpoint biomarker,” J. Cell. Biochem. (Suppl.) 19, 111–119, (1994).

1992 (2)

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nisholka, T. F. Deutsch, “Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 68–78 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys. 19, 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

M. Buchelt, T. Katterschafka, R. Horvat, H. Kutschera, W. Kickinger, G. Laufer, “Fluorescent guided excimer laser ablation of interverebral disks in vitro,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 280–286 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hays, M. S. Feld, R. E. Petras, “Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 36, 105–111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (7)

R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, M. Fitzmaurice, L. L. Tong, N. B. Ratliff, J. R. Kramer, M. S. Feld, “A one-layer model of laser-induced fluorescence for diagnosis of disease in human tissue: applications to atherosclerosis,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1222–1231 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. Docchio, “Ocular fluorometry: principles, fluorophores, instrumentation and clinical applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 515–532 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. I. Deckelbaum, M. L. Stetz, K. M. O’Brien, F. W. Cutruzzola, A. F. Gmitro, L. I. Laifer, G. R. Gindi, “Fluorescence spectroscopy guidance of laser ablation of atherosclerotic plaque,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 205–214 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. Richards-Kortum, A. Mehta, G. Hays, R. Cothren, T. Kolubayev, C. Kittrell, N. B. Ratliff, J. R. Kramer, M. S. Feld, “Spectral diagnosis of atherosclerosis using an optical fiber laser catheter,” Am. Heart J. 118, 381–391 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Weiss, R. Nossal, R. F. Bonner, “Statistics of penetration depth of photons reemitted from irradiated tissue,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 349–359 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. Sundström, U. Hafsröm-Björkman, J. Ström, B. Angmar-Mánsson, G. Frostell, I. Takazoe, “Evaluation of a model for short-term clinical testing of cariogenicity,” J. Biol. Buccale 17, 115–120 (1989).
[PubMed]

S. T. Flock, M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, “Monte Carlo modeling of light propagation in highly scattering tissues—II: Comparison with measurements in phantoms,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1169–1173 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

P. S. Andersson, A. Gustafson, U. Stenram, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, “Diagnosis of arterial atherosclerosis using laser-induced fluorescence,” Lasers Med. Sci. 2, 261–266 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

F. Sundström, K. Fredriksson, S. Montán, U. Hafsröm-Björkman, J. Ström, “Laser-induced fluorescence from sound and carious tooth substance: spectroscopic studies,” Swed. Dent. J. 9, 71–80 (1985).
[PubMed]

1980 (1)

P. C. Foreman, “The excitation and emission spectra of fluorescent components of human dentine,” Arch. Oral Biol. 25, 641–647 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1965 (1)

G. I. Bell, “On the Stochastic Theory of Neutron Transport,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 21, 390–401 (1965).

1963 (1)

M. H. Kalos, “Importance sampling in Monte Carlo shielding calculations,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 16, 227–234 (1963).

1961 (1)

C. W. Maynard, “An Application of the Reciprocity Theorem to the Acceleration of Monte Carlo Calculations,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 10, 97–101 (1961).

Abel, B.

A. J. Morguet, B. Körber, B. Abel, H. Hippler, V. Wiegand, H. Kreuzer, “Autofluorescence spectroscopy using a XeCl excimer laser system for simultaneous plaque ablation and fluorescence excitation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 238–248 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersson, P. S.

P. S. Andersson, A. Gustafson, U. Stenram, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, “Diagnosis of arterial atherosclerosis using laser-induced fluorescence,” Lasers Med. Sci. 2, 261–266 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Andersson-Engels, S.

Angmar-Mánsson, B.

F. Sundström, U. Hafsröm-Björkman, J. Ström, B. Angmar-Mánsson, G. Frostell, I. Takazoe, “Evaluation of a model for short-term clinical testing of cariogenicity,” J. Biol. Buccale 17, 115–120 (1989).
[PubMed]

Bell, G. I.

G. I. Bell, “On the Stochastic Theory of Neutron Transport,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 21, 390–401 (1965).

Blackman, R.

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hays, M. S. Feld, R. E. Petras, “Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 36, 105–111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scatter of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Bonner, R. F.

G. H. Weiss, R. Nossal, R. F. Bonner, “Statistics of penetration depth of photons reemitted from irradiated tissue,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 349–359 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bottiroli, G.

G. Bottiroli, A. C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. D. Palma, M. Dalfante, P. Spinelli, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon: a comprehensive ‘ex vivo’ Study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60, (1995).
[CrossRef]

Boyce, G. A.

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hays, M. S. Feld, R. E. Petras, “Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 36, 105–111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buchelt, M.

M. Buchelt, T. Katterschafka, R. Horvat, H. Kutschera, W. Kickinger, G. Laufer, “Fluorescent guided excimer laser ablation of interverebral disks in vitro,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 280–286 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Buckley, F. P. I.

T. Vo-Dinh, M. Panjehpour, B. F. Overholt, C. Farris, F. P. I. Buckley, R. Sneed, “In vivo cancer diagnosis of the esophagus using differential normalized fluorescence (DNF) indices,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 41–47, (1995).
[CrossRef]

Case, K. M.

K. M. Case, P. F. Zweifel, Linear Transport Theory, Addison-Wesley Series in Nuclear Engineering, H. Goldstein, ed. (Addison-Wesley, Don Mills, Ontario, Canada, 1967).

Chagpar, A.

W.-D. Yan, M. Perk, A. Chagpar, Y. Wen, S. Stratoff, W. J. Schneider, B. I. Jugdutt, J. Tulip, A. Lucas, “Laser-induced fluorescence: III. Quantitative analysis of atheroscerotic plaque content,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 164–178 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Compton, C. C.

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nisholka, T. F. Deutsch, “Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 68–78 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cothren, R.

R. Richards-Kortum, A. Mehta, G. Hays, R. Cothren, T. Kolubayev, C. Kittrell, N. B. Ratliff, J. R. Kramer, M. S. Feld, “Spectral diagnosis of atherosclerosis using an optical fiber laser catheter,” Am. Heart J. 118, 381–391 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cothren, R. M.

T. J. Römer, M. Fitzmaurice, R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, R. Petras, M. V. Sivak, J. R. Kramer, “Laser-induced fluorescence microscopy of normal colon and dysplasia in colonic adenomas: implications for spectroscopic diagnosis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 90, 81–87 (1995).
[PubMed]

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hays, M. S. Feld, R. E. Petras, “Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 36, 105–111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crilly, R.

R. Crilly, “Development of the Forward-Adjoint Fluorescence Model with Application to Fiber Optic Detection Systems,” Ph.D. dissertation (Wayne State University, Detroit, Mich., 1995).

Croce, A. C.

G. Bottiroli, A. C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. D. Palma, M. Dalfante, P. Spinelli, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon: a comprehensive ‘ex vivo’ Study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60, (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cutruzzola, F. W.

L. I. Deckelbaum, M. L. Stetz, K. M. O’Brien, F. W. Cutruzzola, A. F. Gmitro, L. I. Laifer, G. R. Gindi, “Fluorescence spectroscopy guidance of laser ablation of atherosclerotic plaque,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 205–214 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. M. O’Brien, A. F. Gmitro, G. R. Gindi, M. L. Stetz, F. W. Cutruzzola, L. I. Laifer, L. I. Deckelbaum, “Evaluation of spectral discriminant functions for guidance of laser angioplasty,” in Optical Fibers in Medicine, A. Katzir, ed., Proc. SPIE1067, 116–119 (1989).

Cuzzoni, C.

G. Bottiroli, A. C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. D. Palma, M. Dalfante, P. Spinelli, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon: a comprehensive ‘ex vivo’ Study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60, (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dalfante, M.

G. Bottiroli, A. C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. D. Palma, M. Dalfante, P. Spinelli, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon: a comprehensive ‘ex vivo’ Study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60, (1995).
[CrossRef]

Davis, M. J.

S. Warren, K. Pope, Y. Yazdi, A. J. Welch, S. Thomsen, A. L. Johnston, M. J. Davis, R. Richards-Kortum, “Combined ultrasound and fluorescence spectroscopy for physico-chemical imaging of atherosclerosis,” IEEE Trans. Biochem. Eng. 42, 121–132 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Deckelbaum, L. I.

L. I. Deckelbaum, M. L. Stetz, K. M. O’Brien, F. W. Cutruzzola, A. F. Gmitro, L. I. Laifer, G. R. Gindi, “Fluorescence spectroscopy guidance of laser ablation of atherosclerotic plaque,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 205–214 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. M. O’Brien, A. F. Gmitro, G. R. Gindi, M. L. Stetz, F. W. Cutruzzola, L. I. Laifer, L. I. Deckelbaum, “Evaluation of spectral discriminant functions for guidance of laser angioplasty,” in Optical Fibers in Medicine, A. Katzir, ed., Proc. SPIE1067, 116–119 (1989).

Deutsch, T. F.

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nisholka, T. F. Deutsch, “Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 68–78 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Docchio, F.

F. Docchio, “Ocular fluorometry: principles, fluorophores, instrumentation and clinical applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 515–532 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Doxtader, M.

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hays, M. S. Feld, R. E. Petras, “Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 36, 105–111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duderstadt, J. J.

J. J. Duderstadt, W. R. Martin, Transport Theory (Wiley, New York, 1979).

Durkin, A. J.

Farrell, T. J.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys. 19, 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farris, C.

T. Vo-Dinh, M. Panjehpour, B. F. Overholt, C. Farris, F. P. I. Buckley, R. Sneed, “In vivo cancer diagnosis of the esophagus using differential normalized fluorescence (DNF) indices,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 41–47, (1995).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hays, M. S. Feld, R. E. Petras, “Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 36, 105–111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, M. Fitzmaurice, L. L. Tong, N. B. Ratliff, J. R. Kramer, M. S. Feld, “A one-layer model of laser-induced fluorescence for diagnosis of disease in human tissue: applications to atherosclerosis,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1222–1231 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. Richards-Kortum, A. Mehta, G. Hays, R. Cothren, T. Kolubayev, C. Kittrell, N. B. Ratliff, J. R. Kramer, M. S. Feld, “Spectral diagnosis of atherosclerosis using an optical fiber laser catheter,” Am. Heart J. 118, 381–391 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitzmaurice, M.

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L. I. Deckelbaum, M. L. Stetz, K. M. O’Brien, F. W. Cutruzzola, A. F. Gmitro, L. I. Laifer, G. R. Gindi, “Fluorescence spectroscopy guidance of laser ablation of atherosclerotic plaque,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 205–214 (1989).
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R. Richards-Kortum, A. Mehta, G. Hays, R. Cothren, T. Kolubayev, C. Kittrell, N. B. Ratliff, J. R. Kramer, M. S. Feld, “Spectral diagnosis of atherosclerosis using an optical fiber laser catheter,” Am. Heart J. 118, 381–391 (1989).
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R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hays, M. S. Feld, R. E. Petras, “Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 36, 105–111 (1990).
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M. Buchelt, T. Katterschafka, R. Horvat, H. Kutschera, W. Kickinger, G. Laufer, “Fluorescent guided excimer laser ablation of interverebral disks in vitro,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 280–286 (1991).
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R. Richards-Kortum, A. Mehta, G. Hays, R. Cothren, T. Kolubayev, C. Kittrell, N. B. Ratliff, J. R. Kramer, M. S. Feld, “Spectral diagnosis of atherosclerosis using an optical fiber laser catheter,” Am. Heart J. 118, 381–391 (1989).
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R. Richards-Kortum, A. Mehta, G. Hays, R. Cothren, T. Kolubayev, C. Kittrell, N. B. Ratliff, J. R. Kramer, M. S. Feld, “Spectral diagnosis of atherosclerosis using an optical fiber laser catheter,” Am. Heart J. 118, 381–391 (1989).
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A. J. Morguet, B. Körber, B. Abel, H. Hippler, V. Wiegand, H. Kreuzer, “Autofluorescence spectroscopy using a XeCl excimer laser system for simultaneous plaque ablation and fluorescence excitation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 238–248 (1994).
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T. J. Römer, M. Fitzmaurice, R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, R. Petras, M. V. Sivak, J. R. Kramer, “Laser-induced fluorescence microscopy of normal colon and dysplasia in colonic adenomas: implications for spectroscopic diagnosis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 90, 81–87 (1995).
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R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, M. Fitzmaurice, L. L. Tong, N. B. Ratliff, J. R. Kramer, M. S. Feld, “A one-layer model of laser-induced fluorescence for diagnosis of disease in human tissue: applications to atherosclerosis,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1222–1231 (1989).
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A. J. Morguet, B. Körber, B. Abel, H. Hippler, V. Wiegand, H. Kreuzer, “Autofluorescence spectroscopy using a XeCl excimer laser system for simultaneous plaque ablation and fluorescence excitation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 238–248 (1994).
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W. Wiegand, A. A. Thaer, P. Kroll, O.-C. Geyer, A. J. Garcia, “Optical sectioning of the corea with a new confocal in vivo slit-scanning videomicroscope,” Ophthalomol. 102, 568–575, (1995).
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M. Buchelt, T. Katterschafka, R. Horvat, H. Kutschera, W. Kickinger, G. Laufer, “Fluorescent guided excimer laser ablation of interverebral disks in vitro,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 280–286 (1991).
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L. I. Deckelbaum, M. L. Stetz, K. M. O’Brien, F. W. Cutruzzola, A. F. Gmitro, L. I. Laifer, G. R. Gindi, “Fluorescence spectroscopy guidance of laser ablation of atherosclerotic plaque,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 205–214 (1989).
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K. M. O’Brien, A. F. Gmitro, G. R. Gindi, M. L. Stetz, F. W. Cutruzzola, L. I. Laifer, L. I. Deckelbaum, “Evaluation of spectral discriminant functions for guidance of laser angioplasty,” in Optical Fibers in Medicine, A. Katzir, ed., Proc. SPIE1067, 116–119 (1989).

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M. Buchelt, T. Katterschafka, R. Horvat, H. Kutschera, W. Kickinger, G. Laufer, “Fluorescent guided excimer laser ablation of interverebral disks in vitro,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 280–286 (1991).
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W.-D. Yan, M. Perk, A. Chagpar, Y. Wen, S. Stratoff, W. J. Schneider, B. I. Jugdutt, J. Tulip, A. Lucas, “Laser-induced fluorescence: III. Quantitative analysis of atheroscerotic plaque content,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 164–178 (1995).
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R. Richards-Kortum, M. F. Mitchell, N. Ramanujam, A. Mahadevan, S. Thomsen, “In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy:potential for non-invasive, automated diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and use as a surrogate endpoint biomarker,” J. Cell. Biochem. (Suppl.) 19, 111–119, (1994).

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G. Bottiroli, A. C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. D. Palma, M. Dalfante, P. Spinelli, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon: a comprehensive ‘ex vivo’ Study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60, (1995).
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R. Richards-Kortum, A. Mehta, G. Hays, R. Cothren, T. Kolubayev, C. Kittrell, N. B. Ratliff, J. R. Kramer, M. S. Feld, “Spectral diagnosis of atherosclerosis using an optical fiber laser catheter,” Am. Heart J. 118, 381–391 (1989).
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R. Richards-Kortum, M. F. Mitchell, N. Ramanujam, A. Mahadevan, S. Thomsen, “In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy:potential for non-invasive, automated diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and use as a surrogate endpoint biomarker,” J. Cell. Biochem. (Suppl.) 19, 111–119, (1994).

Montán, S.

F. Sundström, K. Fredriksson, S. Montán, U. Hafsröm-Björkman, J. Ström, “Laser-induced fluorescence from sound and carious tooth substance: spectroscopic studies,” Swed. Dent. J. 9, 71–80 (1985).
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A. J. Morguet, B. Körber, B. Abel, H. Hippler, V. Wiegand, H. Kreuzer, “Autofluorescence spectroscopy using a XeCl excimer laser system for simultaneous plaque ablation and fluorescence excitation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 238–248 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nisholka, T. F. Deutsch, “Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 68–78 (1992).
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L. I. Deckelbaum, M. L. Stetz, K. M. O’Brien, F. W. Cutruzzola, A. F. Gmitro, L. I. Laifer, G. R. Gindi, “Fluorescence spectroscopy guidance of laser ablation of atherosclerotic plaque,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 205–214 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. M. O’Brien, A. F. Gmitro, G. R. Gindi, M. L. Stetz, F. W. Cutruzzola, L. I. Laifer, L. I. Deckelbaum, “Evaluation of spectral discriminant functions for guidance of laser angioplasty,” in Optical Fibers in Medicine, A. Katzir, ed., Proc. SPIE1067, 116–119 (1989).

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T. Vo-Dinh, M. Panjehpour, B. F. Overholt, C. Farris, F. P. I. Buckley, R. Sneed, “In vivo cancer diagnosis of the esophagus using differential normalized fluorescence (DNF) indices,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 41–47, (1995).
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G. Bottiroli, A. C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. D. Palma, M. Dalfante, P. Spinelli, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon: a comprehensive ‘ex vivo’ Study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60, (1995).
[CrossRef]

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T. Vo-Dinh, M. Panjehpour, B. F. Overholt, C. Farris, F. P. I. Buckley, R. Sneed, “In vivo cancer diagnosis of the esophagus using differential normalized fluorescence (DNF) indices,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 41–47, (1995).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perk, M.

W.-D. Yan, M. Perk, A. Chagpar, Y. Wen, S. Stratoff, W. J. Schneider, B. I. Jugdutt, J. Tulip, A. Lucas, “Laser-induced fluorescence: III. Quantitative analysis of atheroscerotic plaque content,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 164–178 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Petras, R.

T. J. Römer, M. Fitzmaurice, R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, R. Petras, M. V. Sivak, J. R. Kramer, “Laser-induced fluorescence microscopy of normal colon and dysplasia in colonic adenomas: implications for spectroscopic diagnosis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 90, 81–87 (1995).
[PubMed]

Petras, R. E.

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hays, M. S. Feld, R. E. Petras, “Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 36, 105–111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pignoli, E.

G. Bottiroli, A. C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. D. Palma, M. Dalfante, P. Spinelli, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon: a comprehensive ‘ex vivo’ Study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60, (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pope, K.

S. Warren, K. Pope, Y. Yazdi, A. J. Welch, S. Thomsen, A. L. Johnston, M. J. Davis, R. Richards-Kortum, “Combined ultrasound and fluorescence spectroscopy for physico-chemical imaging of atherosclerosis,” IEEE Trans. Biochem. Eng. 42, 121–132 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ramanujam, N.

A. J. Durkin, S. Jaikumar, N. Ramanujam, R. Richards-Kortum, “Relation between fluorescence spectra of dilute and turbid samples,” Appl. Opt. 33, 414–423 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Richards-Kortum, M. F. Mitchell, N. Ramanujam, A. Mahadevan, S. Thomsen, “In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy:potential for non-invasive, automated diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and use as a surrogate endpoint biomarker,” J. Cell. Biochem. (Suppl.) 19, 111–119, (1994).

Ratliff, N. B.

R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, M. Fitzmaurice, L. L. Tong, N. B. Ratliff, J. R. Kramer, M. S. Feld, “A one-layer model of laser-induced fluorescence for diagnosis of disease in human tissue: applications to atherosclerosis,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1222–1231 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. Richards-Kortum, A. Mehta, G. Hays, R. Cothren, T. Kolubayev, C. Kittrell, N. B. Ratliff, J. R. Kramer, M. S. Feld, “Spectral diagnosis of atherosclerosis using an optical fiber laser catheter,” Am. Heart J. 118, 381–391 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rava, R. P.

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hays, M. S. Feld, R. E. Petras, “Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 36, 105–111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, M. Fitzmaurice, L. L. Tong, N. B. Ratliff, J. R. Kramer, M. S. Feld, “A one-layer model of laser-induced fluorescence for diagnosis of disease in human tissue: applications to atherosclerosis,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1222–1231 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Richards-Kortum, R.

S. Warren, K. Pope, Y. Yazdi, A. J. Welch, S. Thomsen, A. L. Johnston, M. J. Davis, R. Richards-Kortum, “Combined ultrasound and fluorescence spectroscopy for physico-chemical imaging of atherosclerosis,” IEEE Trans. Biochem. Eng. 42, 121–132 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Römer, M. Fitzmaurice, R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, R. Petras, M. V. Sivak, J. R. Kramer, “Laser-induced fluorescence microscopy of normal colon and dysplasia in colonic adenomas: implications for spectroscopic diagnosis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 90, 81–87 (1995).
[PubMed]

R. Richards-Kortum, M. F. Mitchell, N. Ramanujam, A. Mahadevan, S. Thomsen, “In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy:potential for non-invasive, automated diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and use as a surrogate endpoint biomarker,” J. Cell. Biochem. (Suppl.) 19, 111–119, (1994).

A. J. Durkin, S. Jaikumar, N. Ramanujam, R. Richards-Kortum, “Relation between fluorescence spectra of dilute and turbid samples,” Appl. Opt. 33, 414–423 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hays, M. S. Feld, R. E. Petras, “Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 36, 105–111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, M. Fitzmaurice, L. L. Tong, N. B. Ratliff, J. R. Kramer, M. S. Feld, “A one-layer model of laser-induced fluorescence for diagnosis of disease in human tissue: applications to atherosclerosis,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1222–1231 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. Richards-Kortum, A. Mehta, G. Hays, R. Cothren, T. Kolubayev, C. Kittrell, N. B. Ratliff, J. R. Kramer, M. S. Feld, “Spectral diagnosis of atherosclerosis using an optical fiber laser catheter,” Am. Heart J. 118, 381–391 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richter, J. M.

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nisholka, T. F. Deutsch, “Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 68–78 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Römer, T. J.

T. J. Römer, M. Fitzmaurice, R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, R. Petras, M. V. Sivak, J. R. Kramer, “Laser-induced fluorescence microscopy of normal colon and dysplasia in colonic adenomas: implications for spectroscopic diagnosis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 90, 81–87 (1995).
[PubMed]

Schneider, W. J.

W.-D. Yan, M. Perk, A. Chagpar, Y. Wen, S. Stratoff, W. J. Schneider, B. I. Jugdutt, J. Tulip, A. Lucas, “Laser-induced fluorescence: III. Quantitative analysis of atheroscerotic plaque content,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 164–178 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schomacker, K. T.

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nisholka, T. F. Deutsch, “Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 68–78 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sivak, M. V.

T. J. Römer, M. Fitzmaurice, R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, R. Petras, M. V. Sivak, J. R. Kramer, “Laser-induced fluorescence microscopy of normal colon and dysplasia in colonic adenomas: implications for spectroscopic diagnosis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 90, 81–87 (1995).
[PubMed]

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hays, M. S. Feld, R. E. Petras, “Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 36, 105–111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sneed, R.

T. Vo-Dinh, M. Panjehpour, B. F. Overholt, C. Farris, F. P. I. Buckley, R. Sneed, “In vivo cancer diagnosis of the esophagus using differential normalized fluorescence (DNF) indices,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 41–47, (1995).
[CrossRef]

Spanier, J.

J. Spanier, E. M. Gelbard, Monte Carlo Principles and Neutron Transport Problems (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1969).

Spinelli, P.

G. Bottiroli, A. C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. D. Palma, M. Dalfante, P. Spinelli, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon: a comprehensive ‘ex vivo’ Study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60, (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stenram, U.

P. S. Andersson, A. Gustafson, U. Stenram, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, “Diagnosis of arterial atherosclerosis using laser-induced fluorescence,” Lasers Med. Sci. 2, 261–266 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Stetz, M. L.

L. I. Deckelbaum, M. L. Stetz, K. M. O’Brien, F. W. Cutruzzola, A. F. Gmitro, L. I. Laifer, G. R. Gindi, “Fluorescence spectroscopy guidance of laser ablation of atherosclerotic plaque,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 205–214 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. M. O’Brien, A. F. Gmitro, G. R. Gindi, M. L. Stetz, F. W. Cutruzzola, L. I. Laifer, L. I. Deckelbaum, “Evaluation of spectral discriminant functions for guidance of laser angioplasty,” in Optical Fibers in Medicine, A. Katzir, ed., Proc. SPIE1067, 116–119 (1989).

Stratoff, S.

W.-D. Yan, M. Perk, A. Chagpar, Y. Wen, S. Stratoff, W. J. Schneider, B. I. Jugdutt, J. Tulip, A. Lucas, “Laser-induced fluorescence: III. Quantitative analysis of atheroscerotic plaque content,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 164–178 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ström, J.

F. Sundström, U. Hafsröm-Björkman, J. Ström, B. Angmar-Mánsson, G. Frostell, I. Takazoe, “Evaluation of a model for short-term clinical testing of cariogenicity,” J. Biol. Buccale 17, 115–120 (1989).
[PubMed]

F. Sundström, K. Fredriksson, S. Montán, U. Hafsröm-Björkman, J. Ström, “Laser-induced fluorescence from sound and carious tooth substance: spectroscopic studies,” Swed. Dent. J. 9, 71–80 (1985).
[PubMed]

Sundström, F.

F. Sundström, U. Hafsröm-Björkman, J. Ström, B. Angmar-Mánsson, G. Frostell, I. Takazoe, “Evaluation of a model for short-term clinical testing of cariogenicity,” J. Biol. Buccale 17, 115–120 (1989).
[PubMed]

F. Sundström, K. Fredriksson, S. Montán, U. Hafsröm-Björkman, J. Ström, “Laser-induced fluorescence from sound and carious tooth substance: spectroscopic studies,” Swed. Dent. J. 9, 71–80 (1985).
[PubMed]

Svanberg, K.

P. S. Andersson, A. Gustafson, U. Stenram, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, “Diagnosis of arterial atherosclerosis using laser-induced fluorescence,” Lasers Med. Sci. 2, 261–266 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Svanberg, S.

P. S. Andersson, A. Gustafson, U. Stenram, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, “Diagnosis of arterial atherosclerosis using laser-induced fluorescence,” Lasers Med. Sci. 2, 261–266 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Takazoe, I.

F. Sundström, U. Hafsröm-Björkman, J. Ström, B. Angmar-Mánsson, G. Frostell, I. Takazoe, “Evaluation of a model for short-term clinical testing of cariogenicity,” J. Biol. Buccale 17, 115–120 (1989).
[PubMed]

Thaer, A. A.

W. Wiegand, A. A. Thaer, P. Kroll, O.-C. Geyer, A. J. Garcia, “Optical sectioning of the corea with a new confocal in vivo slit-scanning videomicroscope,” Ophthalomol. 102, 568–575, (1995).
[CrossRef]

Thomsen, S.

S. Warren, K. Pope, Y. Yazdi, A. J. Welch, S. Thomsen, A. L. Johnston, M. J. Davis, R. Richards-Kortum, “Combined ultrasound and fluorescence spectroscopy for physico-chemical imaging of atherosclerosis,” IEEE Trans. Biochem. Eng. 42, 121–132 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Richards-Kortum, M. F. Mitchell, N. Ramanujam, A. Mahadevan, S. Thomsen, “In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy:potential for non-invasive, automated diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and use as a surrogate endpoint biomarker,” J. Cell. Biochem. (Suppl.) 19, 111–119, (1994).

Tomatis, S.

G. Bottiroli, A. C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. D. Palma, M. Dalfante, P. Spinelli, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon: a comprehensive ‘ex vivo’ Study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60, (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tong, L. L.

R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, M. Fitzmaurice, L. L. Tong, N. B. Ratliff, J. R. Kramer, M. S. Feld, “A one-layer model of laser-induced fluorescence for diagnosis of disease in human tissue: applications to atherosclerosis,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1222–1231 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tulip, J.

W.-D. Yan, M. Perk, A. Chagpar, Y. Wen, S. Stratoff, W. J. Schneider, B. I. Jugdutt, J. Tulip, A. Lucas, “Laser-induced fluorescence: III. Quantitative analysis of atheroscerotic plaque content,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 164–178 (1995).
[CrossRef]

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Multiple Light Scattering, Vol. 2 (Academic, New York, 1980).

Vo-Dinh, T.

T. Vo-Dinh, M. Panjehpour, B. F. Overholt, C. Farris, F. P. I. Buckley, R. Sneed, “In vivo cancer diagnosis of the esophagus using differential normalized fluorescence (DNF) indices,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 41–47, (1995).
[CrossRef]

Warren, S.

S. Warren, K. Pope, Y. Yazdi, A. J. Welch, S. Thomsen, A. L. Johnston, M. J. Davis, R. Richards-Kortum, “Combined ultrasound and fluorescence spectroscopy for physico-chemical imaging of atherosclerosis,” IEEE Trans. Biochem. Eng. 42, 121–132 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, G. H.

G. H. Weiss, R. Nossal, R. F. Bonner, “Statistics of penetration depth of photons reemitted from irradiated tissue,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 349–359 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Welch, A. J.

S. Warren, K. Pope, Y. Yazdi, A. J. Welch, S. Thomsen, A. L. Johnston, M. J. Davis, R. Richards-Kortum, “Combined ultrasound and fluorescence spectroscopy for physico-chemical imaging of atherosclerosis,” IEEE Trans. Biochem. Eng. 42, 121–132 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wen, Y.

W.-D. Yan, M. Perk, A. Chagpar, Y. Wen, S. Stratoff, W. J. Schneider, B. I. Jugdutt, J. Tulip, A. Lucas, “Laser-induced fluorescence: III. Quantitative analysis of atheroscerotic plaque content,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 164–178 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wiegand, V.

A. J. Morguet, B. Körber, B. Abel, H. Hippler, V. Wiegand, H. Kreuzer, “Autofluorescence spectroscopy using a XeCl excimer laser system for simultaneous plaque ablation and fluorescence excitation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 238–248 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiegand, W.

W. Wiegand, A. A. Thaer, P. Kroll, O.-C. Geyer, A. J. Garcia, “Optical sectioning of the corea with a new confocal in vivo slit-scanning videomicroscope,” Ophthalomol. 102, 568–575, (1995).
[CrossRef]

Williamson, J. F.

J. F. Williamson, “Monte Carlo simulation of photon transport phenomena: sampling techniques,” in Monte Carlo Simulation in the Radiological Sciences, R. L. Morin, ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1988), pp. 53–102.

Wilson, B.

Wilson, B. C.

S. T. Flock, M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, “Monte Carlo modeling of light propagation in highly scattering tissues—II: Comparison with measurements in phantoms,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1169–1173 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, W.-D.

W.-D. Yan, M. Perk, A. Chagpar, Y. Wen, S. Stratoff, W. J. Schneider, B. I. Jugdutt, J. Tulip, A. Lucas, “Laser-induced fluorescence: III. Quantitative analysis of atheroscerotic plaque content,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 164–178 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yazdi, Y.

S. Warren, K. Pope, Y. Yazdi, A. J. Welch, S. Thomsen, A. L. Johnston, M. J. Davis, R. Richards-Kortum, “Combined ultrasound and fluorescence spectroscopy for physico-chemical imaging of atherosclerosis,” IEEE Trans. Biochem. Eng. 42, 121–132 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zweifel, P. F.

K. M. Case, P. F. Zweifel, Linear Transport Theory, Addison-Wesley Series in Nuclear Engineering, H. Goldstein, ed. (Addison-Wesley, Don Mills, Ontario, Canada, 1967).

Am. Heart J. (1)

R. Richards-Kortum, A. Mehta, G. Hays, R. Cothren, T. Kolubayev, C. Kittrell, N. B. Ratliff, J. R. Kramer, M. S. Feld, “Spectral diagnosis of atherosclerosis using an optical fiber laser catheter,” Am. Heart J. 118, 381–391 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1)

T. J. Römer, M. Fitzmaurice, R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, R. Petras, M. V. Sivak, J. R. Kramer, “Laser-induced fluorescence microscopy of normal colon and dysplasia in colonic adenomas: implications for spectroscopic diagnosis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 90, 81–87 (1995).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Arch. Oral Biol. (1)

P. C. Foreman, “The excitation and emission spectra of fluorescent components of human dentine,” Arch. Oral Biol. 25, 641–647 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastrointest. Endosc. (1)

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hays, M. S. Feld, R. E. Petras, “Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 36, 105–111 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biochem. Eng. (1)

S. Warren, K. Pope, Y. Yazdi, A. J. Welch, S. Thomsen, A. L. Johnston, M. J. Davis, R. Richards-Kortum, “Combined ultrasound and fluorescence spectroscopy for physico-chemical imaging of atherosclerosis,” IEEE Trans. Biochem. Eng. 42, 121–132 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (2)

R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, M. Fitzmaurice, L. L. Tong, N. B. Ratliff, J. R. Kramer, M. S. Feld, “A one-layer model of laser-induced fluorescence for diagnosis of disease in human tissue: applications to atherosclerosis,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1222–1231 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Flock, M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, “Monte Carlo modeling of light propagation in highly scattering tissues—II: Comparison with measurements in phantoms,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36, 1169–1173 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biol. Buccale (1)

F. Sundström, U. Hafsröm-Björkman, J. Ström, B. Angmar-Mánsson, G. Frostell, I. Takazoe, “Evaluation of a model for short-term clinical testing of cariogenicity,” J. Biol. Buccale 17, 115–120 (1989).
[PubMed]

J. Cell. Biochem. (Suppl.) (1)

R. Richards-Kortum, M. F. Mitchell, N. Ramanujam, A. Mahadevan, S. Thomsen, “In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy:potential for non-invasive, automated diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and use as a surrogate endpoint biomarker,” J. Cell. Biochem. (Suppl.) 19, 111–119, (1994).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

G. H. Weiss, R. Nossal, R. F. Bonner, “Statistics of penetration depth of photons reemitted from irradiated tissue,” J. Mod. Opt. 36, 349–359 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Med. Sci. (1)

P. S. Andersson, A. Gustafson, U. Stenram, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, “Diagnosis of arterial atherosclerosis using laser-induced fluorescence,” Lasers Med. Sci. 2, 261–266 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med. (8)

M. Buchelt, T. Katterschafka, R. Horvat, H. Kutschera, W. Kickinger, G. Laufer, “Fluorescent guided excimer laser ablation of interverebral disks in vitro,” Lasers Surg. Med. 11, 280–286 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nisholka, T. F. Deutsch, “Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 68–78 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Morguet, B. Körber, B. Abel, H. Hippler, V. Wiegand, H. Kreuzer, “Autofluorescence spectroscopy using a XeCl excimer laser system for simultaneous plaque ablation and fluorescence excitation,” Lasers Surg. Med. 14, 238–248 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Bottiroli, A. C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. D. Palma, M. Dalfante, P. Spinelli, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon: a comprehensive ‘ex vivo’ Study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60, (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Vo-Dinh, M. Panjehpour, B. F. Overholt, C. Farris, F. P. I. Buckley, R. Sneed, “In vivo cancer diagnosis of the esophagus using differential normalized fluorescence (DNF) indices,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 41–47, (1995).
[CrossRef]

W.-D. Yan, M. Perk, A. Chagpar, Y. Wen, S. Stratoff, W. J. Schneider, B. I. Jugdutt, J. Tulip, A. Lucas, “Laser-induced fluorescence: III. Quantitative analysis of atheroscerotic plaque content,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 164–178 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. I. Deckelbaum, M. L. Stetz, K. M. O’Brien, F. W. Cutruzzola, A. F. Gmitro, L. I. Laifer, G. R. Gindi, “Fluorescence spectroscopy guidance of laser ablation of atherosclerotic plaque,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 205–214 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. Docchio, “Ocular fluorometry: principles, fluorophores, instrumentation and clinical applications,” Lasers Surg. Med. 9, 515–532 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys. (1)

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys. 19, 879–888 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nucl. Sci. Eng. (3)

M. H. Kalos, “Importance sampling in Monte Carlo shielding calculations,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 16, 227–234 (1963).

G. I. Bell, “On the Stochastic Theory of Neutron Transport,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 21, 390–401 (1965).

C. W. Maynard, “An Application of the Reciprocity Theorem to the Acceleration of Monte Carlo Calculations,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 10, 97–101 (1961).

Ophthalomol. (1)

W. Wiegand, A. A. Thaer, P. Kroll, O.-C. Geyer, A. J. Garcia, “Optical sectioning of the corea with a new confocal in vivo slit-scanning videomicroscope,” Ophthalomol. 102, 568–575, (1995).
[CrossRef]

Swed. Dent. J. (1)

F. Sundström, K. Fredriksson, S. Montán, U. Hafsröm-Björkman, J. Ström, “Laser-induced fluorescence from sound and carious tooth substance: spectroscopic studies,” Swed. Dent. J. 9, 71–80 (1985).
[PubMed]

Other (10)

J. R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Spectroscopy (Plenum, New York, 1983).
[CrossRef]

K. M. O’Brien, A. F. Gmitro, G. R. Gindi, M. L. Stetz, F. W. Cutruzzola, L. I. Laifer, L. I. Deckelbaum, “Evaluation of spectral discriminant functions for guidance of laser angioplasty,” in Optical Fibers in Medicine, A. Katzir, ed., Proc. SPIE1067, 116–119 (1989).

J. Lewins, Importance: The Adjoint Function (Pergamon, New York, 1965).

H. C. van de Hulst, Multiple Light Scattering, Vol. 2 (Academic, New York, 1980).

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scatter of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

J. F. Williamson, “Monte Carlo simulation of photon transport phenomena: sampling techniques,” in Monte Carlo Simulation in the Radiological Sciences, R. L. Morin, ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1988), pp. 53–102.

K. M. Case, P. F. Zweifel, Linear Transport Theory, Addison-Wesley Series in Nuclear Engineering, H. Goldstein, ed. (Addison-Wesley, Don Mills, Ontario, Canada, 1967).

J. Spanier, E. M. Gelbard, Monte Carlo Principles and Neutron Transport Problems (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1969).

R. Crilly, “Development of the Forward-Adjoint Fluorescence Model with Application to Fiber Optic Detection Systems,” Ph.D. dissertation (Wayne State University, Detroit, Mich., 1995).

J. J. Duderstadt, W. R. Martin, Transport Theory (Wiley, New York, 1979).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of experimentalversus Monte Carlo simulations of detected fluorescent signal as a function of phantom albedo (series A); there was no barrier in place. Monte Carlo signal responses are normalized to minimize theχ2 difference between theoretical and experimental values. Stochastic variance in Monte Carlo results is smaller than the indicators. Systemic error bars associated with Monte Carlo input parameters were not calculated.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Series B: Effects of altering the boundary conditions with the barrier;(μt)ex= 0.207 cm-1ex = 0.865, (μt)em = 0.231cm-1, αem = 0.951. Detector–source separation yd = 4.40 cm, and the detector tilt angleϕd = 48°. Monte Carlo signal responses are normalized to minimize theχ2 difference between theoretical and experimental values.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Series C: Effects of lowering a barrier into a water phantom with two different sets of optical properties and a single movement of the detector. Monte Carlo signal responses are normalized to minimize theχ2 difference between theoretical and experimental values. Variance in Monte Carlo results is smaller than the indicators.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of Phantom Optical Properties Varied during Experimental Validation

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S r ,   Ω ˆ = Ω ˆ · I r ,   Ω ˆ + μ t I r ,   Ω ˆ - μ s 4 π   4 π   p Ω ˆ · Ω ˆ I r ,   Ω ˆ d Ω ˆ ,
d N ˙ f d V r = d N ˙ abs d V r   f r = μ a f r h ν ex γ q λ   Ψ ex r ,
E ˙ det = 4 π   v   I ˜ r ,   Ω ˆ   S r ,   Ω ˆ d r d Ω ˆ ,
S r ,   Ω ˆ = S iso r 4 π .
Ψ ˜ r = 4 π   I ˜ r ,   Ω ˆ d Ω ˆ .
N ˙ det = 1 4 π h ν em   V   S iso r Ψ ˜ r d r = 1 4 π   V   d N ˙ f r d V   Ψ ˜ r d r .
N ˙ det = σ a f ex γ q λ 4 π h ν ex   V   Ψ ex r C f r Ψ ˜ em r d r ,
E ˙ det = 4 π   V   D r ,   Ω ˆ I r ,   Ω ˆ d r d Ω ˆ ,
D r ,   Ω ˆ = - Ω ˆ · I ˜ r ,   Ω ˆ + μ t I ˜ r ,   Ω ˆ - μ s 4 π   4 π   p Ω ˆ · Ω ˆ I ˜ r ,   Ω ˆ d Ω ˆ ,

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