Abstract

The efficiencies of replicas of the Skylab 3600-line/mm concave grating with multilayer and gold coatings were measured by using synchrotron radiation at an angle of incidence of 79° and in the 28–42-Å wavelength range. The blaze angle of the grating facets that faced the incident radiation was 3.1°, and the average angle of the opposite facets was 6°. For the gold grating, the -1 outside order had the highest efficiency of any diffracted order (excluding the zero order) over the entire wavelength range. Calculations of the grating efficiency indicated that the high efficiency in the -1 order resulted from the rather small angle(6°) of the facets opposite the incident radiation. For the multilayer grating, the efficiency in the on-blaze +2 inside order was enhanced in the 30–34-Å wavelength region as a result of the high reflectance of the multilayer coating. The maximum efficiency in the +2 order occurred at the wavelength (32 Å) corresponding to the peak of the reflectance of the multilayer coating on the facets facing the incident radiation. These results further demonstrate that a multilayer coating can be used to enhance the efficiency, in a selected wavelength range and in the on-blaze order, of a grating operating at a small grazing angle(11°).

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  9. L. I. Goray, “Rigorous integral method in application to computing diffraction on relief gratings working in wavelength range from microwaves to x-ray,” in Application and Theory of Periodic Structures, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2532, 427–433 (1995).
    [Crossref]

1995 (2)

1993 (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, R. G. Cruddace, “Performance of a tungsten/carbon multilayer-coated, blazed grating from 150 to 1700 eV,” Phys. Scr. 41, 418–421 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

1986 (1)

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A246, 465–468 (1986).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

Barbee, T. W.

Bartoe, J.-D. F.

Brueckner, G. E.

Chernov, B. C.

L. I. Goray, B. C. Chernov, “Comparison of rigorous methods for x-ray and XUV grating diffraction analysis,” in X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2515, 240–245 (1995).
[Crossref]

Cruddace, R. G.

Davis, J. C.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

Eby, R.

Goray, L. I.

L. I. Goray, B. C. Chernov, “Comparison of rigorous methods for x-ray and XUV grating diffraction analysis,” in X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2515, 240–245 (1995).
[Crossref]

L. I. Goray, “Rigorous integral method in application to computing diffraction on relief gratings working in wavelength range from microwaves to x-ray,” in Application and Theory of Periodic Structures, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2532, 427–433 (1995).
[Crossref]

Gullikson, E. M.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hunter, W. R.

Kowalski, M. P.

Purcell, J. D.

Rife, J. C.

Seely, J. F.

Stolt, K. G.

Tousey, R.

Appl. Opt. (4)

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50–30,000 eV, Z = 1–92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods (1)

W. R. Hunter, J. C. Rife, “An ultrahigh vacuum reflectometer/goniometer for use with synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A246, 465–468 (1986).
[Crossref]

Phys. Scr. (1)

J. C. Rife, T. W. Barbee, W. R. Hunter, R. G. Cruddace, “Performance of a tungsten/carbon multilayer-coated, blazed grating from 150 to 1700 eV,” Phys. Scr. 41, 418–421 (1990).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

L. I. Goray, B. C. Chernov, “Comparison of rigorous methods for x-ray and XUV grating diffraction analysis,” in X-Ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Optics, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2515, 240–245 (1995).
[Crossref]

L. I. Goray, “Rigorous integral method in application to computing diffraction on relief gratings working in wavelength range from microwaves to x-ray,” in Application and Theory of Periodic Structures, R. B. Hoover, A. B. C. Walker, eds., Proc. SPIE2532, 427–433 (1995).
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

AFM scan perpendicular to the grooves of the multilayer grating. A quadratic curve was fitted to the data points on each facet by using a least-squares technique.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated reflectance of (a) the multilayer coating and (b) the gold coating at an angle of incidence of 75.9°.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured efficiency, as a function of the detector angle, of (a) the gold grating and (b) the multilayer grating at an angle of incidence of 79° and a wavelength of 34 Å. The diffraction orders are indicated.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured peak efficiency of (a) the gold grating and(b) the multilayer grating at an angle of incidence of 79°. The diffraction orders are identified.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Curve (a), measured efficiency of the multilayer grating in the +2 order for an angle of incidence of 79° (angle of incidence of 75.9° with respect to the grating facets). Curve (b), reflectance of the multilayer coating, divided by a factor of 23, for an angle of incidence of 75.9°.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated efficiency of the gold grating at an angle of incidence of 79° and a wavelength of 34 Å. The blaze angle of the grating facets that faced the incident radiation was 3.1°, and the angles of the opposite facets varied from 5° to 30°.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calculated efficiency of the gold grating at an angle of incidence of 79°. The blaze angle of the grating facets facing the incident radiation was 3.1°, and the angle of the opposite facets was6°.

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