Abstract

The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center stratospheric ozone lidar system has the capability of collecting both Rayleigh–Mie and Raman backscatter data simultaneously at a number of wavelengths. Here we report on an improved method by which temperature can be derived from a combination of the Rayleigh–Mie return at 351-nm lidar channels and the Raman nitrogen return at 382-nm lidar channels. We also examine some common techniques by which temperatures are retrieved from lidar data. Finally, we show results obtained in 1995 during two Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change intercomparison campaigns at Lauder, New Zealand and Mauna Loa, Hawaii.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  5. T. Shibata, M. Kobuchi, M. Maeda, “Measurements of density and temperature profiles in the middle atmosphere with a XeF lidar,” Appl. Opt. 25, 685–688 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. D. B. Jenkins, D. P. Wareing, L. Thomas, G. Vaughan, “Upper stratospheric and mesospheric temperatures derived from lidar observations at Aberystwyth,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 49, 287–298 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  7. H. Nakane, S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Minato, “Vertical profiles of temperature and ozone observed during DYANA campaign with the NIES ozone lidar system at Tsukuba,” J. Geomagn. Geoelectr. 44, 1071–1083 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  8. O. Uchino, T. Fujimoto, “Lidar measurements of ozone and temperature in the stratosphere at Tsukuba (36.1 °N, 140.1 °E) during DYANA campaign,” J. Geomagn. Geoelectr. 44, 1061–1070 (1992).
    [Crossref]
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  10. J. A. Whiteway, A. I. Carswell, “Lidar observations of gravity wave activity in the upper stratosphere over Toronto,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1,4113–1,4124 (1995).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  21. P. Keckhut, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, “Stratosphere temperature measurement using Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5182–5186 (1990).
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  22. T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, R. Ferrare, J. J. Butler, J. F. Burris, “STROZ-LITE: stratospheric ozone lidar trailer experiment,” Opt. Eng. 30, 31–39 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  23. T. J. McGee, J. J. Butler, M. Gross, U. Singh, J. F. Cavanaugh, “A modified stratospheric ozone lidar,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Volume 18 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 151–152.
  24. M. E. Gelman, A. J. Miller, K. W. Johnson, R. M. Nagatani, “Detection of long-term trends in global stratospheric temperature from NMC analyses derived from NOAA satellite data,” Adv. Space Res. 6, 17–26 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  25. F. G. Finger, M. E. Gelman, J. D. Wild, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, A. J. Miller, “Evaluation of NMC upper-stratosphere temperature analyses using rocketsonde and lidar data,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 74, 789–799 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  26. J. D. Wild, M. E. Gelman, A. J. Miller, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, R. Farley, P. D. Dao, J. W. Meriwether, G. P. Gobbi, F. Congeduti, A. Ariani, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, E. F. Fishbein, “Comparison of stratospheric temperatures from several lidars, using National Meteorological Center and microwave limb sounder data as transfer references,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11,105–11,111 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  27. E. Fleming, S. Chandra, M. Schoeberl, J. Barnett, “Monthly mean global climatology of temperature, wind, geopotential height, and pressure for 0–120 km,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1986).
  28. W. Steinbrecht, “Lidar measurements of ozone, aerosol, and temperature in the stratosphere,” Ph.D. dissertation (York University, North York, Ontario, Canada, 1994), pp. 22–23.
  29. I. S. McDermid, E. Sirko, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Table Mountain Facility, Pasadena, Calif. (personal communication, 1994).
  30. P. Keckhut, A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, “A critical review of the database acquired for the long-term surveillance of the middle atmosphere by the French Rayleigh lidars,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 10, 850–867 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  31. M. R. Gross, T. J. McGee, U. N. Singh, P. Kimvilakani, “Measurements of stratospheric aerosols with a combined elastic–Raman-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6915–6924 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. C. R. Trepte, R. E. Veiga, M. P. McCormick, “The poleward dispersal of Mount Pinatubo vocanic aerosol,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 18,563–18,573 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  33. B. Nardi, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, S. I. Avdyushin, G. F. Tulinov, M. S. Ivanov, B. N. Kuzmenko, I. R. Mezhuev, “Morphology and dynamics of the Pinatubo aerosol layer in the northern hemisphere as detected from a ship-borne lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1967–1970 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  34. R. L. McKenzie, J. M. Rosen, N. T. Kjome, T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, U. N. Singh, R. F. Ferrare, P. Kimvilakani, O. Uchino, T. Nagai, “Multi-wavelength profiles of aerosol backscatter over Lauder, New Zealand, 24 November 1992,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 789–792 (1994).
    [Crossref]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

U. N. Singh, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, E. F. Fishbein, J. W. Waters, J. C. Gille, A. E. Roche, J. M. Russell, “Stratospheric temperature measurements by two collocated NDSC lidars during UARS validation campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,287–10,297 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (6)

J. A. Whiteway, A. I. Carswell, “Lidar observations of gravity wave activity in the upper stratosphere over Toronto,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1,4113–1,4124 (1995).
[Crossref]

G. P. Gobbi, C. Souprayen, F. Congeduti, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, M. Viterbini, S. Centurioni, “Lidar observations of middle atmosphere temperature variability,” Ann. Geophys. 13, 648–655 (1995).
[Crossref]

T. J. McGee, M. Gross, U. N. Singh, J. J. Butler, P. E. Kimvilakani, “Improved stratospheric ozone lidar,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1421–1430 (1995).
[Crossref]

R. A. Ferrare, T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, J. Burris, M. Owens, J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, F. Schmidlin, W. Komhyr, P. H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, A. J. Miller, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric temperature during STOIC,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9303–9312 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. D. Wild, M. E. Gelman, A. J. Miller, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, R. Farley, P. D. Dao, J. W. Meriwether, G. P. Gobbi, F. Congeduti, A. Ariani, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, E. F. Fishbein, “Comparison of stratospheric temperatures from several lidars, using National Meteorological Center and microwave limb sounder data as transfer references,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11,105–11,111 (1995).
[Crossref]

M. R. Gross, T. J. McGee, U. N. Singh, P. Kimvilakani, “Measurements of stratospheric aerosols with a combined elastic–Raman-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6915–6924 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (3)

R. L. McKenzie, J. M. Rosen, N. T. Kjome, T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, U. N. Singh, R. F. Ferrare, P. Kimvilakani, O. Uchino, T. Nagai, “Multi-wavelength profiles of aerosol backscatter over Lauder, New Zealand, 24 November 1992,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 789–792 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. W. Meriwether, P. D. Dao, R. T. McNutt, W. Klemetti, W. Moskowitz, G. Davidson, “Rayleigh lidar observations of mesosphere temperature structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 16,973–16,987 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. A. Whiteway, A. I. Carswell, “Rayleigh lidar observations of thermal structure and gravity wave activity in the high arctic during a stratospheric warming,” J. Atmos. Sci. 51, 3122–3136 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (5)

T. J. McGee, M. Gross, R. Ferrare, W. Heaps, U. Singh, “Raman DIAL measurements of stratospheric ozone in the presence of the volcanic aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 955–958 (1993).
[Crossref]

P. Keckhut, A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, “A critical review of the database acquired for the long-term surveillance of the middle atmosphere by the French Rayleigh lidars,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 10, 850–867 (1993).
[Crossref]

C. R. Trepte, R. E. Veiga, M. P. McCormick, “The poleward dispersal of Mount Pinatubo vocanic aerosol,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 18,563–18,573 (1993).
[Crossref]

B. Nardi, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, S. I. Avdyushin, G. F. Tulinov, M. S. Ivanov, B. N. Kuzmenko, I. R. Mezhuev, “Morphology and dynamics of the Pinatubo aerosol layer in the northern hemisphere as detected from a ship-borne lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1967–1970 (1993).
[Crossref]

F. G. Finger, M. E. Gelman, J. D. Wild, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, A. J. Miller, “Evaluation of NMC upper-stratosphere temperature analyses using rocketsonde and lidar data,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 74, 789–799 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (3)

A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, P. Keckhut, D. Nedeljkovic, “LIDAR monitoring of the temperature in the middle and lower atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 29–34 (1992).
[Crossref]

H. Nakane, S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Minato, “Vertical profiles of temperature and ozone observed during DYANA campaign with the NIES ozone lidar system at Tsukuba,” J. Geomagn. Geoelectr. 44, 1071–1083 (1992).
[Crossref]

O. Uchino, T. Fujimoto, “Lidar measurements of ozone and temperature in the stratosphere at Tsukuba (36.1 °N, 140.1 °E) during DYANA campaign,” J. Geomagn. Geoelectr. 44, 1061–1070 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, R. Ferrare, J. J. Butler, J. F. Burris, “STROZ-LITE: stratospheric ozone lidar trailer experiment,” Opt. Eng. 30, 31–39 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

1987 (1)

D. B. Jenkins, D. P. Wareing, L. Thomas, G. Vaughan, “Upper stratospheric and mesospheric temperatures derived from lidar observations at Aberystwyth,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 49, 287–298 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (2)

M. E. Gelman, A. J. Miller, K. W. Johnson, R. M. Nagatani, “Detection of long-term trends in global stratospheric temperature from NMC analyses derived from NOAA satellite data,” Adv. Space Res. 6, 17–26 (1986).
[Crossref]

T. Shibata, M. Kobuchi, M. Maeda, “Measurements of density and temperature profiles in the middle atmosphere with a XeF lidar,” Appl. Opt. 25, 685–688 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, “Lidar observations of gravity and tidal waves in the stratosphere and mesosphere,” J. Geophys. Res., 86, 9715–9721 (1981).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, “Density and temperature profiles obtained by lidar between 30 and 70 km,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 565–568 (1980).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

Adriani, A.

G. P. Gobbi, C. Souprayen, F. Congeduti, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, M. Viterbini, S. Centurioni, “Lidar observations of middle atmosphere temperature variability,” Ann. Geophys. 13, 648–655 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ariani, A.

J. D. Wild, M. E. Gelman, A. J. Miller, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, R. Farley, P. D. Dao, J. W. Meriwether, G. P. Gobbi, F. Congeduti, A. Ariani, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, E. F. Fishbein, “Comparison of stratospheric temperatures from several lidars, using National Meteorological Center and microwave limb sounder data as transfer references,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11,105–11,111 (1995).
[Crossref]

Avdyushin, S. I.

B. Nardi, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, S. I. Avdyushin, G. F. Tulinov, M. S. Ivanov, B. N. Kuzmenko, I. R. Mezhuev, “Morphology and dynamics of the Pinatubo aerosol layer in the northern hemisphere as detected from a ship-borne lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1967–1970 (1993).
[Crossref]

Barnes, R. A.

R. A. Ferrare, T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, J. Burris, M. Owens, J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, F. Schmidlin, W. Komhyr, P. H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, A. J. Miller, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric temperature during STOIC,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9303–9312 (1995).
[Crossref]

Barnett, J.

E. Fleming, S. Chandra, M. Schoeberl, J. Barnett, “Monthly mean global climatology of temperature, wind, geopotential height, and pressure for 0–120 km,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1986).

Burris, J.

R. A. Ferrare, T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, J. Burris, M. Owens, J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, F. Schmidlin, W. Komhyr, P. H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, A. J. Miller, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric temperature during STOIC,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9303–9312 (1995).
[Crossref]

Burris, J. F.

T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, R. Ferrare, J. J. Butler, J. F. Burris, “STROZ-LITE: stratospheric ozone lidar trailer experiment,” Opt. Eng. 30, 31–39 (1991).
[Crossref]

Butler, J.

R. A. Ferrare, T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, J. Burris, M. Owens, J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, F. Schmidlin, W. Komhyr, P. H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, A. J. Miller, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric temperature during STOIC,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9303–9312 (1995).
[Crossref]

Butler, J. J.

T. J. McGee, M. Gross, U. N. Singh, J. J. Butler, P. E. Kimvilakani, “Improved stratospheric ozone lidar,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1421–1430 (1995).
[Crossref]

T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, R. Ferrare, J. J. Butler, J. F. Burris, “STROZ-LITE: stratospheric ozone lidar trailer experiment,” Opt. Eng. 30, 31–39 (1991).
[Crossref]

T. J. McGee, J. J. Butler, M. Gross, U. Singh, J. F. Cavanaugh, “A modified stratospheric ozone lidar,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Volume 18 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 151–152.

Carswell, A. I.

J. A. Whiteway, A. I. Carswell, “Lidar observations of gravity wave activity in the upper stratosphere over Toronto,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1,4113–1,4124 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. A. Whiteway, A. I. Carswell, “Rayleigh lidar observations of thermal structure and gravity wave activity in the high arctic during a stratospheric warming,” J. Atmos. Sci. 51, 3122–3136 (1994).
[Crossref]

Cavanaugh, J. F.

T. J. McGee, J. J. Butler, M. Gross, U. Singh, J. F. Cavanaugh, “A modified stratospheric ozone lidar,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Volume 18 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 151–152.

Centurioni, S.

G. P. Gobbi, C. Souprayen, F. Congeduti, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, M. Viterbini, S. Centurioni, “Lidar observations of middle atmosphere temperature variability,” Ann. Geophys. 13, 648–655 (1995).
[Crossref]

Chandra, S.

E. Fleming, S. Chandra, M. Schoeberl, J. Barnett, “Monthly mean global climatology of temperature, wind, geopotential height, and pressure for 0–120 km,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1986).

Chanin, M. L.

J. D. Wild, M. E. Gelman, A. J. Miller, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, R. Farley, P. D. Dao, J. W. Meriwether, G. P. Gobbi, F. Congeduti, A. Ariani, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, E. F. Fishbein, “Comparison of stratospheric temperatures from several lidars, using National Meteorological Center and microwave limb sounder data as transfer references,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11,105–11,111 (1995).
[Crossref]

F. G. Finger, M. E. Gelman, J. D. Wild, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, A. J. Miller, “Evaluation of NMC upper-stratosphere temperature analyses using rocketsonde and lidar data,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 74, 789–799 (1993).
[Crossref]

P. Keckhut, A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, “A critical review of the database acquired for the long-term surveillance of the middle atmosphere by the French Rayleigh lidars,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 10, 850–867 (1993).
[Crossref]

B. Nardi, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, S. I. Avdyushin, G. F. Tulinov, M. S. Ivanov, B. N. Kuzmenko, I. R. Mezhuev, “Morphology and dynamics of the Pinatubo aerosol layer in the northern hemisphere as detected from a ship-borne lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1967–1970 (1993).
[Crossref]

A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, P. Keckhut, D. Nedeljkovic, “LIDAR monitoring of the temperature in the middle and lower atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 29–34 (1992).
[Crossref]

P. Keckhut, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, “Stratosphere temperature measurement using Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5182–5186 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, “Lidar observations of gravity and tidal waves in the stratosphere and mesosphere,” J. Geophys. Res., 86, 9715–9721 (1981).
[Crossref]

A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, “Density and temperature profiles obtained by lidar between 30 and 70 km,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 565–568 (1980).
[Crossref]

M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, “Lidar studies of temperature and density using Rayleigh scattering,” , (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1984), pp. 87–99.

Congeduti, F.

J. D. Wild, M. E. Gelman, A. J. Miller, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, R. Farley, P. D. Dao, J. W. Meriwether, G. P. Gobbi, F. Congeduti, A. Ariani, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, E. F. Fishbein, “Comparison of stratospheric temperatures from several lidars, using National Meteorological Center and microwave limb sounder data as transfer references,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11,105–11,111 (1995).
[Crossref]

G. P. Gobbi, C. Souprayen, F. Congeduti, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, M. Viterbini, S. Centurioni, “Lidar observations of middle atmosphere temperature variability,” Ann. Geophys. 13, 648–655 (1995).
[Crossref]

Cupp, R. E.

Dao, P.

P. Dao, W. Klemetti, D. Sipler, W. P. Moskowitz, G. Davidson, “Density measurements with combined Raman–Rayleigh lidar,” in Laser Applications in Meteorology and Earth and Atmospheric Remote Sensing, M. M. Sokoloski, ed., Proc. SPIE1062, 138–143 (1989).
[Crossref]

Dao, P. D.

J. D. Wild, M. E. Gelman, A. J. Miller, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, R. Farley, P. D. Dao, J. W. Meriwether, G. P. Gobbi, F. Congeduti, A. Ariani, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, E. F. Fishbein, “Comparison of stratospheric temperatures from several lidars, using National Meteorological Center and microwave limb sounder data as transfer references,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11,105–11,111 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. W. Meriwether, P. D. Dao, R. T. McNutt, W. Klemetti, W. Moskowitz, G. Davidson, “Rayleigh lidar observations of mesosphere temperature structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 16,973–16,987 (1994).
[Crossref]

Davidson, G.

J. W. Meriwether, P. D. Dao, R. T. McNutt, W. Klemetti, W. Moskowitz, G. Davidson, “Rayleigh lidar observations of mesosphere temperature structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 16,973–16,987 (1994).
[Crossref]

P. Dao, W. Klemetti, D. Sipler, W. P. Moskowitz, G. Davidson, “Density measurements with combined Raman–Rayleigh lidar,” in Laser Applications in Meteorology and Earth and Atmospheric Remote Sensing, M. M. Sokoloski, ed., Proc. SPIE1062, 138–143 (1989).
[Crossref]

Derr, V. E.

Donfrancesco, G. Di

G. P. Gobbi, C. Souprayen, F. Congeduti, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, M. Viterbini, S. Centurioni, “Lidar observations of middle atmosphere temperature variability,” Ann. Geophys. 13, 648–655 (1995).
[Crossref]

Evans, K. D.

Farley, R.

J. D. Wild, M. E. Gelman, A. J. Miller, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, R. Farley, P. D. Dao, J. W. Meriwether, G. P. Gobbi, F. Congeduti, A. Ariani, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, E. F. Fishbein, “Comparison of stratospheric temperatures from several lidars, using National Meteorological Center and microwave limb sounder data as transfer references,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11,105–11,111 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ferrare, R.

T. J. McGee, M. Gross, R. Ferrare, W. Heaps, U. Singh, “Raman DIAL measurements of stratospheric ozone in the presence of the volcanic aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 955–958 (1993).
[Crossref]

T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, R. Ferrare, J. J. Butler, J. F. Burris, “STROZ-LITE: stratospheric ozone lidar trailer experiment,” Opt. Eng. 30, 31–39 (1991).
[Crossref]

Ferrare, R. A.

K. D. Evans, S. H. Melfi, R. A. Ferrare, D. N. Whiteman, “Upper tropospheric temperature measurements with the use of a Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2594–2602 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Ferrare, T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, J. Burris, M. Owens, J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, F. Schmidlin, W. Komhyr, P. H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, A. J. Miller, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric temperature during STOIC,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9303–9312 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ferrare, R. F.

R. L. McKenzie, J. M. Rosen, N. T. Kjome, T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, U. N. Singh, R. F. Ferrare, P. Kimvilakani, O. Uchino, T. Nagai, “Multi-wavelength profiles of aerosol backscatter over Lauder, New Zealand, 24 November 1992,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 789–792 (1994).
[Crossref]

Finger, F. G.

F. G. Finger, M. E. Gelman, J. D. Wild, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, A. J. Miller, “Evaluation of NMC upper-stratosphere temperature analyses using rocketsonde and lidar data,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 74, 789–799 (1993).
[Crossref]

Fishbein, E. F.

U. N. Singh, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, E. F. Fishbein, J. W. Waters, J. C. Gille, A. E. Roche, J. M. Russell, “Stratospheric temperature measurements by two collocated NDSC lidars during UARS validation campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,287–10,297 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. D. Wild, M. E. Gelman, A. J. Miller, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, R. Farley, P. D. Dao, J. W. Meriwether, G. P. Gobbi, F. Congeduti, A. Ariani, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, E. F. Fishbein, “Comparison of stratospheric temperatures from several lidars, using National Meteorological Center and microwave limb sounder data as transfer references,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11,105–11,111 (1995).
[Crossref]

Fleming, E.

E. Fleming, S. Chandra, M. Schoeberl, J. Barnett, “Monthly mean global climatology of temperature, wind, geopotential height, and pressure for 0–120 km,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1986).

Fujimoto, T.

O. Uchino, T. Fujimoto, “Lidar measurements of ozone and temperature in the stratosphere at Tsukuba (36.1 °N, 140.1 °E) during DYANA campaign,” J. Geomagn. Geoelectr. 44, 1061–1070 (1992).
[Crossref]

Gelman, M. E.

J. D. Wild, M. E. Gelman, A. J. Miller, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, R. Farley, P. D. Dao, J. W. Meriwether, G. P. Gobbi, F. Congeduti, A. Ariani, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, E. F. Fishbein, “Comparison of stratospheric temperatures from several lidars, using National Meteorological Center and microwave limb sounder data as transfer references,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11,105–11,111 (1995).
[Crossref]

F. G. Finger, M. E. Gelman, J. D. Wild, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, A. J. Miller, “Evaluation of NMC upper-stratosphere temperature analyses using rocketsonde and lidar data,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 74, 789–799 (1993).
[Crossref]

M. E. Gelman, A. J. Miller, K. W. Johnson, R. M. Nagatani, “Detection of long-term trends in global stratospheric temperature from NMC analyses derived from NOAA satellite data,” Adv. Space Res. 6, 17–26 (1986).
[Crossref]

Gille, J. C.

U. N. Singh, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, E. F. Fishbein, J. W. Waters, J. C. Gille, A. E. Roche, J. M. Russell, “Stratospheric temperature measurements by two collocated NDSC lidars during UARS validation campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,287–10,297 (1996).
[Crossref]

Gobbi, G. P.

G. P. Gobbi, C. Souprayen, F. Congeduti, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, M. Viterbini, S. Centurioni, “Lidar observations of middle atmosphere temperature variability,” Ann. Geophys. 13, 648–655 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. D. Wild, M. E. Gelman, A. J. Miller, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, R. Farley, P. D. Dao, J. W. Meriwether, G. P. Gobbi, F. Congeduti, A. Ariani, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, E. F. Fishbein, “Comparison of stratospheric temperatures from several lidars, using National Meteorological Center and microwave limb sounder data as transfer references,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11,105–11,111 (1995).
[Crossref]

Gross, M.

T. J. McGee, M. Gross, U. N. Singh, J. J. Butler, P. E. Kimvilakani, “Improved stratospheric ozone lidar,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1421–1430 (1995).
[Crossref]

T. J. McGee, M. Gross, R. Ferrare, W. Heaps, U. Singh, “Raman DIAL measurements of stratospheric ozone in the presence of the volcanic aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 955–958 (1993).
[Crossref]

T. J. McGee, J. J. Butler, M. Gross, U. Singh, J. F. Cavanaugh, “A modified stratospheric ozone lidar,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Volume 18 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 151–152.

Gross, M. R.

U. N. Singh, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, E. F. Fishbein, J. W. Waters, J. C. Gille, A. E. Roche, J. M. Russell, “Stratospheric temperature measurements by two collocated NDSC lidars during UARS validation campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,287–10,297 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. R. Gross, T. J. McGee, U. N. Singh, P. Kimvilakani, “Measurements of stratospheric aerosols with a combined elastic–Raman-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6915–6924 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. L. McKenzie, J. M. Rosen, N. T. Kjome, T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, U. N. Singh, R. F. Ferrare, P. Kimvilakani, O. Uchino, T. Nagai, “Multi-wavelength profiles of aerosol backscatter over Lauder, New Zealand, 24 November 1992,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 789–792 (1994).
[Crossref]

Hauchecorne, A.

U. N. Singh, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, E. F. Fishbein, J. W. Waters, J. C. Gille, A. E. Roche, J. M. Russell, “Stratospheric temperature measurements by two collocated NDSC lidars during UARS validation campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,287–10,297 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. D. Wild, M. E. Gelman, A. J. Miller, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, R. Farley, P. D. Dao, J. W. Meriwether, G. P. Gobbi, F. Congeduti, A. Ariani, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, E. F. Fishbein, “Comparison of stratospheric temperatures from several lidars, using National Meteorological Center and microwave limb sounder data as transfer references,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11,105–11,111 (1995).
[Crossref]

F. G. Finger, M. E. Gelman, J. D. Wild, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, A. J. Miller, “Evaluation of NMC upper-stratosphere temperature analyses using rocketsonde and lidar data,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 74, 789–799 (1993).
[Crossref]

P. Keckhut, A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, “A critical review of the database acquired for the long-term surveillance of the middle atmosphere by the French Rayleigh lidars,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 10, 850–867 (1993).
[Crossref]

B. Nardi, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, S. I. Avdyushin, G. F. Tulinov, M. S. Ivanov, B. N. Kuzmenko, I. R. Mezhuev, “Morphology and dynamics of the Pinatubo aerosol layer in the northern hemisphere as detected from a ship-borne lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1967–1970 (1993).
[Crossref]

A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, P. Keckhut, D. Nedeljkovic, “LIDAR monitoring of the temperature in the middle and lower atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 29–34 (1992).
[Crossref]

P. Keckhut, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, “Stratosphere temperature measurement using Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5182–5186 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, “Lidar observations of gravity and tidal waves in the stratosphere and mesosphere,” J. Geophys. Res., 86, 9715–9721 (1981).
[Crossref]

A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, “Density and temperature profiles obtained by lidar between 30 and 70 km,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 565–568 (1980).
[Crossref]

M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, “Lidar studies of temperature and density using Rayleigh scattering,” , (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1984), pp. 87–99.

Hayashida, S.

H. Nakane, S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Minato, “Vertical profiles of temperature and ozone observed during DYANA campaign with the NIES ozone lidar system at Tsukuba,” J. Geomagn. Geoelectr. 44, 1071–1083 (1992).
[Crossref]

Heaps, W.

T. J. McGee, M. Gross, R. Ferrare, W. Heaps, U. Singh, “Raman DIAL measurements of stratospheric ozone in the presence of the volcanic aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 955–958 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ivanov, M. S.

B. Nardi, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, S. I. Avdyushin, G. F. Tulinov, M. S. Ivanov, B. N. Kuzmenko, I. R. Mezhuev, “Morphology and dynamics of the Pinatubo aerosol layer in the northern hemisphere as detected from a ship-borne lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1967–1970 (1993).
[Crossref]

Jenkins, D. B.

D. B. Jenkins, D. P. Wareing, L. Thomas, G. Vaughan, “Upper stratospheric and mesospheric temperatures derived from lidar observations at Aberystwyth,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 49, 287–298 (1987).
[Crossref]

Johnson, K. W.

M. E. Gelman, A. J. Miller, K. W. Johnson, R. M. Nagatani, “Detection of long-term trends in global stratospheric temperature from NMC analyses derived from NOAA satellite data,” Adv. Space Res. 6, 17–26 (1986).
[Crossref]

Keckhut, P.

U. N. Singh, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, E. F. Fishbein, J. W. Waters, J. C. Gille, A. E. Roche, J. M. Russell, “Stratospheric temperature measurements by two collocated NDSC lidars during UARS validation campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,287–10,297 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. D. Wild, M. E. Gelman, A. J. Miller, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, R. Farley, P. D. Dao, J. W. Meriwether, G. P. Gobbi, F. Congeduti, A. Ariani, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, E. F. Fishbein, “Comparison of stratospheric temperatures from several lidars, using National Meteorological Center and microwave limb sounder data as transfer references,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11,105–11,111 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. Keckhut, A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, “A critical review of the database acquired for the long-term surveillance of the middle atmosphere by the French Rayleigh lidars,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 10, 850–867 (1993).
[Crossref]

A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, P. Keckhut, D. Nedeljkovic, “LIDAR monitoring of the temperature in the middle and lower atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 29–34 (1992).
[Crossref]

P. Keckhut, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, “Stratosphere temperature measurement using Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5182–5186 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kimvilakani, P.

M. R. Gross, T. J. McGee, U. N. Singh, P. Kimvilakani, “Measurements of stratospheric aerosols with a combined elastic–Raman-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6915–6924 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. L. McKenzie, J. M. Rosen, N. T. Kjome, T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, U. N. Singh, R. F. Ferrare, P. Kimvilakani, O. Uchino, T. Nagai, “Multi-wavelength profiles of aerosol backscatter over Lauder, New Zealand, 24 November 1992,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 789–792 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kimvilakani, P. E.

T. J. McGee, M. Gross, U. N. Singh, J. J. Butler, P. E. Kimvilakani, “Improved stratospheric ozone lidar,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1421–1430 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kjome, N. T.

R. L. McKenzie, J. M. Rosen, N. T. Kjome, T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, U. N. Singh, R. F. Ferrare, P. Kimvilakani, O. Uchino, T. Nagai, “Multi-wavelength profiles of aerosol backscatter over Lauder, New Zealand, 24 November 1992,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 789–792 (1994).
[Crossref]

Klemetti, W.

J. W. Meriwether, P. D. Dao, R. T. McNutt, W. Klemetti, W. Moskowitz, G. Davidson, “Rayleigh lidar observations of mesosphere temperature structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 16,973–16,987 (1994).
[Crossref]

P. Dao, W. Klemetti, D. Sipler, W. P. Moskowitz, G. Davidson, “Density measurements with combined Raman–Rayleigh lidar,” in Laser Applications in Meteorology and Earth and Atmospheric Remote Sensing, M. M. Sokoloski, ed., Proc. SPIE1062, 138–143 (1989).
[Crossref]

Kobuchi, M.

Komhyr, W.

R. A. Ferrare, T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, J. Burris, M. Owens, J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, F. Schmidlin, W. Komhyr, P. H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, A. J. Miller, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric temperature during STOIC,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9303–9312 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kurylo, M. J.

M. J. Kurylo, S. Solomon, “Network for the detection of stratospheric change,” (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1990).

Kuzmenko, B. N.

B. Nardi, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, S. I. Avdyushin, G. F. Tulinov, M. S. Ivanov, B. N. Kuzmenko, I. R. Mezhuev, “Morphology and dynamics of the Pinatubo aerosol layer in the northern hemisphere as detected from a ship-borne lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1967–1970 (1993).
[Crossref]

Maeda, M.

Matsui, I.

H. Nakane, S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Minato, “Vertical profiles of temperature and ozone observed during DYANA campaign with the NIES ozone lidar system at Tsukuba,” J. Geomagn. Geoelectr. 44, 1071–1083 (1992).
[Crossref]

McCormick, M. P.

R. A. Ferrare, T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, J. Burris, M. Owens, J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, F. Schmidlin, W. Komhyr, P. H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, A. J. Miller, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric temperature during STOIC,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9303–9312 (1995).
[Crossref]

C. R. Trepte, R. E. Veiga, M. P. McCormick, “The poleward dispersal of Mount Pinatubo vocanic aerosol,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 18,563–18,573 (1993).
[Crossref]

McDermid, I. S.

J. D. Wild, M. E. Gelman, A. J. Miller, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, R. Farley, P. D. Dao, J. W. Meriwether, G. P. Gobbi, F. Congeduti, A. Ariani, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, E. F. Fishbein, “Comparison of stratospheric temperatures from several lidars, using National Meteorological Center and microwave limb sounder data as transfer references,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11,105–11,111 (1995).
[Crossref]

I. S. McDermid, E. Sirko, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Table Mountain Facility, Pasadena, Calif. (personal communication, 1994).

McGee, T. J.

U. N. Singh, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, E. F. Fishbein, J. W. Waters, J. C. Gille, A. E. Roche, J. M. Russell, “Stratospheric temperature measurements by two collocated NDSC lidars during UARS validation campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,287–10,297 (1996).
[Crossref]

T. J. McGee, M. Gross, U. N. Singh, J. J. Butler, P. E. Kimvilakani, “Improved stratospheric ozone lidar,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1421–1430 (1995).
[Crossref]

R. A. Ferrare, T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, J. Burris, M. Owens, J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, F. Schmidlin, W. Komhyr, P. H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, A. J. Miller, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric temperature during STOIC,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9303–9312 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. D. Wild, M. E. Gelman, A. J. Miller, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, R. Farley, P. D. Dao, J. W. Meriwether, G. P. Gobbi, F. Congeduti, A. Ariani, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, E. F. Fishbein, “Comparison of stratospheric temperatures from several lidars, using National Meteorological Center and microwave limb sounder data as transfer references,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11,105–11,111 (1995).
[Crossref]

M. R. Gross, T. J. McGee, U. N. Singh, P. Kimvilakani, “Measurements of stratospheric aerosols with a combined elastic–Raman-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6915–6924 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. L. McKenzie, J. M. Rosen, N. T. Kjome, T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, U. N. Singh, R. F. Ferrare, P. Kimvilakani, O. Uchino, T. Nagai, “Multi-wavelength profiles of aerosol backscatter over Lauder, New Zealand, 24 November 1992,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 789–792 (1994).
[Crossref]

T. J. McGee, M. Gross, R. Ferrare, W. Heaps, U. Singh, “Raman DIAL measurements of stratospheric ozone in the presence of the volcanic aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 955–958 (1993).
[Crossref]

T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, R. Ferrare, J. J. Butler, J. F. Burris, “STROZ-LITE: stratospheric ozone lidar trailer experiment,” Opt. Eng. 30, 31–39 (1991).
[Crossref]

T. J. McGee, J. J. Butler, M. Gross, U. Singh, J. F. Cavanaugh, “A modified stratospheric ozone lidar,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Volume 18 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 151–152.

McKenzie, R. L.

R. L. McKenzie, J. M. Rosen, N. T. Kjome, T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, U. N. Singh, R. F. Ferrare, P. Kimvilakani, O. Uchino, T. Nagai, “Multi-wavelength profiles of aerosol backscatter over Lauder, New Zealand, 24 November 1992,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 789–792 (1994).
[Crossref]

McNutt, R. T.

J. W. Meriwether, P. D. Dao, R. T. McNutt, W. Klemetti, W. Moskowitz, G. Davidson, “Rayleigh lidar observations of mesosphere temperature structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 16,973–16,987 (1994).
[Crossref]

Melfi, S. H.

Meriwether, J. W.

J. D. Wild, M. E. Gelman, A. J. Miller, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, R. Farley, P. D. Dao, J. W. Meriwether, G. P. Gobbi, F. Congeduti, A. Ariani, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, E. F. Fishbein, “Comparison of stratospheric temperatures from several lidars, using National Meteorological Center and microwave limb sounder data as transfer references,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11,105–11,111 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. W. Meriwether, P. D. Dao, R. T. McNutt, W. Klemetti, W. Moskowitz, G. Davidson, “Rayleigh lidar observations of mesosphere temperature structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 16,973–16,987 (1994).
[Crossref]

Mezhuev, I. R.

B. Nardi, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, S. I. Avdyushin, G. F. Tulinov, M. S. Ivanov, B. N. Kuzmenko, I. R. Mezhuev, “Morphology and dynamics of the Pinatubo aerosol layer in the northern hemisphere as detected from a ship-borne lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1967–1970 (1993).
[Crossref]

Miller, A. J.

J. D. Wild, M. E. Gelman, A. J. Miller, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, R. Farley, P. D. Dao, J. W. Meriwether, G. P. Gobbi, F. Congeduti, A. Ariani, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, E. F. Fishbein, “Comparison of stratospheric temperatures from several lidars, using National Meteorological Center and microwave limb sounder data as transfer references,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11,105–11,111 (1995).
[Crossref]

R. A. Ferrare, T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, J. Burris, M. Owens, J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, F. Schmidlin, W. Komhyr, P. H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, A. J. Miller, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric temperature during STOIC,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9303–9312 (1995).
[Crossref]

F. G. Finger, M. E. Gelman, J. D. Wild, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, A. J. Miller, “Evaluation of NMC upper-stratosphere temperature analyses using rocketsonde and lidar data,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 74, 789–799 (1993).
[Crossref]

M. E. Gelman, A. J. Miller, K. W. Johnson, R. M. Nagatani, “Detection of long-term trends in global stratospheric temperature from NMC analyses derived from NOAA satellite data,” Adv. Space Res. 6, 17–26 (1986).
[Crossref]

Minato, A.

H. Nakane, S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Minato, “Vertical profiles of temperature and ozone observed during DYANA campaign with the NIES ozone lidar system at Tsukuba,” J. Geomagn. Geoelectr. 44, 1071–1083 (1992).
[Crossref]

Moskowitz, W.

J. W. Meriwether, P. D. Dao, R. T. McNutt, W. Klemetti, W. Moskowitz, G. Davidson, “Rayleigh lidar observations of mesosphere temperature structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 16,973–16,987 (1994).
[Crossref]

Moskowitz, W. P.

P. Dao, W. Klemetti, D. Sipler, W. P. Moskowitz, G. Davidson, “Density measurements with combined Raman–Rayleigh lidar,” in Laser Applications in Meteorology and Earth and Atmospheric Remote Sensing, M. M. Sokoloski, ed., Proc. SPIE1062, 138–143 (1989).
[Crossref]

Nagai, T.

R. L. McKenzie, J. M. Rosen, N. T. Kjome, T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, U. N. Singh, R. F. Ferrare, P. Kimvilakani, O. Uchino, T. Nagai, “Multi-wavelength profiles of aerosol backscatter over Lauder, New Zealand, 24 November 1992,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 789–792 (1994).
[Crossref]

Nagatani, R. M.

M. E. Gelman, A. J. Miller, K. W. Johnson, R. M. Nagatani, “Detection of long-term trends in global stratospheric temperature from NMC analyses derived from NOAA satellite data,” Adv. Space Res. 6, 17–26 (1986).
[Crossref]

Nakane, H.

H. Nakane, S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Minato, “Vertical profiles of temperature and ozone observed during DYANA campaign with the NIES ozone lidar system at Tsukuba,” J. Geomagn. Geoelectr. 44, 1071–1083 (1992).
[Crossref]

Nardi, B.

B. Nardi, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, S. I. Avdyushin, G. F. Tulinov, M. S. Ivanov, B. N. Kuzmenko, I. R. Mezhuev, “Morphology and dynamics of the Pinatubo aerosol layer in the northern hemisphere as detected from a ship-borne lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1967–1970 (1993).
[Crossref]

Nedeljkovic, D.

A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, P. Keckhut, D. Nedeljkovic, “LIDAR monitoring of the temperature in the middle and lower atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 29–34 (1992).
[Crossref]

Owens, M.

R. A. Ferrare, T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, J. Burris, M. Owens, J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, F. Schmidlin, W. Komhyr, P. H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, A. J. Miller, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric temperature during STOIC,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9303–9312 (1995).
[Crossref]

Roche, A. E.

U. N. Singh, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, E. F. Fishbein, J. W. Waters, J. C. Gille, A. E. Roche, J. M. Russell, “Stratospheric temperature measurements by two collocated NDSC lidars during UARS validation campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,287–10,297 (1996).
[Crossref]

Rosen, J. M.

R. L. McKenzie, J. M. Rosen, N. T. Kjome, T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, U. N. Singh, R. F. Ferrare, P. Kimvilakani, O. Uchino, T. Nagai, “Multi-wavelength profiles of aerosol backscatter over Lauder, New Zealand, 24 November 1992,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 789–792 (1994).
[Crossref]

Russell, J. M.

U. N. Singh, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, E. F. Fishbein, J. W. Waters, J. C. Gille, A. E. Roche, J. M. Russell, “Stratospheric temperature measurements by two collocated NDSC lidars during UARS validation campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,287–10,297 (1996).
[Crossref]

Sasano, Y.

H. Nakane, S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Minato, “Vertical profiles of temperature and ozone observed during DYANA campaign with the NIES ozone lidar system at Tsukuba,” J. Geomagn. Geoelectr. 44, 1071–1083 (1992).
[Crossref]

Schmidlin, F.

R. A. Ferrare, T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, J. Burris, M. Owens, J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, F. Schmidlin, W. Komhyr, P. H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, A. J. Miller, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric temperature during STOIC,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9303–9312 (1995).
[Crossref]

Schoeberl, M.

E. Fleming, S. Chandra, M. Schoeberl, J. Barnett, “Monthly mean global climatology of temperature, wind, geopotential height, and pressure for 0–120 km,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1986).

Shibata, T.

Singh, U.

T. J. McGee, M. Gross, R. Ferrare, W. Heaps, U. Singh, “Raman DIAL measurements of stratospheric ozone in the presence of the volcanic aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 955–958 (1993).
[Crossref]

T. J. McGee, J. J. Butler, M. Gross, U. Singh, J. F. Cavanaugh, “A modified stratospheric ozone lidar,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Volume 18 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 151–152.

Singh, U. N.

U. N. Singh, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, E. F. Fishbein, J. W. Waters, J. C. Gille, A. E. Roche, J. M. Russell, “Stratospheric temperature measurements by two collocated NDSC lidars during UARS validation campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,287–10,297 (1996).
[Crossref]

T. J. McGee, M. Gross, U. N. Singh, J. J. Butler, P. E. Kimvilakani, “Improved stratospheric ozone lidar,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1421–1430 (1995).
[Crossref]

M. R. Gross, T. J. McGee, U. N. Singh, P. Kimvilakani, “Measurements of stratospheric aerosols with a combined elastic–Raman-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6915–6924 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. L. McKenzie, J. M. Rosen, N. T. Kjome, T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, U. N. Singh, R. F. Ferrare, P. Kimvilakani, O. Uchino, T. Nagai, “Multi-wavelength profiles of aerosol backscatter over Lauder, New Zealand, 24 November 1992,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 789–792 (1994).
[Crossref]

Sipler, D.

P. Dao, W. Klemetti, D. Sipler, W. P. Moskowitz, G. Davidson, “Density measurements with combined Raman–Rayleigh lidar,” in Laser Applications in Meteorology and Earth and Atmospheric Remote Sensing, M. M. Sokoloski, ed., Proc. SPIE1062, 138–143 (1989).
[Crossref]

Sirko, E.

I. S. McDermid, E. Sirko, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Table Mountain Facility, Pasadena, Calif. (personal communication, 1994).

Solomon, S.

M. J. Kurylo, S. Solomon, “Network for the detection of stratospheric change,” (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1990).

Souprayen, C.

G. P. Gobbi, C. Souprayen, F. Congeduti, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, M. Viterbini, S. Centurioni, “Lidar observations of middle atmosphere temperature variability,” Ann. Geophys. 13, 648–655 (1995).
[Crossref]

Steinbrecht, W.

W. Steinbrecht, “Lidar measurements of ozone, aerosol, and temperature in the stratosphere,” Ph.D. dissertation (York University, North York, Ontario, Canada, 1994), pp. 22–23.

Strauch, R. G.

Sugimoto, N.

H. Nakane, S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Minato, “Vertical profiles of temperature and ozone observed during DYANA campaign with the NIES ozone lidar system at Tsukuba,” J. Geomagn. Geoelectr. 44, 1071–1083 (1992).
[Crossref]

Thomas, L.

D. B. Jenkins, D. P. Wareing, L. Thomas, G. Vaughan, “Upper stratospheric and mesospheric temperatures derived from lidar observations at Aberystwyth,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 49, 287–298 (1987).
[Crossref]

Trepte, C. R.

C. R. Trepte, R. E. Veiga, M. P. McCormick, “The poleward dispersal of Mount Pinatubo vocanic aerosol,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 18,563–18,573 (1993).
[Crossref]

Tulinov, G. F.

B. Nardi, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, S. I. Avdyushin, G. F. Tulinov, M. S. Ivanov, B. N. Kuzmenko, I. R. Mezhuev, “Morphology and dynamics of the Pinatubo aerosol layer in the northern hemisphere as detected from a ship-borne lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1967–1970 (1993).
[Crossref]

Uchino, O.

R. L. McKenzie, J. M. Rosen, N. T. Kjome, T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, U. N. Singh, R. F. Ferrare, P. Kimvilakani, O. Uchino, T. Nagai, “Multi-wavelength profiles of aerosol backscatter over Lauder, New Zealand, 24 November 1992,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 789–792 (1994).
[Crossref]

O. Uchino, T. Fujimoto, “Lidar measurements of ozone and temperature in the stratosphere at Tsukuba (36.1 °N, 140.1 °E) during DYANA campaign,” J. Geomagn. Geoelectr. 44, 1061–1070 (1992).
[Crossref]

Vaughan, G.

D. B. Jenkins, D. P. Wareing, L. Thomas, G. Vaughan, “Upper stratospheric and mesospheric temperatures derived from lidar observations at Aberystwyth,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 49, 287–298 (1987).
[Crossref]

Veiga, R. E.

C. R. Trepte, R. E. Veiga, M. P. McCormick, “The poleward dispersal of Mount Pinatubo vocanic aerosol,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 18,563–18,573 (1993).
[Crossref]

Viterbini, M.

G. P. Gobbi, C. Souprayen, F. Congeduti, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, M. Viterbini, S. Centurioni, “Lidar observations of middle atmosphere temperature variability,” Ann. Geophys. 13, 648–655 (1995).
[Crossref]

Wang, P. H.

R. A. Ferrare, T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, J. Burris, M. Owens, J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, F. Schmidlin, W. Komhyr, P. H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, A. J. Miller, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric temperature during STOIC,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9303–9312 (1995).
[Crossref]

Wareing, D. P.

D. B. Jenkins, D. P. Wareing, L. Thomas, G. Vaughan, “Upper stratospheric and mesospheric temperatures derived from lidar observations at Aberystwyth,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 49, 287–298 (1987).
[Crossref]

Waters, J. W.

U. N. Singh, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, E. F. Fishbein, J. W. Waters, J. C. Gille, A. E. Roche, J. M. Russell, “Stratospheric temperature measurements by two collocated NDSC lidars during UARS validation campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,287–10,297 (1996).
[Crossref]

Whiteman, D.

R. A. Ferrare, T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, J. Burris, M. Owens, J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, F. Schmidlin, W. Komhyr, P. H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, A. J. Miller, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric temperature during STOIC,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9303–9312 (1995).
[Crossref]

T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, R. Ferrare, J. J. Butler, J. F. Burris, “STROZ-LITE: stratospheric ozone lidar trailer experiment,” Opt. Eng. 30, 31–39 (1991).
[Crossref]

Whiteman, D. N.

Whiteway, J. A.

J. A. Whiteway, A. I. Carswell, “Lidar observations of gravity wave activity in the upper stratosphere over Toronto,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1,4113–1,4124 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. A. Whiteway, A. I. Carswell, “Rayleigh lidar observations of thermal structure and gravity wave activity in the high arctic during a stratospheric warming,” J. Atmos. Sci. 51, 3122–3136 (1994).
[Crossref]

Wild, J. D.

J. D. Wild, M. E. Gelman, A. J. Miller, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, R. Farley, P. D. Dao, J. W. Meriwether, G. P. Gobbi, F. Congeduti, A. Ariani, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, E. F. Fishbein, “Comparison of stratospheric temperatures from several lidars, using National Meteorological Center and microwave limb sounder data as transfer references,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11,105–11,111 (1995).
[Crossref]

F. G. Finger, M. E. Gelman, J. D. Wild, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, A. J. Miller, “Evaluation of NMC upper-stratosphere temperature analyses using rocketsonde and lidar data,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 74, 789–799 (1993).
[Crossref]

Adv. Space Res. (1)

M. E. Gelman, A. J. Miller, K. W. Johnson, R. M. Nagatani, “Detection of long-term trends in global stratospheric temperature from NMC analyses derived from NOAA satellite data,” Adv. Space Res. 6, 17–26 (1986).
[Crossref]

Ann. Geophys. (1)

G. P. Gobbi, C. Souprayen, F. Congeduti, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, M. Viterbini, S. Centurioni, “Lidar observations of middle atmosphere temperature variability,” Ann. Geophys. 13, 648–655 (1995).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, P. Keckhut, D. Nedeljkovic, “LIDAR monitoring of the temperature in the middle and lower atmosphere,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 29–34 (1992).
[Crossref]

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

F. G. Finger, M. E. Gelman, J. D. Wild, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, A. J. Miller, “Evaluation of NMC upper-stratosphere temperature analyses using rocketsonde and lidar data,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 74, 789–799 (1993).
[Crossref]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (4)

B. Nardi, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, S. I. Avdyushin, G. F. Tulinov, M. S. Ivanov, B. N. Kuzmenko, I. R. Mezhuev, “Morphology and dynamics of the Pinatubo aerosol layer in the northern hemisphere as detected from a ship-borne lidar,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 1967–1970 (1993).
[Crossref]

R. L. McKenzie, J. M. Rosen, N. T. Kjome, T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, U. N. Singh, R. F. Ferrare, P. Kimvilakani, O. Uchino, T. Nagai, “Multi-wavelength profiles of aerosol backscatter over Lauder, New Zealand, 24 November 1992,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 789–792 (1994).
[Crossref]

A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, “Density and temperature profiles obtained by lidar between 30 and 70 km,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 7, 565–568 (1980).
[Crossref]

T. J. McGee, M. Gross, R. Ferrare, W. Heaps, U. Singh, “Raman DIAL measurements of stratospheric ozone in the presence of the volcanic aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 955–958 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. (1)

P. Keckhut, A. Hauchecorne, M. L. Chanin, “A critical review of the database acquired for the long-term surveillance of the middle atmosphere by the French Rayleigh lidars,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 10, 850–867 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

J. A. Whiteway, A. I. Carswell, “Rayleigh lidar observations of thermal structure and gravity wave activity in the high arctic during a stratospheric warming,” J. Atmos. Sci. 51, 3122–3136 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. (1)

D. B. Jenkins, D. P. Wareing, L. Thomas, G. Vaughan, “Upper stratospheric and mesospheric temperatures derived from lidar observations at Aberystwyth,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 49, 287–298 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. Geomagn. Geoelectr. (2)

H. Nakane, S. Hayashida, Y. Sasano, N. Sugimoto, I. Matsui, A. Minato, “Vertical profiles of temperature and ozone observed during DYANA campaign with the NIES ozone lidar system at Tsukuba,” J. Geomagn. Geoelectr. 44, 1071–1083 (1992).
[Crossref]

O. Uchino, T. Fujimoto, “Lidar measurements of ozone and temperature in the stratosphere at Tsukuba (36.1 °N, 140.1 °E) during DYANA campaign,” J. Geomagn. Geoelectr. 44, 1061–1070 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. (7)

J. A. Whiteway, A. I. Carswell, “Lidar observations of gravity wave activity in the upper stratosphere over Toronto,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 1,4113–1,4124 (1995).
[Crossref]

M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, “Lidar observations of gravity and tidal waves in the stratosphere and mesosphere,” J. Geophys. Res., 86, 9715–9721 (1981).
[Crossref]

J. W. Meriwether, P. D. Dao, R. T. McNutt, W. Klemetti, W. Moskowitz, G. Davidson, “Rayleigh lidar observations of mesosphere temperature structure,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 16,973–16,987 (1994).
[Crossref]

R. A. Ferrare, T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, J. Burris, M. Owens, J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, F. Schmidlin, W. Komhyr, P. H. Wang, M. P. McCormick, A. J. Miller, “Lidar measurements of stratospheric temperature during STOIC,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 9303–9312 (1995).
[Crossref]

U. N. Singh, P. Keckhut, T. J. McGee, M. R. Gross, A. Hauchecorne, E. F. Fishbein, J. W. Waters, J. C. Gille, A. E. Roche, J. M. Russell, “Stratospheric temperature measurements by two collocated NDSC lidars during UARS validation campaign,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 10,287–10,297 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. D. Wild, M. E. Gelman, A. J. Miller, M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, P. Keckhut, R. Farley, P. D. Dao, J. W. Meriwether, G. P. Gobbi, F. Congeduti, A. Ariani, I. S. McDermid, T. J. McGee, E. F. Fishbein, “Comparison of stratospheric temperatures from several lidars, using National Meteorological Center and microwave limb sounder data as transfer references,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 11,105–11,111 (1995).
[Crossref]

C. R. Trepte, R. E. Veiga, M. P. McCormick, “The poleward dispersal of Mount Pinatubo vocanic aerosol,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 18,563–18,573 (1993).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (2)

T. J. McGee, D. Whiteman, R. Ferrare, J. J. Butler, J. F. Burris, “STROZ-LITE: stratospheric ozone lidar trailer experiment,” Opt. Eng. 30, 31–39 (1991).
[Crossref]

T. J. McGee, M. Gross, U. N. Singh, J. J. Butler, P. E. Kimvilakani, “Improved stratospheric ozone lidar,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1421–1430 (1995).
[Crossref]

Other (7)

P. Dao, W. Klemetti, D. Sipler, W. P. Moskowitz, G. Davidson, “Density measurements with combined Raman–Rayleigh lidar,” in Laser Applications in Meteorology and Earth and Atmospheric Remote Sensing, M. M. Sokoloski, ed., Proc. SPIE1062, 138–143 (1989).
[Crossref]

M. J. Kurylo, S. Solomon, “Network for the detection of stratospheric change,” (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1990).

M. L. Chanin, A. Hauchecorne, “Lidar studies of temperature and density using Rayleigh scattering,” , (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1984), pp. 87–99.

T. J. McGee, J. J. Butler, M. Gross, U. Singh, J. F. Cavanaugh, “A modified stratospheric ozone lidar,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Volume 18 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), pp. 151–152.

E. Fleming, S. Chandra, M. Schoeberl, J. Barnett, “Monthly mean global climatology of temperature, wind, geopotential height, and pressure for 0–120 km,” (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., 1986).

W. Steinbrecht, “Lidar measurements of ozone, aerosol, and temperature in the stratosphere,” Ph.D. dissertation (York University, North York, Ontario, Canada, 1994), pp. 22–23.

I. S. McDermid, E. Sirko, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Table Mountain Facility, Pasadena, Calif. (personal communication, 1994).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Linear fit of the raw lidar signal: (a) a fit of the 382 data from ∼24 to 32 km and (b) a fit of the 351-nm data from ∼66 to 81 km for data acquired at Lauder, New Zealand on 14 October 1994.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temperature profiles for 14 October 1994 showing differences resulting when the linear fit is or is not used on the upper portion of the high-altitude 351-nm channel.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temperature profiles computed with model lidar data. The model data were created using the U.S. Standard Atmosphere as input parameters. Temperatures shown differ by the initialization method used (pressure or temperature tie-on) and by variations in the U.S. Standard reference value.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temperature standard deviations versus altitude and altitude resolution versus altitude for a typical measurement made in 1995.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

ASR profiles that were used to create several model lidar signals, which in turn were used to derive the temperatures shown in Fig. 6.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Temperature profiles computed with model lidar data showing the effects of aerosols on temperature calculation.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

GSFC lidar, NIWA balloonsonde electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) and NCEP temperature profiles for the night of 22 April 1995 at Lauder, New Zealand during OPAL, a 1995 NDSC intercomparison campaign. Also shown is the difference in kelvins between profiles.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Average temperature profiles (GSFC lidar, NIWA balloonsondes, and NCEP analysis) acquired during OPAL, a 1995 NDSC intercomparison campaign from 10 to 28 April with differences and standard errors between profiles.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

GSFC lidar and CMDL balloonsonde temperature profiles for the night of 30 August 1995 at MLO during the Hawaii NDSC intercomparison campaign. Also shown is the difference between profiles.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Average temperature profiles for GSFC lidar and CMDL balloonsondes acquired during the MLO 1995 NDSC intercomparison campaign from 15 August to 1 September with differences and standard errors also shown.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ρz=ρz*SzSz*exp-2αmλzz* ρzdz
ρz=ρz*SrzSrz*×exp-αmλ+αmλrz*zρzdz,
Tzi=MgziΔzR lnPzi-Δz/2/Pzi+Δz/2,
Pzi+Δz/2=j=i+1nMρzjgzjΔz+Pref,
Pzi-Δz/2=Pzi+Δz/2+MρzigziΔz.
Tzi=Trefρznρzi+MρziRziznρzgzdz.
zizn ρzgzdz=1/2 ρzigziΔz+j=i+1n-1ρzjgzjΔz+1/2 ρzngznΔz.
σT2zi=T2ziρzigziΔzPzi2+σρ2zigziΔz/Pzi2+σP2ziρzigziΔz2log1+σzigziΔzPzi*1+ρzigziΔzPzi,
σT2zi=σTref2ρznρzi2+Tref+MgznΔz2R2σρznρzi2+Tzi-MgziΔz2R2σρziρzi2+MRj=i+1n-1gzjΔz2σρzjρzi2,

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