Abstract

Recent research on an acrylamide-based photopolymerizable holographic recording material is presented. The recording characteristics of the material are discussed in detail in terms of sensitivity, diffraction efficiency, recording linearity, resolution limit, and sources of noise. Although the resolution is not sufficient for reflection holography, the recording characteristics are excellent for transmission gratings. The material was found to suffer no shrinkage during recording, and high-diffraction-efficiency slanted gratings were made. Finally, the suitability of this self-developing material to both double-exposure and real-time holographic interferometry is demonstrated.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. P. Hariharan, “Optical holography–principles, techniques and applications,” in Cambridge Monographs on Physics (Cambridge University, Cambridge, U.K., 1984), Chap. 7.
  2. H. M. Smith, “Holographic recording materials,” in Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977), Vol. 20.
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Manivannan, R. A. Lessard, “Trends in holographic recording materials,” Trends in Polymer Sci. 2, 282–290 (1994).
  4. S. Martin, P. Leclere, Y. Renotte, V. Toal, Y. Lion, “Characterisation of an acrylamide based dry photopolymer holographic recording material,” Opt. Eng. 33(12), 3942–3946 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Chandross, “Organic photochemical refractive index image recording systems,” in Advanced Photochemistry (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1980).
  6. P. Leclere, Y. Renotte, Y. Lion, “Measurement of the diffraction efficiency of a holographic grating created by two Gaussian beams,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4725–4733 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, Optical holography (Academic, New York, 1971), Chap. 10.
  8. G. Manivannan, R. A. Lessard, “Trends in holographic recording materials,” Trends Polymer Sci. 2, 282–290 (1994).
  9. C. A. Feely, S. Martin, V. Toal, A. Fimia, F. Mateos, “Optimisation of an acrylamide based dry photopolymer used as a holographic recording material,” in Holographic Materials II, T. J. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE2688, 22–33 (1996).
  10. R. Jones, C. Wykes, “Holographic and speckle interferometry,” in Cambridge Studies in Modern Optics (Cambridge University, Cambridge, U.K., 1989), Chap. 7.
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971), Chap. 15.
  12. S. Blatcher, J. C. Shelton, “Quantitative holographic interferometry for the analysis of surface strains in femurs,” presented at the Institute of Physics Applied Optics and Optoelectronics Conference, University of York, 5–8 September 1994.
  13. R. Jones, C. Wykes, “Holographic and speckle interferometry,” in Cambridge Studies in Modern Optics (Cambridge University, Cambridge, U.K., 1989), Chap. 7.
    [CrossRef]

1994

G. Manivannan, R. A. Lessard, “Trends in holographic recording materials,” Trends in Polymer Sci. 2, 282–290 (1994).

S. Martin, P. Leclere, Y. Renotte, V. Toal, Y. Lion, “Characterisation of an acrylamide based dry photopolymer holographic recording material,” Opt. Eng. 33(12), 3942–3946 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Manivannan, R. A. Lessard, “Trends in holographic recording materials,” Trends Polymer Sci. 2, 282–290 (1994).

1992

Blatcher, S.

S. Blatcher, J. C. Shelton, “Quantitative holographic interferometry for the analysis of surface strains in femurs,” presented at the Institute of Physics Applied Optics and Optoelectronics Conference, University of York, 5–8 September 1994.

Burckhardt, C. B.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971), Chap. 15.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, Optical holography (Academic, New York, 1971), Chap. 10.

Chandross, E. A.

W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Chandross, “Organic photochemical refractive index image recording systems,” in Advanced Photochemistry (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1980).

Collier, R. J.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, Optical holography (Academic, New York, 1971), Chap. 10.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971), Chap. 15.

Feely, C. A.

C. A. Feely, S. Martin, V. Toal, A. Fimia, F. Mateos, “Optimisation of an acrylamide based dry photopolymer used as a holographic recording material,” in Holographic Materials II, T. J. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE2688, 22–33 (1996).

Fimia, A.

C. A. Feely, S. Martin, V. Toal, A. Fimia, F. Mateos, “Optimisation of an acrylamide based dry photopolymer used as a holographic recording material,” in Holographic Materials II, T. J. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE2688, 22–33 (1996).

Hariharan, P.

P. Hariharan, “Optical holography–principles, techniques and applications,” in Cambridge Monographs on Physics (Cambridge University, Cambridge, U.K., 1984), Chap. 7.

Jones, R.

R. Jones, C. Wykes, “Holographic and speckle interferometry,” in Cambridge Studies in Modern Optics (Cambridge University, Cambridge, U.K., 1989), Chap. 7.
[CrossRef]

R. Jones, C. Wykes, “Holographic and speckle interferometry,” in Cambridge Studies in Modern Optics (Cambridge University, Cambridge, U.K., 1989), Chap. 7.
[CrossRef]

Leclere, P.

S. Martin, P. Leclere, Y. Renotte, V. Toal, Y. Lion, “Characterisation of an acrylamide based dry photopolymer holographic recording material,” Opt. Eng. 33(12), 3942–3946 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Leclere, Y. Renotte, Y. Lion, “Measurement of the diffraction efficiency of a holographic grating created by two Gaussian beams,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4725–4733 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lessard, R. A.

G. Manivannan, R. A. Lessard, “Trends in holographic recording materials,” Trends Polymer Sci. 2, 282–290 (1994).

G. Manivannan, R. A. Lessard, “Trends in holographic recording materials,” Trends in Polymer Sci. 2, 282–290 (1994).

Lin, L. H.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, Optical holography (Academic, New York, 1971), Chap. 10.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971), Chap. 15.

Lion, Y.

S. Martin, P. Leclere, Y. Renotte, V. Toal, Y. Lion, “Characterisation of an acrylamide based dry photopolymer holographic recording material,” Opt. Eng. 33(12), 3942–3946 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Leclere, Y. Renotte, Y. Lion, “Measurement of the diffraction efficiency of a holographic grating created by two Gaussian beams,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4725–4733 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manivannan, G.

G. Manivannan, R. A. Lessard, “Trends in holographic recording materials,” Trends in Polymer Sci. 2, 282–290 (1994).

G. Manivannan, R. A. Lessard, “Trends in holographic recording materials,” Trends Polymer Sci. 2, 282–290 (1994).

Martin, S.

S. Martin, P. Leclere, Y. Renotte, V. Toal, Y. Lion, “Characterisation of an acrylamide based dry photopolymer holographic recording material,” Opt. Eng. 33(12), 3942–3946 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Feely, S. Martin, V. Toal, A. Fimia, F. Mateos, “Optimisation of an acrylamide based dry photopolymer used as a holographic recording material,” in Holographic Materials II, T. J. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE2688, 22–33 (1996).

Mateos, F.

C. A. Feely, S. Martin, V. Toal, A. Fimia, F. Mateos, “Optimisation of an acrylamide based dry photopolymer used as a holographic recording material,” in Holographic Materials II, T. J. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE2688, 22–33 (1996).

Renotte, Y.

S. Martin, P. Leclere, Y. Renotte, V. Toal, Y. Lion, “Characterisation of an acrylamide based dry photopolymer holographic recording material,” Opt. Eng. 33(12), 3942–3946 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Leclere, Y. Renotte, Y. Lion, “Measurement of the diffraction efficiency of a holographic grating created by two Gaussian beams,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4725–4733 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shelton, J. C.

S. Blatcher, J. C. Shelton, “Quantitative holographic interferometry for the analysis of surface strains in femurs,” presented at the Institute of Physics Applied Optics and Optoelectronics Conference, University of York, 5–8 September 1994.

Smith, H. M.

H. M. Smith, “Holographic recording materials,” in Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977), Vol. 20.
[CrossRef]

Toal, V.

S. Martin, P. Leclere, Y. Renotte, V. Toal, Y. Lion, “Characterisation of an acrylamide based dry photopolymer holographic recording material,” Opt. Eng. 33(12), 3942–3946 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Feely, S. Martin, V. Toal, A. Fimia, F. Mateos, “Optimisation of an acrylamide based dry photopolymer used as a holographic recording material,” in Holographic Materials II, T. J. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE2688, 22–33 (1996).

Tomlinson, W. J.

W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Chandross, “Organic photochemical refractive index image recording systems,” in Advanced Photochemistry (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1980).

Wykes, C.

R. Jones, C. Wykes, “Holographic and speckle interferometry,” in Cambridge Studies in Modern Optics (Cambridge University, Cambridge, U.K., 1989), Chap. 7.
[CrossRef]

R. Jones, C. Wykes, “Holographic and speckle interferometry,” in Cambridge Studies in Modern Optics (Cambridge University, Cambridge, U.K., 1989), Chap. 7.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Opt. Eng.

S. Martin, P. Leclere, Y. Renotte, V. Toal, Y. Lion, “Characterisation of an acrylamide based dry photopolymer holographic recording material,” Opt. Eng. 33(12), 3942–3946 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Trends in Polymer Sci.

G. Manivannan, R. A. Lessard, “Trends in holographic recording materials,” Trends in Polymer Sci. 2, 282–290 (1994).

Trends Polymer Sci.

G. Manivannan, R. A. Lessard, “Trends in holographic recording materials,” Trends Polymer Sci. 2, 282–290 (1994).

Other

C. A. Feely, S. Martin, V. Toal, A. Fimia, F. Mateos, “Optimisation of an acrylamide based dry photopolymer used as a holographic recording material,” in Holographic Materials II, T. J. Trout, ed., Proc. SPIE2688, 22–33 (1996).

R. Jones, C. Wykes, “Holographic and speckle interferometry,” in Cambridge Studies in Modern Optics (Cambridge University, Cambridge, U.K., 1989), Chap. 7.
[CrossRef]

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, New York, 1971), Chap. 15.

S. Blatcher, J. C. Shelton, “Quantitative holographic interferometry for the analysis of surface strains in femurs,” presented at the Institute of Physics Applied Optics and Optoelectronics Conference, University of York, 5–8 September 1994.

R. Jones, C. Wykes, “Holographic and speckle interferometry,” in Cambridge Studies in Modern Optics (Cambridge University, Cambridge, U.K., 1989), Chap. 7.
[CrossRef]

W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Chandross, “Organic photochemical refractive index image recording systems,” in Advanced Photochemistry (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1980).

P. Hariharan, “Optical holography–principles, techniques and applications,” in Cambridge Monographs on Physics (Cambridge University, Cambridge, U.K., 1984), Chap. 7.

H. M. Smith, “Holographic recording materials,” in Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977), Vol. 20.
[CrossRef]

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, Optical holography (Academic, New York, 1971), Chap. 10.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Curves of η-V for an ideal material at various exposures E.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Recording apparatus used in the investigation of the relative response of the material at different fringe visibilities.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Wave-front splitting arrangement used to form an unslanted grating with maximum fringe visibility. The spatial frequency of the interference pattern depends on the angle θ.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Apparatus used in the investigation of the relative response of the material at different spatial frequencies.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Diffraction efficiency growth curve for a 100-μm layer of standard formulation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Square root of diffraction efficiency as a function of exposure for the layer in Figure 5.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Diffraction efficiency as a function of beam ratio for a series of different exposures.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Diffraction efficiency versus fringe visibility. The total incident intensity was 6 mW/cm2.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Diffraction efficiency as a function of spatial frequency. Layers were prepared with the standard formulation and were 60 μm thick. Exposure was constant at 6 mW/cm2 for 60 s. Overmodulated gratings are shown as diffraction efficiencies over 100%.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Growth of the first- and second-order diffracted beams during recording with 4 mW/cm2 total power density (at 514 nm).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Photograph of the fringes produced by a small in-plane rotation of a flat disk.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Photograph of the fringes produced by further in-plane rotation of the disk.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Photograph of the fringes produced by further in-plane rotation of the disk.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Double-exposure hologram of an aluminum can, showing the interference fringes produced by the displacement of the surface when stress is applied (by an elastic band).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Diffraction Efficiency in Each of the Observed Orders in a Nonsinusoidal Grating Recorded in the Photopolymer Materiala

Tables Icon

Table 2 Diffraction Efficiencies Obtained in Gratings Recorded at Various Slant Anglesa

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

η =SE0 V,
V =μt2 R1 + Rcos φ.
Mf =Vf/Vf.
f = αsin ϕi + sin ϕsλ,

Metrics