Abstract

A fluorescence imaging device applied to the detection of early cancer is described. The apparatus is based on the imaging of laser-induced fluorescence of a dye that localizes in a tumor with a higher concentration than in the surrounding normal tissue after iv injection. Tests carried out in the upper aerodigestive tract, the tracheobronchial tree, and the esophagus with Photofrin II (1 mg/kg of body weight) as the fluorescent agent are reported as examples. The fluorescence is induced by violet (410-nm) light from a continuous-wave (cw) krypton-ion laser. The fluorescence contrast between tumor and surrounding tissue is enhanced by real-time image processing. This is done by the simultaneous recording of the fluorescence image in two spectral domains (470–600 and 600–720 nm), after which these two images are digitized and manipulated with a mathematical operator (look-up table) at video frequency. Among the 7 photodetections performed in the tracheobronchial tree, 6 were successful, whereas it was the case for only 5 of the 15 lesions investigated in squamous mucosa (upper aerodigestive tract and esophagus). The sources of false positives and false negatives are evaluated in terms of the fluorescent dye, tissue optical properties, and illumination optics.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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1997 (1)

P. Jichlinski, H.-J. Leisinger, M. Forrer, J. Mizeret, Th. Glanzmann, G. Wagnières, H. van den Bergh, L. Guilloud, K. Weber-Chapuis, C. Schindler, A. Pannatier, F. Schmidlin, J. F. Bolle, P. Graber, “Clinical evaluation of a screening method of bladder transitional cell carcinoma by induced fluorescence of Protoporphyrin IX with topical application of delta-aminolevulinic acid. Preliminary results,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 402–408 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (6)

M. Kriegmair, R. Baumgartner, R. Knuchel, H. Stepp, F. Hofstädter, A. Hofstetter, “Detection of early bladder cancer by 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced porphyrin fluorescence,” J. Urol. 155, 105–109 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Bays, G. Wagnières, D. Robert, D. Braichotte, J.-F. Savary, Ph. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, “Clinical determination of tissue optical properties by endoscopic spatially resolved reflectometry,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1756–1766 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Richards-Kortum, E. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative Optical Spectroscopy for Tissue Diagnosis,” Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 555–606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Panjehpour, B. F. Overholt, T. Vodinh, R. C. Haggitt, D. H. Edwards, F. P. Buckley, “Endoscopic fluorescence detection of high-grade dysplasia in Barretts-esophagus,” Gastroenterology 111, 93–101 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Zangaro, L. Silveira, R. Manoharan, G. Zonios, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, M. S. Feld, “Rapid multiexcitation fluorescence spectroscopy system for in vivo tissue diagnosis,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5211–5219 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Bohorfoush, “Tissue spectroscopy for gastrointestinal diseases,” Endoscopy 28, 372–380 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (7)

G. Bottiroli, A. C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. Di Palma, M. Dalfante, P. Spinelli, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon—a comprehensive ex-vivo study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Qu, C. MacAulay, S. Lam, B. Palcic, “Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy—tissue optics, Monte-Carlo modeling, and in-vivo measurements,” Opt. Eng. 34, 3334–3343 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Harries, S. Lam, C. MacAulay, J. A. Qu, B. Palcic, “Diagnostic-imaging of the larynx—autofluorescence of laryngeal tumors using the helium cadmium laser,” J. Laryngol. Otol. 109, 108–110 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Panjehpour, B. F. Overholt, J. L. Schmidhammer, C. Farris, P. F. Buckley, T. Vodinh, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of esophageal cancer—new classification model, improved measurement system,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 41, 577–581 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Vodinh, M. Panjehpour, B. F. Overholt, C. Farris, F. P. Buckley, R. Sneed, “In Vivo cancer-diagnosis of the esophagus using differential normalized fluorescence (Dnf) indexes,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 41–47 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Braichotte, G. Wagnières, R. Bays, Ph. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, “Clinical pharmacokinetic studies of Photofrin by fluorescence spectroscopy in the oral cavity, the esophagus and the bronchi,” Cancer 75, 2768–2778 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Braichotte, J.-F. Savary, P. Westermann, T. Glanzmann, S. Folli, G. Wagnières, Ph. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, “Clinical pharmacokineticstudiesoftetra(metahydroxyphenyl)-chlorin in squamous cell carcinoma by fluorescence spectroscopy at two wavelengths,” Int. J. Cancer 63, 198–204 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (4)

M. Kriegmair, R. Baumgartner, R. Knuechel, P. Steinbach, A. Ehsan, W. Lumper, F. Hofstädter, A. Hofstetter, “Fluorescence photodetection of neoplastic urothelial lesions following instillation of 5-aminolevulinic acid,” Urology 44, 836–841 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Andersson-Engels, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, “Medical diagnostic system based on simultaneous multispectra fluorescence imaging,” Appl. Opt. 33, 8022–8029 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wagnières, S. Folli, D. Braichotte, H. van den Bergh, “Measurement of the Photofrin II absolute fluorescence quantum yield in tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. 59, 81S (1994).

H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, M. Motamedi, R. F. Wagner, M. Duvic, S. Thomsen, S. L. Jacques, “In-vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging of human skin tumors,” Lasers Med. Sci. 9, 191–201 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (5)

J. C. Kennedy, R. H. Pottier, “Endogenous protoporphyrin IX, a clinically useful photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. 14, 275–292 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Poon, K. T. Schomaker, T. F. Deutsch, R. L. Marturza, “Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF): for intraoperative delineation of tumor resection margins,” J. Neurosurg. 76, 679–686 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Marchesini, M. Brambilla, E. Pigoli, G. Bottiroli, A. C. Croce, M. Del Fante, P. Spinelli, S. Di Palma, “Light-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of adenoma, adenocarcinomas and non-neoplastic mucosa in human colon. I: in vitro measurements,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 14, 219–230 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, T. F. Deutsch, “Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 63–78 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Folli, G. Wagnières, A. Pèlegrin, J.-M. Calmes, D. Braichotte, F. Buchegger, Y. Chalandon, J.-C. Givel, N. Hardman, Ch. Heusser, G. Chapuis, A. Châtelain, H. van den Bergh, J.-P. Mach, “Immunophotodiagnosis of colon carcinomas in patients injected with fluoresceinated chimeric antibodies against carcinoembryonic antigen,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 89, 7973–7977 (1992).

1991 (2)

B. Palcic, S. Lam, J. Hung, C. MacAulay, “Detection and localization of early lung cancer by imaging techniques,” Chest 99, 742–743 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, R. E. Petras, M. Fitzmauric, M. Sivak, M. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of colonic dysplasia,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 777–786 (1991).
[PubMed]

1990 (2)

C. R. Kapadia, F. W. Cutruzolla, K. M. O’Brian, M. L. Stetz, R. Enriquez, L. I. Deckelbaum, “LIF spectroscopy of human colonic mucosa,” Gastroenterology 99, 150–157 (1990).
[PubMed]

Ph. Monnier, M. Savary, Ch. Fontolliet, G. Wagnières, A. Châtelain, P. Cornaz, Ch. Depeursinge, H. van den Bergh, “Photodetection and photodynamic therapy of “early” squamous cell carcinomas of the pharynx, oesophagus and tracheobronchial tree,” Lasers Med. Sci. 5, 149–169 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (3)

T. Hirano, M. Ishizuka, K. Suzuki, K. Ishida, S. Suzuki, S. Miyaki, A. Honma, M. Suzuki, K. Aizawa, H. Kato, Y. Hayata, “Photodynamic cancer diagnosis and treatment system consisting of pulsed lasers and endoscopic spectro-image analyzer,” Lasers Life Sci. 3, 99–116 (1989).

R. R. Alfano, A. Pradhan, G. C. Tang, “Optical spectroscopic diagnosis of cancer and normal breast tissues,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1015–1023 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Yashke, R. F. Bonner, P. Cohen, M. B. Leon, D. E. Fleischer, “Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy may distinguish colon cancer from normal human colon,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 35, 184 (1989).

1988 (1)

W. Lohmann, “In situ detection of melanomas by fluorescence measurements,” Naturwissenschaften 75, 201–202 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (2)

Y. Yang, Y. Ye, F. Li, Y. Li, P. Ma, “Characteristic autofluorescence for cancer diagnosis and its origin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 7, 528–532 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Baumgartner, H. Fisslinger, D. Jocham, H. Lenz, L. Ruprecht, H. Stepp, E. Unsöld, “A fluorescence imaging device for endoscopic detection of early stage cancer. Instrumental and experimental studies,” Photochem. Photobiol. 46, 759–763 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (3)

A. E. Profio, O. J. Balchum, F. Cartens, “Digital background subtraction for fluorescence imaging,” Med. Phys. 13, 717–721 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. M. Gijsbers, D. Breederveld, M. C. J. van Gemert, T. A. Boon, J. Langelaar, R. P. H. Rettschnick, “In vivo fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of hematoporphyrin-derivative,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 29–48 (1986).

P. C. Norwell, “Mechanisms of tumor progression,” Cancer Res. 46, 2203–2207 (1986).

1985 (1)

1984 (2)

A. E. Profio, “Laser excited fluorescence of hematoporphyrin derivative for diagnosis of cancer,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1502–1507 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Alfano, D. B. Tata, J. J. Cordero, P. Tomashefsky, F. W. Longo, M. A. Alfano, “Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy from native cancerous and normal tissue,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1507–1511 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

P. Herlin, J. Marnay, J. H. Jacob, J. M. Ollivier, A. M. Mandard, “A study of the mechanism of the Toluidine Blue dye test,” Endoscopy 15, 4–7 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (2)

R. C. Benson, G. M. Farrow, J. H. Kinsey, D. A. Cortese, H. Zincke, D. C. Utz, “Detection and localization of in situ carcinoma of the bladder with hematoporphyrin derivative,” Mayo Clin. Proc. 57, 548–555 (1982).
[PubMed]

O. J. Balchum, D. R. Doiron, A. E. Profio, G. C. Huth, “Fluorescence bronchoscopy for localizing early bronchial cancer and carcinoma in situ,” Recent Results Cancer Res. 82, 97–102 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

R. Pasche, M. Savary, Ph. Monnier, “Multiple squamous cell carcinoma of the upper digestive and lower respiratory tract: methodology of endoscopic screening,” Acta Endosc. 11, 277–291 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

A. M. Mandard, J. Tourneux, M. Gignouxet, L. Blanc, P. Segol, J.-C. Mandard, “In situ carcinoma of the oesophagus: macroscopic study with particular reference to the Lugol test,” Endoscopy 12, 51–57 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

D. R. Doiron, A. E. Profio, R. G. Vincent, T. J. Dougherty, “Fluorescence bronchoscopy for localization of occult lung tumors,” Chest 76, 27–32 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

D. R. Kinsey, D. R. Cortese, D. R. Sanderson, “Detection of hematoporphyrin fluorescence during fiberoptic bronchoscopy to localize early bronchogenic carcinoma,” Mayo Clin. Proc. 53, 594–600 (1978).
[PubMed]

1977 (1)

A. E. Profio, D. R. Doiron, “Laser fluorescence bronchoscopy for localization of small lung tumors,” Phys. Med. Biol. 22, 949–957 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

T. Muto, J. R. Buessey, B. C. Morson, “The evaluation of cancer of the colon and rectum,” Cancer 36, 2251–2270 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aizawa, K.

T. Hirano, M. Ishizuka, K. Suzuki, K. Ishida, S. Suzuki, S. Miyaki, A. Honma, M. Suzuki, K. Aizawa, H. Kato, Y. Hayata, “Photodynamic cancer diagnosis and treatment system consisting of pulsed lasers and endoscopic spectro-image analyzer,” Lasers Life Sci. 3, 99–116 (1989).

Alfano, M. A.

R. R. Alfano, D. B. Tata, J. J. Cordero, P. Tomashefsky, F. W. Longo, M. A. Alfano, “Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy from native cancerous and normal tissue,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1507–1511 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

R. R. Alfano, A. Pradhan, G. C. Tang, “Optical spectroscopic diagnosis of cancer and normal breast tissues,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1015–1023 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Alfano, D. B. Tata, J. J. Cordero, P. Tomashefsky, F. W. Longo, M. A. Alfano, “Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy from native cancerous and normal tissue,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1507–1511 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Andersson-Engels, S.

Balchum, O. J.

A. E. Profio, O. J. Balchum, F. Cartens, “Digital background subtraction for fluorescence imaging,” Med. Phys. 13, 717–721 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. J. Balchum, D. R. Doiron, A. E. Profio, G. C. Huth, “Fluorescence bronchoscopy for localizing early bronchial cancer and carcinoma in situ,” Recent Results Cancer Res. 82, 97–102 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbe, D. F.

D. F. Barbe, S. B. Campana, “Imaging arrays using the charge-coupled concept,” in Advances in Image Pickup and Display, B. Kazan, ed. (Academic, New York, 1977), Vol. 3, p. 171.

Baumgartner, R.

M. Kriegmair, R. Baumgartner, R. Knuchel, H. Stepp, F. Hofstädter, A. Hofstetter, “Detection of early bladder cancer by 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced porphyrin fluorescence,” J. Urol. 155, 105–109 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Kriegmair, R. Baumgartner, R. Knuechel, P. Steinbach, A. Ehsan, W. Lumper, F. Hofstädter, A. Hofstetter, “Fluorescence photodetection of neoplastic urothelial lesions following instillation of 5-aminolevulinic acid,” Urology 44, 836–841 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Baumgartner, H. Fisslinger, D. Jocham, H. Lenz, L. Ruprecht, H. Stepp, E. Unsöld, “A fluorescence imaging device for endoscopic detection of early stage cancer. Instrumental and experimental studies,” Photochem. Photobiol. 46, 759–763 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bays, R.

R. Bays, G. Wagnières, D. Robert, D. Braichotte, J.-F. Savary, Ph. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, “Clinical determination of tissue optical properties by endoscopic spatially resolved reflectometry,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1756–1766 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Braichotte, G. Wagnières, R. Bays, Ph. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, “Clinical pharmacokinetic studies of Photofrin by fluorescence spectroscopy in the oral cavity, the esophagus and the bronchi,” Cancer 75, 2768–2778 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Braichotte, G. Wagnières, Ph. Monnier, M. Savary, R. Bays, H. van den Bergh, A. Châtelain, “Endoscopic tissue autofluorescence measurements in the upper aerodigestive tract and the bronchi,” in Future Trends in Biomedical Applications of Lasers, L. O. Svaasand, ed., Proc. SPIE1525, 211–218 (1991).

Benson, R. C.

R. C. Benson, G. M. Farrow, J. H. Kinsey, D. A. Cortese, H. Zincke, D. C. Utz, “Detection and localization of in situ carcinoma of the bladder with hematoporphyrin derivative,” Mayo Clin. Proc. 57, 548–555 (1982).
[PubMed]

Blanc, L.

A. M. Mandard, J. Tourneux, M. Gignouxet, L. Blanc, P. Segol, J.-C. Mandard, “In situ carcinoma of the oesophagus: macroscopic study with particular reference to the Lugol test,” Endoscopy 12, 51–57 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bohorfoush, A. G.

A. G. Bohorfoush, “Tissue spectroscopy for gastrointestinal diseases,” Endoscopy 28, 372–380 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bolle, J. F.

P. Jichlinski, H.-J. Leisinger, M. Forrer, J. Mizeret, Th. Glanzmann, G. Wagnières, H. van den Bergh, L. Guilloud, K. Weber-Chapuis, C. Schindler, A. Pannatier, F. Schmidlin, J. F. Bolle, P. Graber, “Clinical evaluation of a screening method of bladder transitional cell carcinoma by induced fluorescence of Protoporphyrin IX with topical application of delta-aminolevulinic acid. Preliminary results,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 402–408 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bonner, R. F.

P. N. Yashke, R. F. Bonner, P. Cohen, M. B. Leon, D. E. Fleischer, “Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy may distinguish colon cancer from normal human colon,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 35, 184 (1989).

Boon, T. A.

G. H. M. Gijsbers, D. Breederveld, M. C. J. van Gemert, T. A. Boon, J. Langelaar, R. P. H. Rettschnick, “In vivo fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of hematoporphyrin-derivative,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 29–48 (1986).

Bottiroli, G.

G. Bottiroli, A. C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. Di Palma, M. Dalfante, P. Spinelli, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon—a comprehensive ex-vivo study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Marchesini, M. Brambilla, E. Pigoli, G. Bottiroli, A. C. Croce, M. Del Fante, P. Spinelli, S. Di Palma, “Light-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of adenoma, adenocarcinomas and non-neoplastic mucosa in human colon. I: in vitro measurements,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 14, 219–230 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braichotte, D.

R. Bays, G. Wagnières, D. Robert, D. Braichotte, J.-F. Savary, Ph. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, “Clinical determination of tissue optical properties by endoscopic spatially resolved reflectometry,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1756–1766 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Braichotte, J.-F. Savary, P. Westermann, T. Glanzmann, S. Folli, G. Wagnières, Ph. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, “Clinical pharmacokineticstudiesoftetra(metahydroxyphenyl)-chlorin in squamous cell carcinoma by fluorescence spectroscopy at two wavelengths,” Int. J. Cancer 63, 198–204 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Braichotte, G. Wagnières, R. Bays, Ph. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, “Clinical pharmacokinetic studies of Photofrin by fluorescence spectroscopy in the oral cavity, the esophagus and the bronchi,” Cancer 75, 2768–2778 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wagnières, S. Folli, D. Braichotte, H. van den Bergh, “Measurement of the Photofrin II absolute fluorescence quantum yield in tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. 59, 81S (1994).

S. Folli, G. Wagnières, A. Pèlegrin, J.-M. Calmes, D. Braichotte, F. Buchegger, Y. Chalandon, J.-C. Givel, N. Hardman, Ch. Heusser, G. Chapuis, A. Châtelain, H. van den Bergh, J.-P. Mach, “Immunophotodiagnosis of colon carcinomas in patients injected with fluoresceinated chimeric antibodies against carcinoembryonic antigen,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 89, 7973–7977 (1992).

D. Braichotte, J.-F. Savary, G. Wagnières, A. Mudry, Ch. Fontolliet, Ph. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, “A clinical comparison of the pharmacokinetics of m-THPC and Photofrin II as observed by light induced fluorescence,” in Optical Biopsy, R. Cubbedu, S. Svanberg, H. van den Bergh, eds., Proc. SPIE2081, 62–73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Forrer, Th. Glanzmann, J. Mizeret, D. Braichotte, G. Wagnières, H. van den Bergh, P. Jichlinski, H.-J. Leisinger, “Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of ALA induced protoporphyrin IX in normal and tumoral tissue of the human bladder,” in Optical Biopsy and Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Imaging, R. Cubeddu, R. Marchesini, S. R. Mordon, K. Svanberg, H. H. Rinneberg, G. Wagnières, eds., Proc. SPIE2324, 84–88 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Wagnières, D. Braichotte, A. Chatelain, Ch. Depeursinge, Ph. Monnier, M. Savary, Ch. Fontolliet, J.-M. Calmes, J.-C. Givel, G. Chapuis, S. Folli, A. Pèlegrin, F. Buchegger, J.-P. Mach, H. van den Bergh, “Photodetection of early cancer in the upper aerodigestive tract and the bronchi using photofrin II and colorectal adenocarcinoma with fluoresceinated monoclonal antibodies,” in Future Trends in Biomedical Applications of Lasers, L. O. Svaasand, ed., Proc. SPIE1525, 219–236 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Braichotte, G. Wagnières, Ph. Monnier, M. Savary, R. Bays, H. van den Bergh, A. Châtelain, “Endoscopic tissue autofluorescence measurements in the upper aerodigestive tract and the bronchi,” in Future Trends in Biomedical Applications of Lasers, L. O. Svaasand, ed., Proc. SPIE1525, 211–218 (1991).

Brambilla, M.

R. Marchesini, M. Brambilla, E. Pigoli, G. Bottiroli, A. C. Croce, M. Del Fante, P. Spinelli, S. Di Palma, “Light-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of adenoma, adenocarcinomas and non-neoplastic mucosa in human colon. I: in vitro measurements,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 14, 219–230 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breederveld, D.

G. H. M. Gijsbers, D. Breederveld, M. C. J. van Gemert, T. A. Boon, J. Langelaar, R. P. H. Rettschnick, “In vivo fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of hematoporphyrin-derivative,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 29–48 (1986).

Buchegger, F.

S. Folli, G. Wagnières, A. Pèlegrin, J.-M. Calmes, D. Braichotte, F. Buchegger, Y. Chalandon, J.-C. Givel, N. Hardman, Ch. Heusser, G. Chapuis, A. Châtelain, H. van den Bergh, J.-P. Mach, “Immunophotodiagnosis of colon carcinomas in patients injected with fluoresceinated chimeric antibodies against carcinoembryonic antigen,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 89, 7973–7977 (1992).

G. Wagnières, D. Braichotte, A. Chatelain, Ch. Depeursinge, Ph. Monnier, M. Savary, Ch. Fontolliet, J.-M. Calmes, J.-C. Givel, G. Chapuis, S. Folli, A. Pèlegrin, F. Buchegger, J.-P. Mach, H. van den Bergh, “Photodetection of early cancer in the upper aerodigestive tract and the bronchi using photofrin II and colorectal adenocarcinoma with fluoresceinated monoclonal antibodies,” in Future Trends in Biomedical Applications of Lasers, L. O. Svaasand, ed., Proc. SPIE1525, 219–236 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Buckley, F. P.

M. Panjehpour, B. F. Overholt, T. Vodinh, R. C. Haggitt, D. H. Edwards, F. P. Buckley, “Endoscopic fluorescence detection of high-grade dysplasia in Barretts-esophagus,” Gastroenterology 111, 93–101 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Vodinh, M. Panjehpour, B. F. Overholt, C. Farris, F. P. Buckley, R. Sneed, “In Vivo cancer-diagnosis of the esophagus using differential normalized fluorescence (Dnf) indexes,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 41–47 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Buckley, P. F.

M. Panjehpour, B. F. Overholt, J. L. Schmidhammer, C. Farris, P. F. Buckley, T. Vodinh, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of esophageal cancer—new classification model, improved measurement system,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 41, 577–581 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buessey, J. R.

T. Muto, J. R. Buessey, B. C. Morson, “The evaluation of cancer of the colon and rectum,” Cancer 36, 2251–2270 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calmes, J.-M.

S. Folli, G. Wagnières, A. Pèlegrin, J.-M. Calmes, D. Braichotte, F. Buchegger, Y. Chalandon, J.-C. Givel, N. Hardman, Ch. Heusser, G. Chapuis, A. Châtelain, H. van den Bergh, J.-P. Mach, “Immunophotodiagnosis of colon carcinomas in patients injected with fluoresceinated chimeric antibodies against carcinoembryonic antigen,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 89, 7973–7977 (1992).

G. Wagnières, D. Braichotte, A. Chatelain, Ch. Depeursinge, Ph. Monnier, M. Savary, Ch. Fontolliet, J.-M. Calmes, J.-C. Givel, G. Chapuis, S. Folli, A. Pèlegrin, F. Buchegger, J.-P. Mach, H. van den Bergh, “Photodetection of early cancer in the upper aerodigestive tract and the bronchi using photofrin II and colorectal adenocarcinoma with fluoresceinated monoclonal antibodies,” in Future Trends in Biomedical Applications of Lasers, L. O. Svaasand, ed., Proc. SPIE1525, 219–236 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Campana, S. B.

D. F. Barbe, S. B. Campana, “Imaging arrays using the charge-coupled concept,” in Advances in Image Pickup and Display, B. Kazan, ed. (Academic, New York, 1977), Vol. 3, p. 171.

Cartens, F.

A. E. Profio, O. J. Balchum, F. Cartens, “Digital background subtraction for fluorescence imaging,” Med. Phys. 13, 717–721 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chalandon, Y.

S. Folli, G. Wagnières, A. Pèlegrin, J.-M. Calmes, D. Braichotte, F. Buchegger, Y. Chalandon, J.-C. Givel, N. Hardman, Ch. Heusser, G. Chapuis, A. Châtelain, H. van den Bergh, J.-P. Mach, “Immunophotodiagnosis of colon carcinomas in patients injected with fluoresceinated chimeric antibodies against carcinoembryonic antigen,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 89, 7973–7977 (1992).

Chapuis, G.

S. Folli, G. Wagnières, A. Pèlegrin, J.-M. Calmes, D. Braichotte, F. Buchegger, Y. Chalandon, J.-C. Givel, N. Hardman, Ch. Heusser, G. Chapuis, A. Châtelain, H. van den Bergh, J.-P. Mach, “Immunophotodiagnosis of colon carcinomas in patients injected with fluoresceinated chimeric antibodies against carcinoembryonic antigen,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 89, 7973–7977 (1992).

G. Wagnières, D. Braichotte, A. Chatelain, Ch. Depeursinge, Ph. Monnier, M. Savary, Ch. Fontolliet, J.-M. Calmes, J.-C. Givel, G. Chapuis, S. Folli, A. Pèlegrin, F. Buchegger, J.-P. Mach, H. van den Bergh, “Photodetection of early cancer in the upper aerodigestive tract and the bronchi using photofrin II and colorectal adenocarcinoma with fluoresceinated monoclonal antibodies,” in Future Trends in Biomedical Applications of Lasers, L. O. Svaasand, ed., Proc. SPIE1525, 219–236 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chatelain, A.

G. Wagnières, D. Braichotte, A. Chatelain, Ch. Depeursinge, Ph. Monnier, M. Savary, Ch. Fontolliet, J.-M. Calmes, J.-C. Givel, G. Chapuis, S. Folli, A. Pèlegrin, F. Buchegger, J.-P. Mach, H. van den Bergh, “Photodetection of early cancer in the upper aerodigestive tract and the bronchi using photofrin II and colorectal adenocarcinoma with fluoresceinated monoclonal antibodies,” in Future Trends in Biomedical Applications of Lasers, L. O. Svaasand, ed., Proc. SPIE1525, 219–236 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Châtelain, A.

S. Folli, G. Wagnières, A. Pèlegrin, J.-M. Calmes, D. Braichotte, F. Buchegger, Y. Chalandon, J.-C. Givel, N. Hardman, Ch. Heusser, G. Chapuis, A. Châtelain, H. van den Bergh, J.-P. Mach, “Immunophotodiagnosis of colon carcinomas in patients injected with fluoresceinated chimeric antibodies against carcinoembryonic antigen,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 89, 7973–7977 (1992).

Ph. Monnier, M. Savary, Ch. Fontolliet, G. Wagnières, A. Châtelain, P. Cornaz, Ch. Depeursinge, H. van den Bergh, “Photodetection and photodynamic therapy of “early” squamous cell carcinomas of the pharynx, oesophagus and tracheobronchial tree,” Lasers Med. Sci. 5, 149–169 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. Wagnières, Ph. Monnier, M. Savary, P. Cornaz, A. Châtelain, H. van den Bergh, “Photodynamic therapy of early cancer in the upper aerodigestive tract and bronchi. Instrumentation and clinical results,” in Future Directions and Applications in Photodynamic Therapy, C. J. Gomer, ed., Vol. IS06 of SPIE Institutes Series (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1990), pp. 249–271.

D. Braichotte, G. Wagnières, Ph. Monnier, M. Savary, R. Bays, H. van den Bergh, A. Châtelain, “Endoscopic tissue autofluorescence measurements in the upper aerodigestive tract and the bronchi,” in Future Trends in Biomedical Applications of Lasers, L. O. Svaasand, ed., Proc. SPIE1525, 211–218 (1991).

G. Wagnières, Ch. Depeursinge, Ph. Monnier, M. Savary, P. Cornaz, A. Châtelain, H. van den Bergh, “Photodetection of early cancer by laser induced fluorescence of a tumor-selective dye: apparatus design and realization,” in Photodynamic Therapy: Mechanisms II, T. J. Dougherty, ed., Proc. SPIE1203, 43–52 (1990).

Cohen, P.

P. N. Yashke, R. F. Bonner, P. Cohen, M. B. Leon, D. E. Fleischer, “Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy may distinguish colon cancer from normal human colon,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 35, 184 (1989).

Compton, C. C.

K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, T. F. Deutsch, “Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 63–78 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cordero, J. J.

R. R. Alfano, D. B. Tata, J. J. Cordero, P. Tomashefsky, F. W. Longo, M. A. Alfano, “Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy from native cancerous and normal tissue,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1507–1511 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Cornaz, P.

Ph. Monnier, M. Savary, Ch. Fontolliet, G. Wagnières, A. Châtelain, P. Cornaz, Ch. Depeursinge, H. van den Bergh, “Photodetection and photodynamic therapy of “early” squamous cell carcinomas of the pharynx, oesophagus and tracheobronchial tree,” Lasers Med. Sci. 5, 149–169 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. Wagnières, Ch. Depeursinge, Ph. Monnier, M. Savary, P. Cornaz, A. Châtelain, H. van den Bergh, “Photodetection of early cancer by laser induced fluorescence of a tumor-selective dye: apparatus design and realization,” in Photodynamic Therapy: Mechanisms II, T. J. Dougherty, ed., Proc. SPIE1203, 43–52 (1990).

G. Wagnières, Ph. Monnier, M. Savary, P. Cornaz, A. Châtelain, H. van den Bergh, “Photodynamic therapy of early cancer in the upper aerodigestive tract and bronchi. Instrumentation and clinical results,” in Future Directions and Applications in Photodynamic Therapy, C. J. Gomer, ed., Vol. IS06 of SPIE Institutes Series (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1990), pp. 249–271.

Cortese, D. A.

R. C. Benson, G. M. Farrow, J. H. Kinsey, D. A. Cortese, H. Zincke, D. C. Utz, “Detection and localization of in situ carcinoma of the bladder with hematoporphyrin derivative,” Mayo Clin. Proc. 57, 548–555 (1982).
[PubMed]

Cortese, D. R.

D. R. Kinsey, D. R. Cortese, D. R. Sanderson, “Detection of hematoporphyrin fluorescence during fiberoptic bronchoscopy to localize early bronchogenic carcinoma,” Mayo Clin. Proc. 53, 594–600 (1978).
[PubMed]

Croce, A. C.

G. Bottiroli, A. C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. Di Palma, M. Dalfante, P. Spinelli, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon—a comprehensive ex-vivo study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Marchesini, M. Brambilla, E. Pigoli, G. Bottiroli, A. C. Croce, M. Del Fante, P. Spinelli, S. Di Palma, “Light-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of adenoma, adenocarcinomas and non-neoplastic mucosa in human colon. I: in vitro measurements,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 14, 219–230 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cutruzolla, F. W.

C. R. Kapadia, F. W. Cutruzolla, K. M. O’Brian, M. L. Stetz, R. Enriquez, L. I. Deckelbaum, “LIF spectroscopy of human colonic mucosa,” Gastroenterology 99, 150–157 (1990).
[PubMed]

Cuzzoni, C.

G. Bottiroli, A. C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. Di Palma, M. Dalfante, P. Spinelli, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon—a comprehensive ex-vivo study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dalfante, M.

G. Bottiroli, A. C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. Di Palma, M. Dalfante, P. Spinelli, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon—a comprehensive ex-vivo study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

Deckelbaum, L. I.

C. R. Kapadia, F. W. Cutruzolla, K. M. O’Brian, M. L. Stetz, R. Enriquez, L. I. Deckelbaum, “LIF spectroscopy of human colonic mucosa,” Gastroenterology 99, 150–157 (1990).
[PubMed]

Del Fante, M.

R. Marchesini, M. Brambilla, E. Pigoli, G. Bottiroli, A. C. Croce, M. Del Fante, P. Spinelli, S. Di Palma, “Light-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of adenoma, adenocarcinomas and non-neoplastic mucosa in human colon. I: in vitro measurements,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 14, 219–230 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Depeursinge, Ch.

Ph. Monnier, M. Savary, Ch. Fontolliet, G. Wagnières, A. Châtelain, P. Cornaz, Ch. Depeursinge, H. van den Bergh, “Photodetection and photodynamic therapy of “early” squamous cell carcinomas of the pharynx, oesophagus and tracheobronchial tree,” Lasers Med. Sci. 5, 149–169 (1990).
[CrossRef]

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H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, M. Motamedi, R. F. Wagner, M. Duvic, S. Thomsen, S. L. Jacques, “In-vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging of human skin tumors,” Lasers Med. Sci. 9, 191–201 (1994).
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M. Kohl, U. Sukowski, B. Ebert, J. Neukammer, H. Rinneberg, Ch. Nowak, “Imaging of superficial growing tumors by delayed observation of laser-induced fluorescence,” in Optical Methods for Tumor Treatment and Detection: Mechanisms and Techniques in Photodynamic Therapy II, T. J. Dougherty, ed., Proc. SPIE1881, 206–221 (1993).

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M. Panjehpour, B. F. Overholt, T. Vodinh, R. C. Haggitt, D. H. Edwards, F. P. Buckley, “Endoscopic fluorescence detection of high-grade dysplasia in Barretts-esophagus,” Gastroenterology 111, 93–101 (1996).
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M. Kriegmair, R. Baumgartner, R. Knuechel, P. Steinbach, A. Ehsan, W. Lumper, F. Hofstädter, A. Hofstetter, “Fluorescence photodetection of neoplastic urothelial lesions following instillation of 5-aminolevulinic acid,” Urology 44, 836–841 (1994).
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G. Wagnières, D. Braichotte, A. Chatelain, Ch. Depeursinge, Ph. Monnier, M. Savary, Ch. Fontolliet, J.-M. Calmes, J.-C. Givel, G. Chapuis, S. Folli, A. Pèlegrin, F. Buchegger, J.-P. Mach, H. van den Bergh, “Photodetection of early cancer in the upper aerodigestive tract and the bronchi using photofrin II and colorectal adenocarcinoma with fluoresceinated monoclonal antibodies,” in Future Trends in Biomedical Applications of Lasers, L. O. Svaasand, ed., Proc. SPIE1525, 219–236 (1991).
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Ph. Monnier, M. Savary, Ch. Fontolliet, G. Wagnières, A. Châtelain, P. Cornaz, Ch. Depeursinge, H. van den Bergh, “Photodetection and photodynamic therapy of “early” squamous cell carcinomas of the pharynx, oesophagus and tracheobronchial tree,” Lasers Med. Sci. 5, 149–169 (1990).
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M. Forrer, Th. Glanzmann, J. Mizeret, D. Braichotte, G. Wagnières, H. van den Bergh, P. Jichlinski, H.-J. Leisinger, “Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of ALA induced protoporphyrin IX in normal and tumoral tissue of the human bladder,” in Optical Biopsy and Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Imaging, R. Cubeddu, R. Marchesini, S. R. Mordon, K. Svanberg, H. H. Rinneberg, G. Wagnières, eds., Proc. SPIE2324, 84–88 (1995).
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K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, T. F. Deutsch, “Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 63–78 (1992).
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Givel, J.-C.

S. Folli, G. Wagnières, A. Pèlegrin, J.-M. Calmes, D. Braichotte, F. Buchegger, Y. Chalandon, J.-C. Givel, N. Hardman, Ch. Heusser, G. Chapuis, A. Châtelain, H. van den Bergh, J.-P. Mach, “Immunophotodiagnosis of colon carcinomas in patients injected with fluoresceinated chimeric antibodies against carcinoembryonic antigen,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 89, 7973–7977 (1992).

G. Wagnières, D. Braichotte, A. Chatelain, Ch. Depeursinge, Ph. Monnier, M. Savary, Ch. Fontolliet, J.-M. Calmes, J.-C. Givel, G. Chapuis, S. Folli, A. Pèlegrin, F. Buchegger, J.-P. Mach, H. van den Bergh, “Photodetection of early cancer in the upper aerodigestive tract and the bronchi using photofrin II and colorectal adenocarcinoma with fluoresceinated monoclonal antibodies,” in Future Trends in Biomedical Applications of Lasers, L. O. Svaasand, ed., Proc. SPIE1525, 219–236 (1991).
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D. Braichotte, J.-F. Savary, P. Westermann, T. Glanzmann, S. Folli, G. Wagnières, Ph. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, “Clinical pharmacokineticstudiesoftetra(metahydroxyphenyl)-chlorin in squamous cell carcinoma by fluorescence spectroscopy at two wavelengths,” Int. J. Cancer 63, 198–204 (1995).
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Glanzmann, Th.

P. Jichlinski, H.-J. Leisinger, M. Forrer, J. Mizeret, Th. Glanzmann, G. Wagnières, H. van den Bergh, L. Guilloud, K. Weber-Chapuis, C. Schindler, A. Pannatier, F. Schmidlin, J. F. Bolle, P. Graber, “Clinical evaluation of a screening method of bladder transitional cell carcinoma by induced fluorescence of Protoporphyrin IX with topical application of delta-aminolevulinic acid. Preliminary results,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 402–408 (1997).
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M. Forrer, Th. Glanzmann, J. Mizeret, D. Braichotte, G. Wagnières, H. van den Bergh, P. Jichlinski, H.-J. Leisinger, “Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of ALA induced protoporphyrin IX in normal and tumoral tissue of the human bladder,” in Optical Biopsy and Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Imaging, R. Cubeddu, R. Marchesini, S. R. Mordon, K. Svanberg, H. H. Rinneberg, G. Wagnières, eds., Proc. SPIE2324, 84–88 (1995).
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P. Jichlinski, H.-J. Leisinger, M. Forrer, J. Mizeret, Th. Glanzmann, G. Wagnières, H. van den Bergh, L. Guilloud, K. Weber-Chapuis, C. Schindler, A. Pannatier, F. Schmidlin, J. F. Bolle, P. Graber, “Clinical evaluation of a screening method of bladder transitional cell carcinoma by induced fluorescence of Protoporphyrin IX with topical application of delta-aminolevulinic acid. Preliminary results,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 402–408 (1997).
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P. Jichlinski, H.-J. Leisinger, M. Forrer, J. Mizeret, Th. Glanzmann, G. Wagnières, H. van den Bergh, L. Guilloud, K. Weber-Chapuis, C. Schindler, A. Pannatier, F. Schmidlin, J. F. Bolle, P. Graber, “Clinical evaluation of a screening method of bladder transitional cell carcinoma by induced fluorescence of Protoporphyrin IX with topical application of delta-aminolevulinic acid. Preliminary results,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 402–408 (1997).
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M. Panjehpour, B. F. Overholt, T. Vodinh, R. C. Haggitt, D. H. Edwards, F. P. Buckley, “Endoscopic fluorescence detection of high-grade dysplasia in Barretts-esophagus,” Gastroenterology 111, 93–101 (1996).
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Hardman, N.

S. Folli, G. Wagnières, A. Pèlegrin, J.-M. Calmes, D. Braichotte, F. Buchegger, Y. Chalandon, J.-C. Givel, N. Hardman, Ch. Heusser, G. Chapuis, A. Châtelain, H. van den Bergh, J.-P. Mach, “Immunophotodiagnosis of colon carcinomas in patients injected with fluoresceinated chimeric antibodies against carcinoembryonic antigen,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 89, 7973–7977 (1992).

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M. L. Harries, S. Lam, C. MacAulay, J. A. Qu, B. Palcic, “Diagnostic-imaging of the larynx—autofluorescence of laryngeal tumors using the helium cadmium laser,” J. Laryngol. Otol. 109, 108–110 (1995).
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P. Herlin, J. Marnay, J. H. Jacob, J. M. Ollivier, A. M. Mandard, “A study of the mechanism of the Toluidine Blue dye test,” Endoscopy 15, 4–7 (1983).
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T. Hirano, M. Ishizuka, K. Suzuki, K. Ishida, S. Suzuki, S. Miyaki, A. Honma, M. Suzuki, K. Aizawa, H. Kato, Y. Hayata, “Photodynamic cancer diagnosis and treatment system consisting of pulsed lasers and endoscopic spectro-image analyzer,” Lasers Life Sci. 3, 99–116 (1989).

Hofstädter, F.

M. Kriegmair, R. Baumgartner, R. Knuchel, H. Stepp, F. Hofstädter, A. Hofstetter, “Detection of early bladder cancer by 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced porphyrin fluorescence,” J. Urol. 155, 105–109 (1996).
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M. Kriegmair, R. Baumgartner, R. Knuechel, P. Steinbach, A. Ehsan, W. Lumper, F. Hofstädter, A. Hofstetter, “Fluorescence photodetection of neoplastic urothelial lesions following instillation of 5-aminolevulinic acid,” Urology 44, 836–841 (1994).
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Hofstetter, A.

M. Kriegmair, R. Baumgartner, R. Knuchel, H. Stepp, F. Hofstädter, A. Hofstetter, “Detection of early bladder cancer by 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced porphyrin fluorescence,” J. Urol. 155, 105–109 (1996).
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M. Kriegmair, R. Baumgartner, R. Knuechel, P. Steinbach, A. Ehsan, W. Lumper, F. Hofstädter, A. Hofstetter, “Fluorescence photodetection of neoplastic urothelial lesions following instillation of 5-aminolevulinic acid,” Urology 44, 836–841 (1994).
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T. Hirano, M. Ishizuka, K. Suzuki, K. Ishida, S. Suzuki, S. Miyaki, A. Honma, M. Suzuki, K. Aizawa, H. Kato, Y. Hayata, “Photodynamic cancer diagnosis and treatment system consisting of pulsed lasers and endoscopic spectro-image analyzer,” Lasers Life Sci. 3, 99–116 (1989).

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O. J. Balchum, D. R. Doiron, A. E. Profio, G. C. Huth, “Fluorescence bronchoscopy for localizing early bronchial cancer and carcinoma in situ,” Recent Results Cancer Res. 82, 97–102 (1982).
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Ishida, K.

T. Hirano, M. Ishizuka, K. Suzuki, K. Ishida, S. Suzuki, S. Miyaki, A. Honma, M. Suzuki, K. Aizawa, H. Kato, Y. Hayata, “Photodynamic cancer diagnosis and treatment system consisting of pulsed lasers and endoscopic spectro-image analyzer,” Lasers Life Sci. 3, 99–116 (1989).

Ishizuka, M.

T. Hirano, M. Ishizuka, K. Suzuki, K. Ishida, S. Suzuki, S. Miyaki, A. Honma, M. Suzuki, K. Aizawa, H. Kato, Y. Hayata, “Photodynamic cancer diagnosis and treatment system consisting of pulsed lasers and endoscopic spectro-image analyzer,” Lasers Life Sci. 3, 99–116 (1989).

Itzkan, I.

Jacob, J. H.

P. Herlin, J. Marnay, J. H. Jacob, J. M. Ollivier, A. M. Mandard, “A study of the mechanism of the Toluidine Blue dye test,” Endoscopy 15, 4–7 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, M. Motamedi, R. F. Wagner, M. Duvic, S. Thomsen, S. L. Jacques, “In-vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging of human skin tumors,” Lasers Med. Sci. 9, 191–201 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jichlinski, P.

P. Jichlinski, H.-J. Leisinger, M. Forrer, J. Mizeret, Th. Glanzmann, G. Wagnières, H. van den Bergh, L. Guilloud, K. Weber-Chapuis, C. Schindler, A. Pannatier, F. Schmidlin, J. F. Bolle, P. Graber, “Clinical evaluation of a screening method of bladder transitional cell carcinoma by induced fluorescence of Protoporphyrin IX with topical application of delta-aminolevulinic acid. Preliminary results,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 402–408 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Forrer, Th. Glanzmann, J. Mizeret, D. Braichotte, G. Wagnières, H. van den Bergh, P. Jichlinski, H.-J. Leisinger, “Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of ALA induced protoporphyrin IX in normal and tumoral tissue of the human bladder,” in Optical Biopsy and Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Imaging, R. Cubeddu, R. Marchesini, S. R. Mordon, K. Svanberg, H. H. Rinneberg, G. Wagnières, eds., Proc. SPIE2324, 84–88 (1995).
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Jocham, D.

R. Baumgartner, H. Fisslinger, D. Jocham, H. Lenz, L. Ruprecht, H. Stepp, E. Unsöld, “A fluorescence imaging device for endoscopic detection of early stage cancer. Instrumental and experimental studies,” Photochem. Photobiol. 46, 759–763 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johansson, J.

Kapadia, C. R.

C. R. Kapadia, F. W. Cutruzolla, K. M. O’Brian, M. L. Stetz, R. Enriquez, L. I. Deckelbaum, “LIF spectroscopy of human colonic mucosa,” Gastroenterology 99, 150–157 (1990).
[PubMed]

Kato, H.

T. Hirano, M. Ishizuka, K. Suzuki, K. Ishida, S. Suzuki, S. Miyaki, A. Honma, M. Suzuki, K. Aizawa, H. Kato, Y. Hayata, “Photodynamic cancer diagnosis and treatment system consisting of pulsed lasers and endoscopic spectro-image analyzer,” Lasers Life Sci. 3, 99–116 (1989).

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Kinsey, J. H.

R. C. Benson, G. M. Farrow, J. H. Kinsey, D. A. Cortese, H. Zincke, D. C. Utz, “Detection and localization of in situ carcinoma of the bladder with hematoporphyrin derivative,” Mayo Clin. Proc. 57, 548–555 (1982).
[PubMed]

Knuchel, R.

M. Kriegmair, R. Baumgartner, R. Knuchel, H. Stepp, F. Hofstädter, A. Hofstetter, “Detection of early bladder cancer by 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced porphyrin fluorescence,” J. Urol. 155, 105–109 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Knuechel, R.

M. Kriegmair, R. Baumgartner, R. Knuechel, P. Steinbach, A. Ehsan, W. Lumper, F. Hofstädter, A. Hofstetter, “Fluorescence photodetection of neoplastic urothelial lesions following instillation of 5-aminolevulinic acid,” Urology 44, 836–841 (1994).
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Kohl, M.

M. Kohl, U. Sukowski, B. Ebert, J. Neukammer, H. Rinneberg, Ch. Nowak, “Imaging of superficial growing tumors by delayed observation of laser-induced fluorescence,” in Optical Methods for Tumor Treatment and Detection: Mechanisms and Techniques in Photodynamic Therapy II, T. J. Dougherty, ed., Proc. SPIE1881, 206–221 (1993).

Korbelik, M.

S. Lam, C. MacAulay, J. C. LeRiche, J. Qu, G. Krosl, H. Zeng, M. Korbelik, B. Palcic, “Fluorescence imaging of pre-malignant and malignant tissues with and without photosensitizers,” in Optical Methods for Tumor Treatment and Detection: Mechanisms and Techniques in Photodynamic Therapy II, T. J. Dougherty, ed., Proc. SPIE1881, 160–167 (1993).

Kriegmair, M.

M. Kriegmair, R. Baumgartner, R. Knuchel, H. Stepp, F. Hofstädter, A. Hofstetter, “Detection of early bladder cancer by 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced porphyrin fluorescence,” J. Urol. 155, 105–109 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Kriegmair, R. Baumgartner, R. Knuechel, P. Steinbach, A. Ehsan, W. Lumper, F. Hofstädter, A. Hofstetter, “Fluorescence photodetection of neoplastic urothelial lesions following instillation of 5-aminolevulinic acid,” Urology 44, 836–841 (1994).
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[CrossRef]

R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, R. E. Petras, M. Fitzmauric, M. Sivak, M. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of colonic dysplasia,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 777–786 (1991).
[PubMed]

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K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, T. F. Deutsch, “Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 63–78 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rinneberg, H.

M. Kohl, U. Sukowski, B. Ebert, J. Neukammer, H. Rinneberg, Ch. Nowak, “Imaging of superficial growing tumors by delayed observation of laser-induced fluorescence,” in Optical Methods for Tumor Treatment and Detection: Mechanisms and Techniques in Photodynamic Therapy II, T. J. Dougherty, ed., Proc. SPIE1881, 206–221 (1993).

Robert, D.

Ruprecht, L.

R. Baumgartner, H. Fisslinger, D. Jocham, H. Lenz, L. Ruprecht, H. Stepp, E. Unsöld, “A fluorescence imaging device for endoscopic detection of early stage cancer. Instrumental and experimental studies,” Photochem. Photobiol. 46, 759–763 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. R. Kinsey, D. R. Cortese, D. R. Sanderson, “Detection of hematoporphyrin fluorescence during fiberoptic bronchoscopy to localize early bronchogenic carcinoma,” Mayo Clin. Proc. 53, 594–600 (1978).
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R. Bays, G. Wagnières, D. Robert, D. Braichotte, J.-F. Savary, Ph. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, “Clinical determination of tissue optical properties by endoscopic spatially resolved reflectometry,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1756–1766 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Braichotte, J.-F. Savary, P. Westermann, T. Glanzmann, S. Folli, G. Wagnières, Ph. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, “Clinical pharmacokineticstudiesoftetra(metahydroxyphenyl)-chlorin in squamous cell carcinoma by fluorescence spectroscopy at two wavelengths,” Int. J. Cancer 63, 198–204 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Braichotte, J.-F. Savary, G. Wagnières, A. Mudry, Ch. Fontolliet, Ph. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, “A clinical comparison of the pharmacokinetics of m-THPC and Photofrin II as observed by light induced fluorescence,” in Optical Biopsy, R. Cubbedu, S. Svanberg, H. van den Bergh, eds., Proc. SPIE2081, 62–73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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Ph. Monnier, M. Savary, Ch. Fontolliet, G. Wagnières, A. Châtelain, P. Cornaz, Ch. Depeursinge, H. van den Bergh, “Photodetection and photodynamic therapy of “early” squamous cell carcinomas of the pharynx, oesophagus and tracheobronchial tree,” Lasers Med. Sci. 5, 149–169 (1990).
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R. Pasche, M. Savary, Ph. Monnier, “Multiple squamous cell carcinoma of the upper digestive and lower respiratory tract: methodology of endoscopic screening,” Acta Endosc. 11, 277–291 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. Wagnières, Ch. Depeursinge, Ph. Monnier, M. Savary, P. Cornaz, A. Châtelain, H. van den Bergh, “Photodetection of early cancer by laser induced fluorescence of a tumor-selective dye: apparatus design and realization,” in Photodynamic Therapy: Mechanisms II, T. J. Dougherty, ed., Proc. SPIE1203, 43–52 (1990).

D. Braichotte, G. Wagnières, Ph. Monnier, M. Savary, R. Bays, H. van den Bergh, A. Châtelain, “Endoscopic tissue autofluorescence measurements in the upper aerodigestive tract and the bronchi,” in Future Trends in Biomedical Applications of Lasers, L. O. Svaasand, ed., Proc. SPIE1525, 211–218 (1991).

G. Wagnières, D. Braichotte, A. Chatelain, Ch. Depeursinge, Ph. Monnier, M. Savary, Ch. Fontolliet, J.-M. Calmes, J.-C. Givel, G. Chapuis, S. Folli, A. Pèlegrin, F. Buchegger, J.-P. Mach, H. van den Bergh, “Photodetection of early cancer in the upper aerodigestive tract and the bronchi using photofrin II and colorectal adenocarcinoma with fluoresceinated monoclonal antibodies,” in Future Trends in Biomedical Applications of Lasers, L. O. Svaasand, ed., Proc. SPIE1525, 219–236 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. Wagnières, Ph. Monnier, M. Savary, P. Cornaz, A. Châtelain, H. van den Bergh, “Photodynamic therapy of early cancer in the upper aerodigestive tract and bronchi. Instrumentation and clinical results,” in Future Directions and Applications in Photodynamic Therapy, C. J. Gomer, ed., Vol. IS06 of SPIE Institutes Series (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1990), pp. 249–271.

Schindler, C.

P. Jichlinski, H.-J. Leisinger, M. Forrer, J. Mizeret, Th. Glanzmann, G. Wagnières, H. van den Bergh, L. Guilloud, K. Weber-Chapuis, C. Schindler, A. Pannatier, F. Schmidlin, J. F. Bolle, P. Graber, “Clinical evaluation of a screening method of bladder transitional cell carcinoma by induced fluorescence of Protoporphyrin IX with topical application of delta-aminolevulinic acid. Preliminary results,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 402–408 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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M. Panjehpour, B. F. Overholt, J. L. Schmidhammer, C. Farris, P. F. Buckley, T. Vodinh, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of esophageal cancer—new classification model, improved measurement system,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 41, 577–581 (1995).
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P. Jichlinski, H.-J. Leisinger, M. Forrer, J. Mizeret, Th. Glanzmann, G. Wagnières, H. van den Bergh, L. Guilloud, K. Weber-Chapuis, C. Schindler, A. Pannatier, F. Schmidlin, J. F. Bolle, P. Graber, “Clinical evaluation of a screening method of bladder transitional cell carcinoma by induced fluorescence of Protoporphyrin IX with topical application of delta-aminolevulinic acid. Preliminary results,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 402–408 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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K. T. Schomacker, J. K. Frisoli, C. C. Compton, T. J. Flotte, J. M. Richter, N. S. Nishioka, T. F. Deutsch, “Ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence of colonic tissue: basic biology and diagnostic potential,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 63–78 (1992).
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W. S. Poon, K. T. Schomaker, T. F. Deutsch, R. L. Marturza, “Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF): for intraoperative delineation of tumor resection margins,” J. Neurosurg. 76, 679–686 (1992).
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R. Richards-Kortum, E. Sevick-Muraca, “Quantitative Optical Spectroscopy for Tissue Diagnosis,” Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 47, 555–606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Sivak, M.

R. Richards-Kortum, R. P. Rava, R. E. Petras, M. Fitzmauric, M. Sivak, M. Feld, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of colonic dysplasia,” Photochem. Photobiol. 53, 777–786 (1991).
[PubMed]

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T. Vodinh, M. Panjehpour, B. F. Overholt, C. Farris, F. P. Buckley, R. Sneed, “In Vivo cancer-diagnosis of the esophagus using differential normalized fluorescence (Dnf) indexes,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 41–47 (1995).
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G. Bottiroli, A. C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. Di Palma, M. Dalfante, P. Spinelli, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon—a comprehensive ex-vivo study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60 (1995).
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R. Marchesini, M. Brambilla, E. Pigoli, G. Bottiroli, A. C. Croce, M. Del Fante, P. Spinelli, S. Di Palma, “Light-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of adenoma, adenocarcinomas and non-neoplastic mucosa in human colon. I: in vitro measurements,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 14, 219–230 (1992).
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H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, M. Motamedi, R. F. Wagner, M. Duvic, S. Thomsen, S. L. Jacques, “In-vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging of human skin tumors,” Lasers Med. Sci. 9, 191–201 (1994).
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C. R. Kapadia, F. W. Cutruzolla, K. M. O’Brian, M. L. Stetz, R. Enriquez, L. I. Deckelbaum, “LIF spectroscopy of human colonic mucosa,” Gastroenterology 99, 150–157 (1990).
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M. Kohl, U. Sukowski, B. Ebert, J. Neukammer, H. Rinneberg, Ch. Nowak, “Imaging of superficial growing tumors by delayed observation of laser-induced fluorescence,” in Optical Methods for Tumor Treatment and Detection: Mechanisms and Techniques in Photodynamic Therapy II, T. J. Dougherty, ed., Proc. SPIE1881, 206–221 (1993).

Suzuki, K.

T. Hirano, M. Ishizuka, K. Suzuki, K. Ishida, S. Suzuki, S. Miyaki, A. Honma, M. Suzuki, K. Aizawa, H. Kato, Y. Hayata, “Photodynamic cancer diagnosis and treatment system consisting of pulsed lasers and endoscopic spectro-image analyzer,” Lasers Life Sci. 3, 99–116 (1989).

Suzuki, M.

T. Hirano, M. Ishizuka, K. Suzuki, K. Ishida, S. Suzuki, S. Miyaki, A. Honma, M. Suzuki, K. Aizawa, H. Kato, Y. Hayata, “Photodynamic cancer diagnosis and treatment system consisting of pulsed lasers and endoscopic spectro-image analyzer,” Lasers Life Sci. 3, 99–116 (1989).

Suzuki, S.

T. Hirano, M. Ishizuka, K. Suzuki, K. Ishida, S. Suzuki, S. Miyaki, A. Honma, M. Suzuki, K. Aizawa, H. Kato, Y. Hayata, “Photodynamic cancer diagnosis and treatment system consisting of pulsed lasers and endoscopic spectro-image analyzer,” Lasers Life Sci. 3, 99–116 (1989).

Svanberg, K.

Svanberg, S.

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Tata, D. B.

R. R. Alfano, D. B. Tata, J. J. Cordero, P. Tomashefsky, F. W. Longo, M. A. Alfano, “Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy from native cancerous and normal tissue,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1507–1511 (1984).
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H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, M. Motamedi, R. F. Wagner, M. Duvic, S. Thomsen, S. L. Jacques, “In-vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging of human skin tumors,” Lasers Med. Sci. 9, 191–201 (1994).
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R. R. Alfano, D. B. Tata, J. J. Cordero, P. Tomashefsky, F. W. Longo, M. A. Alfano, “Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy from native cancerous and normal tissue,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 1507–1511 (1984).
[CrossRef]

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G. Bottiroli, A. C. Croce, D. Locatelli, R. Marchesini, E. Pignoli, S. Tomatis, C. Cuzzoni, S. Di Palma, M. Dalfante, P. Spinelli, “Natural fluorescence of normal and neoplastic human colon—a comprehensive ex-vivo study,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 48–60 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tourneux, J.

A. M. Mandard, J. Tourneux, M. Gignouxet, L. Blanc, P. Segol, J.-C. Mandard, “In situ carcinoma of the oesophagus: macroscopic study with particular reference to the Lugol test,” Endoscopy 12, 51–57 (1980).
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R. Baumgartner, H. Fisslinger, D. Jocham, H. Lenz, L. Ruprecht, H. Stepp, E. Unsöld, “A fluorescence imaging device for endoscopic detection of early stage cancer. Instrumental and experimental studies,” Photochem. Photobiol. 46, 759–763 (1987).
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R. C. Benson, G. M. Farrow, J. H. Kinsey, D. A. Cortese, H. Zincke, D. C. Utz, “Detection and localization of in situ carcinoma of the bladder with hematoporphyrin derivative,” Mayo Clin. Proc. 57, 548–555 (1982).
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P. Jichlinski, H.-J. Leisinger, M. Forrer, J. Mizeret, Th. Glanzmann, G. Wagnières, H. van den Bergh, L. Guilloud, K. Weber-Chapuis, C. Schindler, A. Pannatier, F. Schmidlin, J. F. Bolle, P. Graber, “Clinical evaluation of a screening method of bladder transitional cell carcinoma by induced fluorescence of Protoporphyrin IX with topical application of delta-aminolevulinic acid. Preliminary results,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 402–408 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Bays, G. Wagnières, D. Robert, D. Braichotte, J.-F. Savary, Ph. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, “Clinical determination of tissue optical properties by endoscopic spatially resolved reflectometry,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1756–1766 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Braichotte, G. Wagnières, R. Bays, Ph. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, “Clinical pharmacokinetic studies of Photofrin by fluorescence spectroscopy in the oral cavity, the esophagus and the bronchi,” Cancer 75, 2768–2778 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Braichotte, J.-F. Savary, P. Westermann, T. Glanzmann, S. Folli, G. Wagnières, Ph. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, “Clinical pharmacokineticstudiesoftetra(metahydroxyphenyl)-chlorin in squamous cell carcinoma by fluorescence spectroscopy at two wavelengths,” Int. J. Cancer 63, 198–204 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wagnières, S. Folli, D. Braichotte, H. van den Bergh, “Measurement of the Photofrin II absolute fluorescence quantum yield in tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. 59, 81S (1994).

S. Folli, G. Wagnières, A. Pèlegrin, J.-M. Calmes, D. Braichotte, F. Buchegger, Y. Chalandon, J.-C. Givel, N. Hardman, Ch. Heusser, G. Chapuis, A. Châtelain, H. van den Bergh, J.-P. Mach, “Immunophotodiagnosis of colon carcinomas in patients injected with fluoresceinated chimeric antibodies against carcinoembryonic antigen,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 89, 7973–7977 (1992).

Ph. Monnier, M. Savary, Ch. Fontolliet, G. Wagnières, A. Châtelain, P. Cornaz, Ch. Depeursinge, H. van den Bergh, “Photodetection and photodynamic therapy of “early” squamous cell carcinomas of the pharynx, oesophagus and tracheobronchial tree,” Lasers Med. Sci. 5, 149–169 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Forrer, Th. Glanzmann, J. Mizeret, D. Braichotte, G. Wagnières, H. van den Bergh, P. Jichlinski, H.-J. Leisinger, “Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of ALA induced protoporphyrin IX in normal and tumoral tissue of the human bladder,” in Optical Biopsy and Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Imaging, R. Cubeddu, R. Marchesini, S. R. Mordon, K. Svanberg, H. H. Rinneberg, G. Wagnières, eds., Proc. SPIE2324, 84–88 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Wagnières, D. Braichotte, A. Chatelain, Ch. Depeursinge, Ph. Monnier, M. Savary, Ch. Fontolliet, J.-M. Calmes, J.-C. Givel, G. Chapuis, S. Folli, A. Pèlegrin, F. Buchegger, J.-P. Mach, H. van den Bergh, “Photodetection of early cancer in the upper aerodigestive tract and the bronchi using photofrin II and colorectal adenocarcinoma with fluoresceinated monoclonal antibodies,” in Future Trends in Biomedical Applications of Lasers, L. O. Svaasand, ed., Proc. SPIE1525, 219–236 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. Wagnières, Ph. Monnier, M. Savary, P. Cornaz, A. Châtelain, H. van den Bergh, “Photodynamic therapy of early cancer in the upper aerodigestive tract and bronchi. Instrumentation and clinical results,” in Future Directions and Applications in Photodynamic Therapy, C. J. Gomer, ed., Vol. IS06 of SPIE Institutes Series (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1990), pp. 249–271.

D. Braichotte, J.-F. Savary, G. Wagnières, A. Mudry, Ch. Fontolliet, Ph. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, “A clinical comparison of the pharmacokinetics of m-THPC and Photofrin II as observed by light induced fluorescence,” in Optical Biopsy, R. Cubbedu, S. Svanberg, H. van den Bergh, eds., Proc. SPIE2081, 62–73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Wagnières, Ch. Depeursinge, Ph. Monnier, M. Savary, P. Cornaz, A. Châtelain, H. van den Bergh, “Photodetection of early cancer by laser induced fluorescence of a tumor-selective dye: apparatus design and realization,” in Photodynamic Therapy: Mechanisms II, T. J. Dougherty, ed., Proc. SPIE1203, 43–52 (1990).

D. Braichotte, G. Wagnières, Ph. Monnier, M. Savary, R. Bays, H. van den Bergh, A. Châtelain, “Endoscopic tissue autofluorescence measurements in the upper aerodigestive tract and the bronchi,” in Future Trends in Biomedical Applications of Lasers, L. O. Svaasand, ed., Proc. SPIE1525, 211–218 (1991).

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G. H. M. Gijsbers, D. Breederveld, M. C. J. van Gemert, T. A. Boon, J. Langelaar, R. P. H. Rettschnick, “In vivo fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of hematoporphyrin-derivative,” Lasers Life Sci. 1, 29–48 (1986).

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D. R. Doiron, A. E. Profio, R. G. Vincent, T. J. Dougherty, “Fluorescence bronchoscopy for localization of occult lung tumors,” Chest 76, 27–32 (1979).
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M. Panjehpour, B. F. Overholt, T. Vodinh, R. C. Haggitt, D. H. Edwards, F. P. Buckley, “Endoscopic fluorescence detection of high-grade dysplasia in Barretts-esophagus,” Gastroenterology 111, 93–101 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Panjehpour, B. F. Overholt, J. L. Schmidhammer, C. Farris, P. F. Buckley, T. Vodinh, “Spectroscopic diagnosis of esophageal cancer—new classification model, improved measurement system,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 41, 577–581 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Vodinh, M. Panjehpour, B. F. Overholt, C. Farris, F. P. Buckley, R. Sneed, “In Vivo cancer-diagnosis of the esophagus using differential normalized fluorescence (Dnf) indexes,” Lasers Surg. Med. 16, 41–47 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, R. F.

H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, M. Motamedi, R. F. Wagner, M. Duvic, S. Thomsen, S. L. Jacques, “In-vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging of human skin tumors,” Lasers Med. Sci. 9, 191–201 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wagnières, G.

P. Jichlinski, H.-J. Leisinger, M. Forrer, J. Mizeret, Th. Glanzmann, G. Wagnières, H. van den Bergh, L. Guilloud, K. Weber-Chapuis, C. Schindler, A. Pannatier, F. Schmidlin, J. F. Bolle, P. Graber, “Clinical evaluation of a screening method of bladder transitional cell carcinoma by induced fluorescence of Protoporphyrin IX with topical application of delta-aminolevulinic acid. Preliminary results,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 402–408 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Bays, G. Wagnières, D. Robert, D. Braichotte, J.-F. Savary, Ph. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, “Clinical determination of tissue optical properties by endoscopic spatially resolved reflectometry,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1756–1766 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Braichotte, J.-F. Savary, P. Westermann, T. Glanzmann, S. Folli, G. Wagnières, Ph. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, “Clinical pharmacokineticstudiesoftetra(metahydroxyphenyl)-chlorin in squamous cell carcinoma by fluorescence spectroscopy at two wavelengths,” Int. J. Cancer 63, 198–204 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Braichotte, G. Wagnières, R. Bays, Ph. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, “Clinical pharmacokinetic studies of Photofrin by fluorescence spectroscopy in the oral cavity, the esophagus and the bronchi,” Cancer 75, 2768–2778 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wagnières, S. Folli, D. Braichotte, H. van den Bergh, “Measurement of the Photofrin II absolute fluorescence quantum yield in tissue,” Photochem. Photobiol. 59, 81S (1994).

S. Folli, G. Wagnières, A. Pèlegrin, J.-M. Calmes, D. Braichotte, F. Buchegger, Y. Chalandon, J.-C. Givel, N. Hardman, Ch. Heusser, G. Chapuis, A. Châtelain, H. van den Bergh, J.-P. Mach, “Immunophotodiagnosis of colon carcinomas in patients injected with fluoresceinated chimeric antibodies against carcinoembryonic antigen,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 89, 7973–7977 (1992).

Ph. Monnier, M. Savary, Ch. Fontolliet, G. Wagnières, A. Châtelain, P. Cornaz, Ch. Depeursinge, H. van den Bergh, “Photodetection and photodynamic therapy of “early” squamous cell carcinomas of the pharynx, oesophagus and tracheobronchial tree,” Lasers Med. Sci. 5, 149–169 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Forrer, Th. Glanzmann, J. Mizeret, D. Braichotte, G. Wagnières, H. van den Bergh, P. Jichlinski, H.-J. Leisinger, “Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of ALA induced protoporphyrin IX in normal and tumoral tissue of the human bladder,” in Optical Biopsy and Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Imaging, R. Cubeddu, R. Marchesini, S. R. Mordon, K. Svanberg, H. H. Rinneberg, G. Wagnières, eds., Proc. SPIE2324, 84–88 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Wagnières, D. Braichotte, A. Chatelain, Ch. Depeursinge, Ph. Monnier, M. Savary, Ch. Fontolliet, J.-M. Calmes, J.-C. Givel, G. Chapuis, S. Folli, A. Pèlegrin, F. Buchegger, J.-P. Mach, H. van den Bergh, “Photodetection of early cancer in the upper aerodigestive tract and the bronchi using photofrin II and colorectal adenocarcinoma with fluoresceinated monoclonal antibodies,” in Future Trends in Biomedical Applications of Lasers, L. O. Svaasand, ed., Proc. SPIE1525, 219–236 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Braichotte, J.-F. Savary, G. Wagnières, A. Mudry, Ch. Fontolliet, Ph. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, “A clinical comparison of the pharmacokinetics of m-THPC and Photofrin II as observed by light induced fluorescence,” in Optical Biopsy, R. Cubbedu, S. Svanberg, H. van den Bergh, eds., Proc. SPIE2081, 62–73 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Wagnières, Ph. Monnier, M. Savary, P. Cornaz, A. Châtelain, H. van den Bergh, “Photodynamic therapy of early cancer in the upper aerodigestive tract and bronchi. Instrumentation and clinical results,” in Future Directions and Applications in Photodynamic Therapy, C. J. Gomer, ed., Vol. IS06 of SPIE Institutes Series (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1990), pp. 249–271.

D. Braichotte, G. Wagnières, Ph. Monnier, M. Savary, R. Bays, H. van den Bergh, A. Châtelain, “Endoscopic tissue autofluorescence measurements in the upper aerodigestive tract and the bronchi,” in Future Trends in Biomedical Applications of Lasers, L. O. Svaasand, ed., Proc. SPIE1525, 211–218 (1991).

G. Wagnières, Ch. Depeursinge, Ph. Monnier, M. Savary, P. Cornaz, A. Châtelain, H. van den Bergh, “Photodetection of early cancer by laser induced fluorescence of a tumor-selective dye: apparatus design and realization,” in Photodynamic Therapy: Mechanisms II, T. J. Dougherty, ed., Proc. SPIE1203, 43–52 (1990).

Weber-Chapuis, K.

P. Jichlinski, H.-J. Leisinger, M. Forrer, J. Mizeret, Th. Glanzmann, G. Wagnières, H. van den Bergh, L. Guilloud, K. Weber-Chapuis, C. Schindler, A. Pannatier, F. Schmidlin, J. F. Bolle, P. Graber, “Clinical evaluation of a screening method of bladder transitional cell carcinoma by induced fluorescence of Protoporphyrin IX with topical application of delta-aminolevulinic acid. Preliminary results,” Lasers Surg. Med. 20, 402–408 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Westermann, P.

D. Braichotte, J.-F. Savary, P. Westermann, T. Glanzmann, S. Folli, G. Wagnières, Ph. Monnier, H. van den Bergh, “Clinical pharmacokineticstudiesoftetra(metahydroxyphenyl)-chlorin in squamous cell carcinoma by fluorescence spectroscopy at two wavelengths,” Int. J. Cancer 63, 198–204 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, Y. Ye, F. Li, Y. Li, P. Ma, “Characteristic autofluorescence for cancer diagnosis and its origin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 7, 528–532 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yashke, P. N.

P. N. Yashke, R. F. Bonner, P. Cohen, M. B. Leon, D. E. Fleischer, “Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy may distinguish colon cancer from normal human colon,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 35, 184 (1989).

Ye, Y.

Y. Yang, Y. Ye, F. Li, Y. Li, P. Ma, “Characteristic autofluorescence for cancer diagnosis and its origin,” Lasers Surg. Med. 7, 528–532 (1987).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fluorescence emission spectra of Photofrin II and of a human bronchi (tissue autofluorescence).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Principle of real-time image processing for multispectral LIF cancer detection. See text for more information concerning the processing performed with both background and foreground images. (A/D) CONV., analog-to-digital converter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Block diagram of the photodetection apparatus.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Frontal light diffuser for wide-field homogenous illumination. PTFE, poly(tetrafluoroethylene).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Frontal light diffuser for tubular organs.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Doughnut effect that is due to an inhomogeneous illumination of the investigated area (see text).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectral design of the photodetection apparatus (see text).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Photodetection performed in the esophagus: (a) color endoscopic image obtained under white-light illumination, (b) result.

Equations (1)

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A = Φ L K 1 ( A PII + A T ) , tumor foreground ; B = Φ L K 2 B T , tumor background ; C = Φ N K 1 ( C PII + C T ) , normal foreground ; D = Φ N K 2 D T , normal background ;

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