Abstract

An optical sensor for the dynamic measurement of proximity is presented. The sensor combines an extrinsic geometric transducer with interferometric encoding for high vibration sensitivity. Static calibration showed a unique variation in interference contrast over at least 60 fringes, leading to a measurement range of 20 µm and a resolution of at least 0.033µm. Dynamic excitation by using low-amplitude vibrations at 3.6 kHz showed a similar contrast variation, verifying fringe discrimination up to the sixth order. With verification of dynamic performance over all 60 fringes, the sensor should offer a low-cost approach to vibration monitoring in electrical switchgear.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Baker, Introduction to Vibration—A Handbook (Ling Dynamic Systems, Royston, England, 1995).
  2. D. A. Krohn, “Fiber optic sensors—intensity modulation,” Photon. Spectra 21, 59–70 (1987).
  3. D. A. Krohn, “Fiber optic sensors—phase modulation,” Photon. Spectra 21, 61–66 (1987).
  4. P. Sladký, M. Dienstbier, O. Ulmann, “U-tube vibration monitoring with fiber optic proximity sensors for liquid densitometry,” Sensors Actuators B 11, 511–514 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Kitajima, J. Takagi, T. Yamashita, “Microdisplacement sensor using a polarization-maintaining optical fiber,” Sensors Actuators A A21-A23, 442–444 (1990).
  6. R. O. Cook, C. W. Hamm, “Fiber optic lever displacement transducer,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3230–3241 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Yamashita, J. Takagi, “Integrated optic microdisplacement sensor using two asymmetric X junction and a rod lens, ” in Proceedings of OFS’86, Optical Fiber Sensors, 1986, Tokyo, Japan (1986), pp. 19–22.
  8. H. Hosokawa, J. Takagi, T. Yamashita, “Integrated optic microdisplacement sensor using two asymmetric Y junction and a polarization-maintaining fiber,” Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 2 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 137–140.

1993 (1)

P. Sladký, M. Dienstbier, O. Ulmann, “U-tube vibration monitoring with fiber optic proximity sensors for liquid densitometry,” Sensors Actuators B 11, 511–514 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

H. Kitajima, J. Takagi, T. Yamashita, “Microdisplacement sensor using a polarization-maintaining optical fiber,” Sensors Actuators A A21-A23, 442–444 (1990).

1987 (2)

D. A. Krohn, “Fiber optic sensors—intensity modulation,” Photon. Spectra 21, 59–70 (1987).

D. A. Krohn, “Fiber optic sensors—phase modulation,” Photon. Spectra 21, 61–66 (1987).

1979 (1)

Baker, R.

R. Baker, Introduction to Vibration—A Handbook (Ling Dynamic Systems, Royston, England, 1995).

Cook, R. O.

Dienstbier, M.

P. Sladký, M. Dienstbier, O. Ulmann, “U-tube vibration monitoring with fiber optic proximity sensors for liquid densitometry,” Sensors Actuators B 11, 511–514 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hamm, C. W.

Hosokawa, H.

H. Hosokawa, J. Takagi, T. Yamashita, “Integrated optic microdisplacement sensor using two asymmetric Y junction and a polarization-maintaining fiber,” Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 2 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 137–140.

Kitajima, H.

H. Kitajima, J. Takagi, T. Yamashita, “Microdisplacement sensor using a polarization-maintaining optical fiber,” Sensors Actuators A A21-A23, 442–444 (1990).

Krohn, D. A.

D. A. Krohn, “Fiber optic sensors—intensity modulation,” Photon. Spectra 21, 59–70 (1987).

D. A. Krohn, “Fiber optic sensors—phase modulation,” Photon. Spectra 21, 61–66 (1987).

Sladký, P.

P. Sladký, M. Dienstbier, O. Ulmann, “U-tube vibration monitoring with fiber optic proximity sensors for liquid densitometry,” Sensors Actuators B 11, 511–514 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Takagi, J.

H. Kitajima, J. Takagi, T. Yamashita, “Microdisplacement sensor using a polarization-maintaining optical fiber,” Sensors Actuators A A21-A23, 442–444 (1990).

H. Hosokawa, J. Takagi, T. Yamashita, “Integrated optic microdisplacement sensor using two asymmetric Y junction and a polarization-maintaining fiber,” Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 2 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 137–140.

T. Yamashita, J. Takagi, “Integrated optic microdisplacement sensor using two asymmetric X junction and a rod lens, ” in Proceedings of OFS’86, Optical Fiber Sensors, 1986, Tokyo, Japan (1986), pp. 19–22.

Ulmann, O.

P. Sladký, M. Dienstbier, O. Ulmann, “U-tube vibration monitoring with fiber optic proximity sensors for liquid densitometry,” Sensors Actuators B 11, 511–514 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, T.

H. Kitajima, J. Takagi, T. Yamashita, “Microdisplacement sensor using a polarization-maintaining optical fiber,” Sensors Actuators A A21-A23, 442–444 (1990).

H. Hosokawa, J. Takagi, T. Yamashita, “Integrated optic microdisplacement sensor using two asymmetric Y junction and a polarization-maintaining fiber,” Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 2 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 137–140.

T. Yamashita, J. Takagi, “Integrated optic microdisplacement sensor using two asymmetric X junction and a rod lens, ” in Proceedings of OFS’86, Optical Fiber Sensors, 1986, Tokyo, Japan (1986), pp. 19–22.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Photon. Spectra (2)

D. A. Krohn, “Fiber optic sensors—intensity modulation,” Photon. Spectra 21, 59–70 (1987).

D. A. Krohn, “Fiber optic sensors—phase modulation,” Photon. Spectra 21, 61–66 (1987).

Sensors Actuators A (1)

H. Kitajima, J. Takagi, T. Yamashita, “Microdisplacement sensor using a polarization-maintaining optical fiber,” Sensors Actuators A A21-A23, 442–444 (1990).

Sensors Actuators B (1)

P. Sladký, M. Dienstbier, O. Ulmann, “U-tube vibration monitoring with fiber optic proximity sensors for liquid densitometry,” Sensors Actuators B 11, 511–514 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

T. Yamashita, J. Takagi, “Integrated optic microdisplacement sensor using two asymmetric X junction and a rod lens, ” in Proceedings of OFS’86, Optical Fiber Sensors, 1986, Tokyo, Japan (1986), pp. 19–22.

H. Hosokawa, J. Takagi, T. Yamashita, “Integrated optic microdisplacement sensor using two asymmetric Y junction and a polarization-maintaining fiber,” Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 2 of 1988 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), pp. 137–140.

R. Baker, Introduction to Vibration—A Handbook (Ling Dynamic Systems, Royston, England, 1995).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic for fiber-optic sensors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sensor design.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sensor calibration curve.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sensor response to dynamic excitation at 3.6 kHz when two vibration amplitudes are used: a, 0.17 µm (≡1/2 fringe or λ/4 displacement); b, 2.04 µm (≡6 fringes or 3λ displacement).

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