Abstract

A new method for measuring the refractive-index difference of a liquid has been developed. The liquid to be measured is contained in a 60-mm-diameter, cylindrical glass cell, and a He–Ne laser light is passed into the cell so that the laser light incidence fulfills the condition of minimum deviation. In this condition, the beam emerging from the cell has a fine interference fringe. The position of the interference fringe is read out as a marker to measure the deflection of the laser light. Directly reading the peak shift of the interference fringe makes it easy to obtain the refractive index difference of the liquid with a fairly high precision of at least 6 × 10-6. Further high precision is potentially expected to be realized by use of an improved data analysis treatment of the overall interference fringe pattern.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. A. Jenkins, H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics, 4th ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1976), pp. 25–28.
  2. Z. B. A. Brice, M. Halwer, “A differential refractometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 41, 1033–1037 (1951).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Svanberg, Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy, 2nd ed. (Springer–Verlag, New York, 1992), pp. 61–64.
  4. E. Hecht, Optics, 2nd ed. (Addison–Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1987), p. 165.
  5. Chemical Society of Japan, ed., Table for Chemistry (Maruzen, Tokyo, 1966), p. 1112.

1951 (1)

Brice, Z. B. A.

Halwer, M.

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht, Optics, 2nd ed. (Addison–Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1987), p. 165.

Jenkins, F. A.

F. A. Jenkins, H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics, 4th ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1976), pp. 25–28.

Svanberg, S.

S. Svanberg, Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy, 2nd ed. (Springer–Verlag, New York, 1992), pp. 61–64.

White, H. E.

F. A. Jenkins, H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics, 4th ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1976), pp. 25–28.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Other (4)

S. Svanberg, Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy, 2nd ed. (Springer–Verlag, New York, 1992), pp. 61–64.

E. Hecht, Optics, 2nd ed. (Addison–Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1987), p. 165.

Chemical Society of Japan, ed., Table for Chemistry (Maruzen, Tokyo, 1966), p. 1112.

F. A. Jenkins, H. E. White, Fundamentals of Optics, 4th ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1976), pp. 25–28.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup used in the measurement of the refractivity of water.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Interference fringe observed when the condition of minimum deviation is fulfilled. This was taken 1 m from the cell.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Deviation angle θ versus incident angle near the second minimum deviation, which was obtained with the experimental setup shown in Fig. 1. Pure water at 21.0 °C was used. The incident angle means the angle between the incident light and the normal at the incident position on the cell.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relationship between the displacement length of the fringe on the display and the content of sugar in the water. The temperature of the water is 12.0 °C.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relationship between the displacement length of the interference fringe on the display and the temperature of water: (a) pure water, (b) river water, and (c) a small channel flowing through Fukui.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Deflection Angle of Minimum Deviation θ m at p = 1 (First Minimum Deviation), p = 2 (Second Minimum Deviation), and p = 3 (Third Minimum Deviation), and the Variation in the Deflection Angle θ due to a Change of 1 × 10-3 in the Refractive Index of Water, δ.

Equations (5)

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r=sin-11n sin i,
θ=2i-r+pπ-2r,
cos im=n2-1p+12-11/2,
dθmdn=-2np+12-n2n2-11/2+2p+11-1n sin im21/2×sin imn2+1p+12-11/2p+12-n21/2.
n=sinδm+α/2sina2,

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