Abstract

Bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) measurements of a number of diffuse extreme ultraviolet (EUV) scatterers and EUV baffle materials have been performed with the Goddard EUV scatterometer. BRDF data are presented for white Spectralon SRS-99 at 121.6 nm; the data exhibit a non-Lambertian nature and a total hemispherical reflectance lower than 0.15. Data are also presented for an evaporated Cu black sample, a black Spectralon SRS-02 sample, and a Martin Optical Black sample at wavelengths of 58.4 and 121.6 nm and for angles of incidence of 15° and 45°. Overall Martin Optical Black exhibited the lowest BRDF characteristic, with a total hemispherical reflectance of the order of 0.01 and measured BRDF values as low as 2 × 10-3 sr-1.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. P. Breault, “Stray light technology overview in 1988,” in Stray Light and Contamination in Optical Systems, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE967, 2–9 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  2. R. P. Breault, “Stray light technology overview of the 1980 decade (and a peek into the future),” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE1331, 2–11 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  3. P. Jelinsky, S. Jelinsky, “Low reflectance EUV materials: a comparative study,” Appl. Opt. 26, 613–615 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. S. M. Pompea, D. F. Sheperd, S. Anderson, “BRDF measurements at 6328 angstroms and 10.6 micrometers of optical black surfaces for space telescopes,” in Stray Light and Contamination in Optical Systems, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE967, 236–247 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. M. Pompea, “Common black baffle surfaces for telescopes and cryogenic infrared instruments,” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems III, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE2260, 29–32 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  6. R. P. Breault, S. M. Pompea, “Black surfaces for optical systems,” in Handbook of Optics, 2nd ed., M. Bass, ed. (McGraw–Hill, New York, 1995), pp. 37.1–37.70.
  7. S. H. C. P. McCall, R. L. Sinclair, S. P. Pompea, R. P. Breault, “Spectrally selective surfaces for ground and space-based instrumentation: support for a resource base,” in Space Astronomical Telescopes and Instruments II, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE1945, 497–504 (1993).
  8. S. M. Smith, “Specular reflectance of optical black-coatings in the far-infrared,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2311–2326 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  9. S. M. Smith, “The reflectance of Ames 24E, infrablack and Martin Black,” in Stray Light and Contamination in Optical Systems, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE967, 248–254 (1988).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  13. M. Bass, ed., Handbook of Optics Vol. II, 2nd ed. (McGraw–Hill, New York, 1995), pp. 37.23–37.29.
  14. T. Zurbuchen, P. Bochsler, F. Scholze, “Reflection of ultraviolet light at 121.6 nm from rough surfaces,” Opt Eng. 34, 1303–1315 (1995).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. Labsphere, Inc., Labsphere Technical Catalog (Labsphere, Inc., North Sutton, N.H., 1995), pp. 130–134
  17. J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering: Measurement and Analysis (McGraw–Hill, New York, 1990), Chap. 7, p. 157.

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

T. Zurbuchen, P. Bochsler, F. Scholze, “Reflection of ultraviolet light at 121.6 nm from rough surfaces,” Opt Eng. 34, 1303–1315 (1995).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

1984 (1)

1968 (1)

1967 (1)

Anderson, S.

S. M. Pompea, D. F. Sheperd, S. Anderson, “BRDF measurements at 6328 angstroms and 10.6 micrometers of optical black surfaces for space telescopes,” in Stray Light and Contamination in Optical Systems, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE967, 236–247 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bochsler, P.

T. Zurbuchen, P. Bochsler, F. Scholze, “Reflection of ultraviolet light at 121.6 nm from rough surfaces,” Opt Eng. 34, 1303–1315 (1995).
[Crossref]

Breault, R. P.

S. H. C. P. McCall, R. L. Sinclair, S. P. Pompea, R. P. Breault, “Spectrally selective surfaces for ground and space-based instrumentation: support for a resource base,” in Space Astronomical Telescopes and Instruments II, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE1945, 497–504 (1993).

R. P. Breault, “Stray light technology overview in 1988,” in Stray Light and Contamination in Optical Systems, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE967, 2–9 (1998).
[Crossref]

R. P. Breault, “Stray light technology overview of the 1980 decade (and a peek into the future),” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE1331, 2–11 (1990).
[Crossref]

R. P. Breault, S. M. Pompea, “Black surfaces for optical systems,” in Handbook of Optics, 2nd ed., M. Bass, ed. (McGraw–Hill, New York, 1995), pp. 37.1–37.70.

Canfield, L. R.

Jelinsky, P.

Jelinsky, S.

Johnson, M. C.

Johnston, R. G.

Keski-Kuha, R. A. M.

Madden, R. P.

Mattsson, L.

L. Mattsson, “Instrument for angle-resolved measurement of scattered light in the VUV-visible wavelength region,” in Measurement and Effects of Surface Defects and Quality of Polish, H. E. Bennett, ed., Proc. SPIE525, 189–196 (1985).
[Crossref]

McCall, S. H. C. P.

S. H. C. P. McCall, R. L. Sinclair, S. P. Pompea, R. P. Breault, “Spectrally selective surfaces for ground and space-based instrumentation: support for a resource base,” in Space Astronomical Telescopes and Instruments II, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE1945, 497–504 (1993).

Newell, M. P.

Pompea, S. M.

R. P. Breault, S. M. Pompea, “Black surfaces for optical systems,” in Handbook of Optics, 2nd ed., M. Bass, ed. (McGraw–Hill, New York, 1995), pp. 37.1–37.70.

S. M. Pompea, “Common black baffle surfaces for telescopes and cryogenic infrared instruments,” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems III, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE2260, 29–32 (1994).
[Crossref]

S. M. Pompea, D. F. Sheperd, S. Anderson, “BRDF measurements at 6328 angstroms and 10.6 micrometers of optical black surfaces for space telescopes,” in Stray Light and Contamination in Optical Systems, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE967, 236–247 (1998).
[Crossref]

Pompea, S. P.

S. H. C. P. McCall, R. L. Sinclair, S. P. Pompea, R. P. Breault, “Spectrally selective surfaces for ground and space-based instrumentation: support for a resource base,” in Space Astronomical Telescopes and Instruments II, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE1945, 497–504 (1993).

Scholze, F.

T. Zurbuchen, P. Bochsler, F. Scholze, “Reflection of ultraviolet light at 121.6 nm from rough surfaces,” Opt Eng. 34, 1303–1315 (1995).
[Crossref]

Sheperd, D. F.

S. M. Pompea, D. F. Sheperd, S. Anderson, “BRDF measurements at 6328 angstroms and 10.6 micrometers of optical black surfaces for space telescopes,” in Stray Light and Contamination in Optical Systems, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE967, 236–247 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sinclair, R. L.

S. H. C. P. McCall, R. L. Sinclair, S. P. Pompea, R. P. Breault, “Spectrally selective surfaces for ground and space-based instrumentation: support for a resource base,” in Space Astronomical Telescopes and Instruments II, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE1945, 497–504 (1993).

Smith, S. M.

S. M. Smith, “Specular reflectance of optical black-coatings in the far-infrared,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2311–2326 (1984).
[Crossref]

S. M. Smith, “The reflectance of Ames 24E, infrablack and Martin Black,” in Stray Light and Contamination in Optical Systems, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE967, 248–254 (1988).
[Crossref]

Stover, J. C.

J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering: Measurement and Analysis (McGraw–Hill, New York, 1990), Chap. 7, p. 157.

Zurbuchen, T.

T. Zurbuchen, P. Bochsler, F. Scholze, “Reflection of ultraviolet light at 121.6 nm from rough surfaces,” Opt Eng. 34, 1303–1315 (1995).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Opt Eng. (1)

T. Zurbuchen, P. Bochsler, F. Scholze, “Reflection of ultraviolet light at 121.6 nm from rough surfaces,” Opt Eng. 34, 1303–1315 (1995).
[Crossref]

Other (11)

Labsphere, Inc., Labsphere Technical Catalog (Labsphere, Inc., North Sutton, N.H., 1995), pp. 130–134

J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering: Measurement and Analysis (McGraw–Hill, New York, 1990), Chap. 7, p. 157.

L. Mattsson, “Instrument for angle-resolved measurement of scattered light in the VUV-visible wavelength region,” in Measurement and Effects of Surface Defects and Quality of Polish, H. E. Bennett, ed., Proc. SPIE525, 189–196 (1985).
[Crossref]

M. Bass, ed., Handbook of Optics Vol. II, 2nd ed. (McGraw–Hill, New York, 1995), pp. 37.23–37.29.

S. M. Smith, “The reflectance of Ames 24E, infrablack and Martin Black,” in Stray Light and Contamination in Optical Systems, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE967, 248–254 (1988).
[Crossref]

R. P. Breault, “Stray light technology overview in 1988,” in Stray Light and Contamination in Optical Systems, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE967, 2–9 (1998).
[Crossref]

R. P. Breault, “Stray light technology overview of the 1980 decade (and a peek into the future),” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE1331, 2–11 (1990).
[Crossref]

S. M. Pompea, D. F. Sheperd, S. Anderson, “BRDF measurements at 6328 angstroms and 10.6 micrometers of optical black surfaces for space telescopes,” in Stray Light and Contamination in Optical Systems, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE967, 236–247 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. M. Pompea, “Common black baffle surfaces for telescopes and cryogenic infrared instruments,” in Stray Radiation in Optical Systems III, R. P. Breault, ed., Proc. SPIE2260, 29–32 (1994).
[Crossref]

R. P. Breault, S. M. Pompea, “Black surfaces for optical systems,” in Handbook of Optics, 2nd ed., M. Bass, ed. (McGraw–Hill, New York, 1995), pp. 37.1–37.70.

S. H. C. P. McCall, R. L. Sinclair, S. P. Pompea, R. P. Breault, “Spectrally selective surfaces for ground and space-based instrumentation: support for a resource base,” in Space Astronomical Telescopes and Instruments II, P. Y. Bely, J. B. Breckinridge, eds., Proc. SPIE1945, 497–504 (1993).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of scatterometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

BRDF of a white Spectralon SRS-99 sample at 121.6 nm and 15° angle of incidence.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparative plot showing the BRDF distributions at 58.4 nm and 15° angle of incidence of a black Spectralon SRS-02 sample, an evaporated Cu black sample, and a Martin Black sample. The dotted line shows the BRDF of a perfect Lambertian surface.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparative plot showing the BRDF distributions at 58.4 nm and 45° angle of incidence of a black Spectralon SRS-02 sample, an evaporated Cu black sample, and a Martin Black sample. The dotted line shows the BRDF of a perfect Lambertian surface.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparative plot showing the BRDF distributions at 121.6 nm and 15° angle of incidence of a black Spectralon SRS-02 sample, an evaporated Cu black sample, and a Martin Black sample. The dotted line shows the BRDF of a perfect Lambertian surface.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparative plot showing the BRDF distributions at 121.6nm and 45° angle of incidence of a black Spectralon SRS-2 sample, an evaporated Cu black sample, and a Martin Black sample. The dotted line shows the BRDF of a perfect Lambertian surface.

Equations (2)

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BRDFθi, θs=dPs/dΩsPi cos θs,
R=πC.

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