Abstract

A new scatterometer–polarimeter is described. It measures the angular distribution of intensity and of the complete Mueller matrix of light scattered by rough surfaces and particle suspensions. The measurement time is 1 s/scattering angle in the present configuration but can be reduced to a few milliseconds with modified electronics. The instrument uses polarization modulation and a Fourier analysis of four detected signals to obtain the 16 Mueller matrix elements. This method is particularly well suited to online, real time, industrial process control involving rough surfaces and large particle suspensions (an arithmetic roughness or particle diameter of >1 µm). Some results are given.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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1995

B. Griffiths, R. Middleton, B. Wilkie, “Three-dimensional surface measurement using light scattering,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manufact. 35, 141–145 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Mathia, H. Zahouani, J. Rousseau, J. C. Le Bosse, “Functional significance of different techniques for surface morphology measurements,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manufact. 35, 195–202 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

1992

1991

C. Gorecki, “Caractérisation ou qualification optique de surface en production,” Bull. Soc. Fr. Mécan. 1991–2, 125–131 (1991).

E. Bois, “Mesure en continu de profil de rugosité sur ligne de production de tôle d’acier,” Bull. Soc. Fr. Mécan. 1991–2, 119–123 (1991).

R. M. A. Azzam, K. A. Giardina, A. G. Lopez, “Conventional and generalized Mueller-matrix ellipsometry using the four-detector photopolarimeter,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1583–1588 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

1987

1986

1985

1982

R. M. A. Azzam, “Division-of-amplitude photopolarimeter (DOAP) for the simultaneous measurement of all 4 Stokes parameters of light,” Opt. Acta 29, 685–689 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980

1978

1973

A. J. Hunt, D. R. Huffman, “A new polarization-modulated light scattering instrument,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 1753–1762 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, R.

Azzam, R. M. A.

Bashara, N. M.

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1987), pp. 490–492.

Bois, E.

E. Bois, “Mesure en continu de profil de rugosité sur ligne de production de tôle d’acier,” Bull. Soc. Fr. Mécan. 1991–2, 119–123 (1991).

Bottiger, J. R.

Chipman, R. A.

Fry, E. S.

Giardina, K. A.

R. M. A. Azzam, K. A. Giardina, A. G. Lopez, “Conventional and generalized Mueller-matrix ellipsometry using the four-detector photopolarimeter,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1583–1588 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Goldstein, D. H.

Gorecki, C.

C. Gorecki, “Caractérisation ou qualification optique de surface en production,” Bull. Soc. Fr. Mécan. 1991–2, 125–131 (1991).

Griffiths, B.

B. Griffiths, R. Middleton, B. Wilkie, “Three-dimensional surface measurement using light scattering,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manufact. 35, 141–145 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D. R.

A. J. Hunt, D. R. Huffman, “A new polarization-modulated light scattering instrument,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 1753–1762 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Hunt, A. J.

A. J. Hunt, D. R. Huffman, “A new polarization-modulated light scattering instrument,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 1753–1762 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Jellison, G. E.

Krishnan, S.

Le Bosse, J. C.

T. Mathia, H. Zahouani, J. Rousseau, J. C. Le Bosse, “Functional significance of different techniques for surface morphology measurements,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manufact. 35, 195–202 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, A. G.

R. M. A. Azzam, K. A. Giardina, A. G. Lopez, “Conventional and generalized Mueller-matrix ellipsometry using the four-detector photopolarimeter,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1583–1588 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mathia, T.

T. Mathia, H. Zahouani, J. Rousseau, J. C. Le Bosse, “Functional significance of different techniques for surface morphology measurements,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manufact. 35, 195–202 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Middleton, R.

B. Griffiths, R. Middleton, B. Wilkie, “Three-dimensional surface measurement using light scattering,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manufact. 35, 141–145 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nordine, P. C.

Rousseau, J.

T. Mathia, H. Zahouani, J. Rousseau, J. C. Le Bosse, “Functional significance of different techniques for surface morphology measurements,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manufact. 35, 195–202 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, R. C.

Wilkie, B.

B. Griffiths, R. Middleton, B. Wilkie, “Three-dimensional surface measurement using light scattering,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manufact. 35, 141–145 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zahouani, H.

T. Mathia, H. Zahouani, J. Rousseau, J. C. Le Bosse, “Functional significance of different techniques for surface morphology measurements,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manufact. 35, 195–202 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Bull. Soc. Fr. Mécan.

C. Gorecki, “Caractérisation ou qualification optique de surface en production,” Bull. Soc. Fr. Mécan. 1991–2, 125–131 (1991).

E. Bois, “Mesure en continu de profil de rugosité sur ligne de production de tôle d’acier,” Bull. Soc. Fr. Mécan. 1991–2, 119–123 (1991).

Int. J. Mach. Tools Manufact.

B. Griffiths, R. Middleton, B. Wilkie, “Three-dimensional surface measurement using light scattering,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manufact. 35, 141–145 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Mathia, H. Zahouani, J. Rousseau, J. C. Le Bosse, “Functional significance of different techniques for surface morphology measurements,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manufact. 35, 195–202 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Acta

R. M. A. Azzam, “Division-of-amplitude photopolarimeter (DOAP) for the simultaneous measurement of all 4 Stokes parameters of light,” Opt. Acta 29, 685–689 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

R. M. A. Azzam, K. A. Giardina, A. G. Lopez, “Conventional and generalized Mueller-matrix ellipsometry using the four-detector photopolarimeter,” Opt. Eng. 30, 1583–1588 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

A. J. Hunt, D. R. Huffman, “A new polarization-modulated light scattering instrument,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 1753–1762 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1987), pp. 490–492.

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