Abstract

Improved parameters for the description of Rayleigh scattering in air and for the detailed rotational Raman scattering component for scattering by O2 and N2 are presented for the wavelength range 200–1000 nm. These parameters enable more accurate calculations to be made of bulk molecular scattering and of the Ring effect for a variety of atmospheric radiative transfer and constituent retrieval applications. A solar reference spectrum with accurate absolute vacuum wavelength calibration, suitable for convolution with the rotational Raman spectrum for Ring effect calculations, has been produced at 0.01-nm resolution from several sources. It is convolved with the rotational Raman spectra of O2 and N2 to produce an atmospheric Ring effect source spectrum.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. F. Grainger, J. Ring, “Anomalous Fraunhofer line profiles,” Nature (London) 193, 762 (1962).
  2. J. Noxon, R. Goody, “Noncoherent scattering of skylight,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 1, 163–166 (1965).
  3. D. M. Hunten, “Surface albedo and the filling-in of Fraunhofer lines in the day sky,” Astrophys. J. 159, 1107–1110 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. W. Kattawar, A. T. Young, T. J. Humphreys, “Inelastic scattering in planetary atmospheres. I. The Ring effect, without aerosols,” Astrophys. J. 243, 1049–1057 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. T. Young, “Rayleigh scattering,” Appl. Opt. 20, 522–535 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Solomon, A. L. Schmeltekopf, R. W. Sanders, “On the interpretation of zenith sky absorption measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8311–8319 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, “Rotational Raman scattering and the Ring effect in zenith-sky spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 811–814 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. V. Chance, J. P. Burrows, W. Schneider, “Retrieval and molecule sensitivity studies for the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment and the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY,” in Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Chemistry, J. L. McElroy, R. J. McNeal, eds., Proc. SPIE, 1491, 151–165 (1991a).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. P. Burrows, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, R. Guzzi, B. J. Kerridge, C. Muller, D. Perner, U. Platt, J.-P. Pommereau, W. Schneider, R. J. Spurr, H. van der Woerd, Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment Interim Science Report, T. D. Guyenne, C. Readings, eds. , (ESA Publications Division, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1993).
  10. J. Joiner, P. K. Bhartia, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, R. D. McPeters, H. Park, “Rotational Raman scattering (Ring effect) in satellite backscatter ultraviolet measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4513–4525 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Joiner, P. K. Bhartia, “The determination of cloud pressures from rotational Raman scattering in satellite backscatter ultraviolet measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23,019–23,026 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Study of the Ring Effect, Final Report, (ESA, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996).
  13. A. Kuze, K. V. Chance, “Analysis of cloud-top height and cloud coverage from satellites using the O2 A and B bands,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 14,481–14,491 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Bussemer, “Der Ring-effekt: Ursachen und einfluβ auf die spektroskopische messung stratosphärischer spurenstoffe,” Diplomarbeit, (Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany, 1993).
  15. C. M. Penney, R. L. St. Peters, M. Lapp, “Absolute rotational Raman cross sections for N2, O2, and CO2,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 712–716 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. R. Bates, “Rayleigh scattering by air,” Planet. Space Scy. 32, 785–790 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L. V. King, “On the complex anisotropic molecule in relation to the dispersion and scattering of light,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 104, 333–357 (1923).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Nicolet, “On the molecular scattering in the terrestrial atmosphere: an empirical formula for its calculation in the homosphure,” Planet. Space Sci. 32, 1467–1468 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Bucholtz, “Rayleigh-scattering calculations for the terrestrial atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2765–2773 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R.H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. Placzek, E. Teller, “Die rotationnstruktur der Ramanbanden mehratomiger moleküle,” Z. Phys. 81, 209–258 (1933).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. L. Renschler, J. L. Hunt, T. K. McCubbin, S. R. Polo, “Triplet structure of the rotational Raman spectrum of oxygen,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 31, 173–176 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Loëte, H. Berger, “High resolution Raman spectroscopy of the fundamental vibrational band of 16O2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 68, 317–325 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  24. N. H. Rich, D. W. Lepard, “Spin structure in the Raman spectrum of oxygen,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 38, 549–551 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. Tinkham, M. W. P. Strandberg, “Theory of the fine structure of the molecular oxygen ground state,” Phys. Rev. 97, 937–951 (1955).
    [CrossRef]
  26. K. Altmann, G. Strey, J. G. Hochenbleicher, J. Brandmüller, “Simulation des intensitätsverlaufs im Raman-spektrum von sauerstoff unter berücksichtigung der spinaufspaltung,” Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 27, 56–64 (1972).
  27. M. Mizushima, R. M. Hill, “Microwave spectrum of O2,” Phys. Rev. 93, 745–748 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  28. K. S. Jammu, G. E. St. John, H.L. Welsh, “Pressure broadening of the rotational Raman lines of some simple gases,” Can. J. Phys. 44, 797–815 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  29. K. V. Chance, W. A. Traub, K.W. Jucks, D. G. Johnson, “On the use of O2 spin-rotation lines for elevation angle calibration of atmospheric thermal emission spectra,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 12, 581–588 (1991b).
    [CrossRef]
  30. R. L. Kurucz, I. Furenlid, J. Brault, L. Testerman, Solar Flux Atlas from 296 to 1300 nm (National Solar Observatory, Sunspot, New Mexico, 1984) 240 pp.
  31. L. A. Hall, G. P. Anderson, “High-resolution solar spectrum between 200 and 3100 Å,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 12,927–12,931 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

1995 (4)

D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, “Rotational Raman scattering and the Ring effect in zenith-sky spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 811–814 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Joiner, P. K. Bhartia, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, R. D. McPeters, H. Park, “Rotational Raman scattering (Ring effect) in satellite backscatter ultraviolet measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4513–4525 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Joiner, P. K. Bhartia, “The determination of cloud pressures from rotational Raman scattering in satellite backscatter ultraviolet measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23,019–23,026 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Bucholtz, “Rayleigh-scattering calculations for the terrestrial atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2765–2773 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

A. Kuze, K. V. Chance, “Analysis of cloud-top height and cloud coverage from satellites using the O2 A and B bands,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 14,481–14,491 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R.H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

L. A. Hall, G. P. Anderson, “High-resolution solar spectrum between 200 and 3100 Å,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 12,927–12,931 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

S. Solomon, A. L. Schmeltekopf, R. W. Sanders, “On the interpretation of zenith sky absorption measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8311–8319 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

D. R. Bates, “Rayleigh scattering by air,” Planet. Space Scy. 32, 785–790 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Nicolet, “On the molecular scattering in the terrestrial atmosphere: an empirical formula for its calculation in the homosphure,” Planet. Space Sci. 32, 1467–1468 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

G. W. Kattawar, A. T. Young, T. J. Humphreys, “Inelastic scattering in planetary atmospheres. I. The Ring effect, without aerosols,” Astrophys. J. 243, 1049–1057 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. T. Young, “Rayleigh scattering,” Appl. Opt. 20, 522–535 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

M. Loëte, H. Berger, “High resolution Raman spectroscopy of the fundamental vibrational band of 16O2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 68, 317–325 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

1972 (1)

K. Altmann, G. Strey, J. G. Hochenbleicher, J. Brandmüller, “Simulation des intensitätsverlaufs im Raman-spektrum von sauerstoff unter berücksichtigung der spinaufspaltung,” Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 27, 56–64 (1972).

1971 (1)

N. H. Rich, D. W. Lepard, “Spin structure in the Raman spectrum of oxygen,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 38, 549–551 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

D. M. Hunten, “Surface albedo and the filling-in of Fraunhofer lines in the day sky,” Astrophys. J. 159, 1107–1110 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

D. L. Renschler, J. L. Hunt, T. K. McCubbin, S. R. Polo, “Triplet structure of the rotational Raman spectrum of oxygen,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 31, 173–176 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

K. S. Jammu, G. E. St. John, H.L. Welsh, “Pressure broadening of the rotational Raman lines of some simple gases,” Can. J. Phys. 44, 797–815 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

J. Noxon, R. Goody, “Noncoherent scattering of skylight,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 1, 163–166 (1965).

1962 (1)

J. F. Grainger, J. Ring, “Anomalous Fraunhofer line profiles,” Nature (London) 193, 762 (1962).

1955 (1)

M. Tinkham, M. W. P. Strandberg, “Theory of the fine structure of the molecular oxygen ground state,” Phys. Rev. 97, 937–951 (1955).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

M. Mizushima, R. M. Hill, “Microwave spectrum of O2,” Phys. Rev. 93, 745–748 (1954).
[CrossRef]

1933 (1)

G. Placzek, E. Teller, “Die rotationnstruktur der Ramanbanden mehratomiger moleküle,” Z. Phys. 81, 209–258 (1933).
[CrossRef]

1923 (1)

L. V. King, “On the complex anisotropic molecule in relation to the dispersion and scattering of light,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 104, 333–357 (1923).
[CrossRef]

Altmann, K.

K. Altmann, G. Strey, J. G. Hochenbleicher, J. Brandmüller, “Simulation des intensitätsverlaufs im Raman-spektrum von sauerstoff unter berücksichtigung der spinaufspaltung,” Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 27, 56–64 (1972).

Anderson, G. P.

L. A. Hall, G. P. Anderson, “High-resolution solar spectrum between 200 and 3100 Å,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 12,927–12,931 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bates, D. R.

D. R. Bates, “Rayleigh scattering by air,” Planet. Space Scy. 32, 785–790 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R.H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Berger, H.

M. Loëte, H. Berger, “High resolution Raman spectroscopy of the fundamental vibrational band of 16O2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 68, 317–325 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bhartia, P. K.

J. Joiner, P. K. Bhartia, “The determination of cloud pressures from rotational Raman scattering in satellite backscatter ultraviolet measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23,019–23,026 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Joiner, P. K. Bhartia, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, R. D. McPeters, H. Park, “Rotational Raman scattering (Ring effect) in satellite backscatter ultraviolet measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4513–4525 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brandmüller, J.

K. Altmann, G. Strey, J. G. Hochenbleicher, J. Brandmüller, “Simulation des intensitätsverlaufs im Raman-spektrum von sauerstoff unter berücksichtigung der spinaufspaltung,” Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 27, 56–64 (1972).

Brault, J.

R. L. Kurucz, I. Furenlid, J. Brault, L. Testerman, Solar Flux Atlas from 296 to 1300 nm (National Solar Observatory, Sunspot, New Mexico, 1984) 240 pp.

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R.H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bucholtz, A.

Burrows, J. P.

J. P. Burrows, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, R. Guzzi, B. J. Kerridge, C. Muller, D. Perner, U. Platt, J.-P. Pommereau, W. Schneider, R. J. Spurr, H. van der Woerd, Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment Interim Science Report, T. D. Guyenne, C. Readings, eds. , (ESA Publications Division, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1993).

K. V. Chance, J. P. Burrows, W. Schneider, “Retrieval and molecule sensitivity studies for the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment and the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY,” in Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Chemistry, J. L. McElroy, R. J. McNeal, eds., Proc. SPIE, 1491, 151–165 (1991a).
[CrossRef]

Bussemer, M.

M. Bussemer, “Der Ring-effekt: Ursachen und einfluβ auf die spektroskopische messung stratosphärischer spurenstoffe,” Diplomarbeit, (Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany, 1993).

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R.H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cebula, R. P.

Chance, K. V.

A. Kuze, K. V. Chance, “Analysis of cloud-top height and cloud coverage from satellites using the O2 A and B bands,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 14,481–14,491 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Chance, W. A. Traub, K.W. Jucks, D. G. Johnson, “On the use of O2 spin-rotation lines for elevation angle calibration of atmospheric thermal emission spectra,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 12, 581–588 (1991b).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Chance, J. P. Burrows, W. Schneider, “Retrieval and molecule sensitivity studies for the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment and the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY,” in Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Chemistry, J. L. McElroy, R. J. McNeal, eds., Proc. SPIE, 1491, 151–165 (1991a).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Burrows, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, R. Guzzi, B. J. Kerridge, C. Muller, D. Perner, U. Platt, J.-P. Pommereau, W. Schneider, R. J. Spurr, H. van der Woerd, Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment Interim Science Report, T. D. Guyenne, C. Readings, eds. , (ESA Publications Division, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1993).

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R.H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fish, D. J.

D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, “Rotational Raman scattering and the Ring effect in zenith-sky spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 811–814 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R.H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Furenlid, I.

R. L. Kurucz, I. Furenlid, J. Brault, L. Testerman, Solar Flux Atlas from 296 to 1300 nm (National Solar Observatory, Sunspot, New Mexico, 1984) 240 pp.

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R.H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Goede, A. P. H.

J. P. Burrows, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, R. Guzzi, B. J. Kerridge, C. Muller, D. Perner, U. Platt, J.-P. Pommereau, W. Schneider, R. J. Spurr, H. van der Woerd, Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment Interim Science Report, T. D. Guyenne, C. Readings, eds. , (ESA Publications Division, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1993).

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R.H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Goody, R.

J. Noxon, R. Goody, “Noncoherent scattering of skylight,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 1, 163–166 (1965).

Grainger, J. F.

J. F. Grainger, J. Ring, “Anomalous Fraunhofer line profiles,” Nature (London) 193, 762 (1962).

Guyenne, T. D.

J. P. Burrows, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, R. Guzzi, B. J. Kerridge, C. Muller, D. Perner, U. Platt, J.-P. Pommereau, W. Schneider, R. J. Spurr, H. van der Woerd, Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment Interim Science Report, T. D. Guyenne, C. Readings, eds. , (ESA Publications Division, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1993).

Guzzi, R.

J. P. Burrows, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, R. Guzzi, B. J. Kerridge, C. Muller, D. Perner, U. Platt, J.-P. Pommereau, W. Schneider, R. J. Spurr, H. van der Woerd, Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment Interim Science Report, T. D. Guyenne, C. Readings, eds. , (ESA Publications Division, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1993).

Hall, L. A.

L. A. Hall, G. P. Anderson, “High-resolution solar spectrum between 200 and 3100 Å,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 12,927–12,931 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hill, R. M.

M. Mizushima, R. M. Hill, “Microwave spectrum of O2,” Phys. Rev. 93, 745–748 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Hilsenrath, E.

Hochenbleicher, J. G.

K. Altmann, G. Strey, J. G. Hochenbleicher, J. Brandmüller, “Simulation des intensitätsverlaufs im Raman-spektrum von sauerstoff unter berücksichtigung der spinaufspaltung,” Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 27, 56–64 (1972).

Humphreys, T. J.

G. W. Kattawar, A. T. Young, T. J. Humphreys, “Inelastic scattering in planetary atmospheres. I. The Ring effect, without aerosols,” Astrophys. J. 243, 1049–1057 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hunt, J. L.

D. L. Renschler, J. L. Hunt, T. K. McCubbin, S. R. Polo, “Triplet structure of the rotational Raman spectrum of oxygen,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 31, 173–176 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Hunten, D. M.

D. M. Hunten, “Surface albedo and the filling-in of Fraunhofer lines in the day sky,” Astrophys. J. 159, 1107–1110 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Jammu, K. S.

K. S. Jammu, G. E. St. John, H.L. Welsh, “Pressure broadening of the rotational Raman lines of some simple gases,” Can. J. Phys. 44, 797–815 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. G.

K. V. Chance, W. A. Traub, K.W. Jucks, D. G. Johnson, “On the use of O2 spin-rotation lines for elevation angle calibration of atmospheric thermal emission spectra,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 12, 581–588 (1991b).
[CrossRef]

Joiner, J.

J. Joiner, P. K. Bhartia, R. P. Cebula, E. Hilsenrath, R. D. McPeters, H. Park, “Rotational Raman scattering (Ring effect) in satellite backscatter ultraviolet measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4513–4525 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Joiner, P. K. Bhartia, “The determination of cloud pressures from rotational Raman scattering in satellite backscatter ultraviolet measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23,019–23,026 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. L.

D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, “Rotational Raman scattering and the Ring effect in zenith-sky spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 811–814 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jucks, K.W.

K. V. Chance, W. A. Traub, K.W. Jucks, D. G. Johnson, “On the use of O2 spin-rotation lines for elevation angle calibration of atmospheric thermal emission spectra,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 12, 581–588 (1991b).
[CrossRef]

Kattawar, G. W.

G. W. Kattawar, A. T. Young, T. J. Humphreys, “Inelastic scattering in planetary atmospheres. I. The Ring effect, without aerosols,” Astrophys. J. 243, 1049–1057 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kerridge, B. J.

J. P. Burrows, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, R. Guzzi, B. J. Kerridge, C. Muller, D. Perner, U. Platt, J.-P. Pommereau, W. Schneider, R. J. Spurr, H. van der Woerd, Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment Interim Science Report, T. D. Guyenne, C. Readings, eds. , (ESA Publications Division, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1993).

King, L. V.

L. V. King, “On the complex anisotropic molecule in relation to the dispersion and scattering of light,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 104, 333–357 (1923).
[CrossRef]

Kurucz, R. L.

R. L. Kurucz, I. Furenlid, J. Brault, L. Testerman, Solar Flux Atlas from 296 to 1300 nm (National Solar Observatory, Sunspot, New Mexico, 1984) 240 pp.

Kuze, A.

A. Kuze, K. V. Chance, “Analysis of cloud-top height and cloud coverage from satellites using the O2 A and B bands,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 14,481–14,491 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lapp, M.

Lepard, D. W.

N. H. Rich, D. W. Lepard, “Spin structure in the Raman spectrum of oxygen,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 38, 549–551 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Loëte, M.

M. Loëte, H. Berger, “High resolution Raman spectroscopy of the fundamental vibrational band of 16O2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 68, 317–325 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R.H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

McCubbin, T. K.

D. L. Renschler, J. L. Hunt, T. K. McCubbin, S. R. Polo, “Triplet structure of the rotational Raman spectrum of oxygen,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 31, 173–176 (1969).
[CrossRef]

McPeters, R. D.

Mizushima, M.

M. Mizushima, R. M. Hill, “Microwave spectrum of O2,” Phys. Rev. 93, 745–748 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Muller, C.

J. P. Burrows, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, R. Guzzi, B. J. Kerridge, C. Muller, D. Perner, U. Platt, J.-P. Pommereau, W. Schneider, R. J. Spurr, H. van der Woerd, Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment Interim Science Report, T. D. Guyenne, C. Readings, eds. , (ESA Publications Division, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1993).

Nicolet, M.

M. Nicolet, “On the molecular scattering in the terrestrial atmosphere: an empirical formula for its calculation in the homosphure,” Planet. Space Sci. 32, 1467–1468 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Noxon, J.

J. Noxon, R. Goody, “Noncoherent scattering of skylight,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 1, 163–166 (1965).

Park, H.

Penney, C. M.

Perner, D.

J. P. Burrows, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, R. Guzzi, B. J. Kerridge, C. Muller, D. Perner, U. Platt, J.-P. Pommereau, W. Schneider, R. J. Spurr, H. van der Woerd, Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment Interim Science Report, T. D. Guyenne, C. Readings, eds. , (ESA Publications Division, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1993).

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R.H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Placzek, G.

G. Placzek, E. Teller, “Die rotationnstruktur der Ramanbanden mehratomiger moleküle,” Z. Phys. 81, 209–258 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Platt, U.

J. P. Burrows, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, R. Guzzi, B. J. Kerridge, C. Muller, D. Perner, U. Platt, J.-P. Pommereau, W. Schneider, R. J. Spurr, H. van der Woerd, Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment Interim Science Report, T. D. Guyenne, C. Readings, eds. , (ESA Publications Division, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1993).

Polo, S. R.

D. L. Renschler, J. L. Hunt, T. K. McCubbin, S. R. Polo, “Triplet structure of the rotational Raman spectrum of oxygen,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 31, 173–176 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Pommereau, J.-P.

J. P. Burrows, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, R. Guzzi, B. J. Kerridge, C. Muller, D. Perner, U. Platt, J.-P. Pommereau, W. Schneider, R. J. Spurr, H. van der Woerd, Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment Interim Science Report, T. D. Guyenne, C. Readings, eds. , (ESA Publications Division, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1993).

Readings, C.

J. P. Burrows, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, R. Guzzi, B. J. Kerridge, C. Muller, D. Perner, U. Platt, J.-P. Pommereau, W. Schneider, R. J. Spurr, H. van der Woerd, Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment Interim Science Report, T. D. Guyenne, C. Readings, eds. , (ESA Publications Division, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1993).

Renschler, D. L.

D. L. Renschler, J. L. Hunt, T. K. McCubbin, S. R. Polo, “Triplet structure of the rotational Raman spectrum of oxygen,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 31, 173–176 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Rich, N. H.

N. H. Rich, D. W. Lepard, “Spin structure in the Raman spectrum of oxygen,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 38, 549–551 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Ring, J.

J. F. Grainger, J. Ring, “Anomalous Fraunhofer line profiles,” Nature (London) 193, 762 (1962).

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R.H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R.H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, R. W.

S. Solomon, A. L. Schmeltekopf, R. W. Sanders, “On the interpretation of zenith sky absorption measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8311–8319 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Schmeltekopf, A. L.

S. Solomon, A. L. Schmeltekopf, R. W. Sanders, “On the interpretation of zenith sky absorption measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8311–8319 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, W.

K. V. Chance, J. P. Burrows, W. Schneider, “Retrieval and molecule sensitivity studies for the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment and the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY,” in Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Chemistry, J. L. McElroy, R. J. McNeal, eds., Proc. SPIE, 1491, 151–165 (1991a).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Burrows, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, R. Guzzi, B. J. Kerridge, C. Muller, D. Perner, U. Platt, J.-P. Pommereau, W. Schneider, R. J. Spurr, H. van der Woerd, Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment Interim Science Report, T. D. Guyenne, C. Readings, eds. , (ESA Publications Division, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1993).

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R.H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Solomon, S.

S. Solomon, A. L. Schmeltekopf, R. W. Sanders, “On the interpretation of zenith sky absorption measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8311–8319 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Spurr, R. J.

J. P. Burrows, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, R. Guzzi, B. J. Kerridge, C. Muller, D. Perner, U. Platt, J.-P. Pommereau, W. Schneider, R. J. Spurr, H. van der Woerd, Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment Interim Science Report, T. D. Guyenne, C. Readings, eds. , (ESA Publications Division, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1993).

St. John, G. E.

K. S. Jammu, G. E. St. John, H.L. Welsh, “Pressure broadening of the rotational Raman lines of some simple gases,” Can. J. Phys. 44, 797–815 (1966).
[CrossRef]

St. Peters, R. L.

Strandberg, M. W. P.

M. Tinkham, M. W. P. Strandberg, “Theory of the fine structure of the molecular oxygen ground state,” Phys. Rev. 97, 937–951 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Strey, G.

K. Altmann, G. Strey, J. G. Hochenbleicher, J. Brandmüller, “Simulation des intensitätsverlaufs im Raman-spektrum von sauerstoff unter berücksichtigung der spinaufspaltung,” Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 27, 56–64 (1972).

Teller, E.

G. Placzek, E. Teller, “Die rotationnstruktur der Ramanbanden mehratomiger moleküle,” Z. Phys. 81, 209–258 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Testerman, L.

R. L. Kurucz, I. Furenlid, J. Brault, L. Testerman, Solar Flux Atlas from 296 to 1300 nm (National Solar Observatory, Sunspot, New Mexico, 1984) 240 pp.

Tinkham, M.

M. Tinkham, M. W. P. Strandberg, “Theory of the fine structure of the molecular oxygen ground state,” Phys. Rev. 97, 937–951 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Tipping, R.H.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R.H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R.H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Traub, W. A.

K. V. Chance, W. A. Traub, K.W. Jucks, D. G. Johnson, “On the use of O2 spin-rotation lines for elevation angle calibration of atmospheric thermal emission spectra,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 12, 581–588 (1991b).
[CrossRef]

van der Woerd, H.

J. P. Burrows, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, R. Guzzi, B. J. Kerridge, C. Muller, D. Perner, U. Platt, J.-P. Pommereau, W. Schneider, R. J. Spurr, H. van der Woerd, Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment Interim Science Report, T. D. Guyenne, C. Readings, eds. , (ESA Publications Division, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1993).

Welsh, H.L.

K. S. Jammu, G. E. St. John, H.L. Welsh, “Pressure broadening of the rotational Raman lines of some simple gases,” Can. J. Phys. 44, 797–815 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Young, A. T.

A. T. Young, “Rayleigh scattering,” Appl. Opt. 20, 522–535 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Kattawar, A. T. Young, T. J. Humphreys, “Inelastic scattering in planetary atmospheres. I. The Ring effect, without aerosols,” Astrophys. J. 243, 1049–1057 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Astrophys. J. (2)

D. M. Hunten, “Surface albedo and the filling-in of Fraunhofer lines in the day sky,” Astrophys. J. 159, 1107–1110 (1970).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Kattawar, A. T. Young, T. J. Humphreys, “Inelastic scattering in planetary atmospheres. I. The Ring effect, without aerosols,” Astrophys. J. 243, 1049–1057 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

K. S. Jammu, G. E. St. John, H.L. Welsh, “Pressure broadening of the rotational Raman lines of some simple gases,” Can. J. Phys. 44, 797–815 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

D. J. Fish, R. L. Jones, “Rotational Raman scattering and the Ring effect in zenith-sky spectra,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 811–814 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves (1)

K. V. Chance, W. A. Traub, K.W. Jucks, D. G. Johnson, “On the use of O2 spin-rotation lines for elevation angle calibration of atmospheric thermal emission spectra,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 12, 581–588 (1991b).
[CrossRef]

Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. (1)

J. Noxon, R. Goody, “Noncoherent scattering of skylight,” Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 1, 163–166 (1965).

J. Geophys. Res. (4)

S. Solomon, A. L. Schmeltekopf, R. W. Sanders, “On the interpretation of zenith sky absorption measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8311–8319 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Joiner, P. K. Bhartia, “The determination of cloud pressures from rotational Raman scattering in satellite backscatter ultraviolet measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 23,019–23,026 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Kuze, K. V. Chance, “Analysis of cloud-top height and cloud coverage from satellites using the O2 A and B bands,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 14,481–14,491 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Hall, G. P. Anderson, “High-resolution solar spectrum between 200 and 3100 Å,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 12,927–12,931 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc. (3)

D. L. Renschler, J. L. Hunt, T. K. McCubbin, S. R. Polo, “Triplet structure of the rotational Raman spectrum of oxygen,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 31, 173–176 (1969).
[CrossRef]

M. Loëte, H. Berger, “High resolution Raman spectroscopy of the fundamental vibrational band of 16O2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 68, 317–325 (1977).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Rich, D. W. Lepard, “Spin structure in the Raman spectrum of oxygen,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 38, 549–551 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R.H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, D. C. Benner, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The HITRAN molecular database editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–507 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

J. F. Grainger, J. Ring, “Anomalous Fraunhofer line profiles,” Nature (London) 193, 762 (1962).

Phys. Rev. (2)

M. Tinkham, M. W. P. Strandberg, “Theory of the fine structure of the molecular oxygen ground state,” Phys. Rev. 97, 937–951 (1955).
[CrossRef]

M. Mizushima, R. M. Hill, “Microwave spectrum of O2,” Phys. Rev. 93, 745–748 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Planet. Space Sci. (1)

M. Nicolet, “On the molecular scattering in the terrestrial atmosphere: an empirical formula for its calculation in the homosphure,” Planet. Space Sci. 32, 1467–1468 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Planet. Space Scy. (1)

D. R. Bates, “Rayleigh scattering by air,” Planet. Space Scy. 32, 785–790 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

L. V. King, “On the complex anisotropic molecule in relation to the dispersion and scattering of light,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 104, 333–357 (1923).
[CrossRef]

Z. Naturforsch. Teil A (1)

K. Altmann, G. Strey, J. G. Hochenbleicher, J. Brandmüller, “Simulation des intensitätsverlaufs im Raman-spektrum von sauerstoff unter berücksichtigung der spinaufspaltung,” Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 27, 56–64 (1972).

Z. Phys. (1)

G. Placzek, E. Teller, “Die rotationnstruktur der Ramanbanden mehratomiger moleküle,” Z. Phys. 81, 209–258 (1933).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

M. Bussemer, “Der Ring-effekt: Ursachen und einfluβ auf die spektroskopische messung stratosphärischer spurenstoffe,” Diplomarbeit, (Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany, 1993).

Study of the Ring Effect, Final Report, (ESA, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1996).

K. V. Chance, J. P. Burrows, W. Schneider, “Retrieval and molecule sensitivity studies for the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment and the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY,” in Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Chemistry, J. L. McElroy, R. J. McNeal, eds., Proc. SPIE, 1491, 151–165 (1991a).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Burrows, K. V. Chance, A. P. H. Goede, R. Guzzi, B. J. Kerridge, C. Muller, D. Perner, U. Platt, J.-P. Pommereau, W. Schneider, R. J. Spurr, H. van der Woerd, Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment Interim Science Report, T. D. Guyenne, C. Readings, eds. , (ESA Publications Division, ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 1993).

R. L. Kurucz, I. Furenlid, J. Brault, L. Testerman, Solar Flux Atlas from 296 to 1300 nm (National Solar Observatory, Sunspot, New Mexico, 1984) 240 pp.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Rotational Raman cross sections for (a) N2 and (b) O2 calculated for a temperature of 250 K and an excitation wavelength of 440 nm, appropriate to investigations of the effect of the Ring effect on retrievals of atmospheric NO2 concentrations. The cross sections in this figure do not include the relative abundances of N2 and O2 in air.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Sample of the Fraunhofer reference spectrum determined in this study. (b) The same Fraunhofer spectrum, convolved with a Gaussian slit function having a half-width at 1/e intensity of 0.212 nm, appropriate to the GOME instrument in this wavelength range. (c) The Fraunhofer spectrum of (b), convolved with the rotational Raman cross sections to create a Ring effect source spectrum. The units are those of cross section × photons, corresponding to the Ring effect scattering source per air molecule at 250 K. (d) The ratio of the Ring effect source spectrum given in (c) to the Fraunhofer spectrum of (b), with a cubic polynomial subtracted off. This spectrum closely corresponds to the Ring effect spectrum used in previous studies for atmospheric spectrum correction, as discussed in the text.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Relative Rayleigh and Raman Scattering Intensitiesa

Equations (14)

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Φ0C=3160π180+13+180+cos2θ18+, Φ0W=3160π13+cos2θ, Φ0T=380π45+13+45+cos2θ9+2,
Φ0X=38π1+ρ0X+1-ρ0Xcos2θ2+ρ0X.
QR=32π3n-12FK3N02λ4,
FK=1+2γ3α¯2=6+3ρ0T6-7ρ0T=1+29.
α¯2=n-124π2N02.
nair-1×104=0.7041+315.90157.39-σ2+8.412750.429-σ2,
QR×1024cm2=3.9993×10-4σ41-1.069×10-2σ2-6.681×10-5σ4.
γO2×1024=0.07149+45.936448.2716-σ2.
γN2×1025=-6.01466+2385.57186.099-σ2.
QN,NWcm2=256π527λ4 γ2fNcPTN, J, N, J,
cPTN, J, N, J=2N+12N+12J+1×NLN0002NLNJSJ2,
cPTJJ+2=3J+1J+222J+12J+3,cPTJJ=JJ+12J-12J+3, cPTJJ-2=3JJ-122J+12J-1.
ΨJ-1,J=bJϕJ-1,J-dJϕJ+1,JΨJ+1,J=dJϕJ-1,J+bJϕJ+1,J.
ΓT=Γ296296Tn.

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