Abstract

A methodology for the absolute calibration of spectral measurements of direct solar ultraviolet radiation, performed with a Brewer spectrophotometer is presented. The method uses absolute measurements of global and diffuse solar irradiance obtained practically simultaneously at each wavelength with the direct-Sun component. On the basis of this calibration, direct-Sun spectra, measured over a wide range of solar zenith angles at a high altitude site, were used to determine the extraterrestrial solar spectrum by applying the Langley extrapolation method. Finally this spectrum is compared with a solar spectrum derived from the airborne tunable laser absorption spectrometer 3 Space Shuttle mission, showing an agreement of better than ±3%.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, “Evidence for large upward trends of ultraviolet-B radiation linked to ozone depletion,” Science 262, 1032–1034 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. Seckmeyer, B. Mayer, R. Erp, G. Bernhard, “UV-B in Germany higher in 1993 than in 1992,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 577–580 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. S. Zerefos, A. F. Bais, C. Meleti, I. C. Ziomas, “A note on the recent increase of solar UV-B radiation over northern middle latitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1245–1247 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. F. Bais, C. S. Zerefos, C. Meleti, I. C. Ziomas, K. Tourpali, “Spectral measurements of solar UV-B radiation and its relations to total ozone, SO2 and clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D3), 5199–5204 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Blumthaler, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, M. Huber, B. Mayer, “Simultaneous spectroradiometry: a study of solar UV irradiance at two altitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2805–2808 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Tug, M. E. M. Baumann, “Problems in UV-B radiation measurements in biological research. Critical remarks on current techniques and suggestions for improvements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 689–692 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, W. Ambach, “Measurements of direct and global UV spectra under varying turbidity,” in Atmospheric Radiation, K. H. Stamnes, ed. Proc. SPIE2049, 195–198 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Madronich, “Photodissociation in the atmosphere. 1: Actinic flux and the effects of ground reflections and clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 92(D8), 9740–9752 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, W. Ambach, “Total atmospheric ozone determined from spectral measurements of direct solar UV irradiance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 53–56 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. E. Mentall, J. E. Frederick, J. R. Herman, “The solar irradiance from 200 to 330 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 86(C10), 9881–9884 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Neckel, D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500 A,” Sol. Phys. 90, 205–358 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. A. Kaye, T. L. Miller, “The ATLAS series of shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2285–2288 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, R. A. Olafson, “Measurements of ozone with the Brewer ozone spectrophotometer,” in Proceedings of the Quadennial Ozone Symposium, J. London, ed. (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo., 1980), pp. 74–79.
  14. W. Vandersee, U. Kohler, “UV-observations with a Brewer Spectrophotometer at Hohenpeissenberg,” in Ozone in the Troposphere and Stratosphere, Part 2, Proceedings of the Quadennial Ozone Symposium (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo., 1992), pp. 742–745.
  15. A. F. Bais, C. S. Zerefos, K. Tourpali, “Solar UV-B measurements with a double monochromator Brewer spectrophotometer,” NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Atmospheric Studies by Optical Methods, Geomagn. Aeron. (USSR) 34(5), 196–199 (1994).
  16. Brewer MKIII Spectrophotometer Operator’s Manual, OM-BA-C190, Rev E (SCI-TEC Instruments, Inc., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, 1995).
  17. R. E. Huffman, Atmospheric Ultraviolet Remote Sensing, Vol. 52 of the International Geophysics Series (Academic, New York, 1992).
  18. M. Blumthaler, University of Innsbruck, Institute of Medical Physics, Innsbruck, Austria (personal communication, 1995).
  19. L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, R. M. Schotland, J. A. Reagan, “Extraterrestrial solar flux measurement limitations due to a Beer’s law assumption and uncertainty in local time,” Appl. Opt., 21, 1191–1195 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. R. M. Schotland, T. K. Lea, “Bias in a solar constant determination by the Langley method due to a structured atmospheric aerosol,” Appl. Opt., 25, 2486–2491 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  21. B. G. Gardiner, P. J. Kirsch, “Setting standards for European ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” , (Commission of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 1995).

1996 (1)

J. A. Kaye, T. L. Miller, “The ATLAS series of shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2285–2288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

C. S. Zerefos, A. F. Bais, C. Meleti, I. C. Ziomas, “A note on the recent increase of solar UV-B radiation over northern middle latitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1245–1247 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, W. Ambach, “Total atmospheric ozone determined from spectral measurements of direct solar UV irradiance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 53–56 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (4)

M. Blumthaler, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, M. Huber, B. Mayer, “Simultaneous spectroradiometry: a study of solar UV irradiance at two altitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2805–2808 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Tug, M. E. M. Baumann, “Problems in UV-B radiation measurements in biological research. Critical remarks on current techniques and suggestions for improvements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 689–692 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Seckmeyer, B. Mayer, R. Erp, G. Bernhard, “UV-B in Germany higher in 1993 than in 1992,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 577–580 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Bais, C. S. Zerefos, K. Tourpali, “Solar UV-B measurements with a double monochromator Brewer spectrophotometer,” NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Atmospheric Studies by Optical Methods, Geomagn. Aeron. (USSR) 34(5), 196–199 (1994).

1993 (2)

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, “Evidence for large upward trends of ultraviolet-B radiation linked to ozone depletion,” Science 262, 1032–1034 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Bais, C. S. Zerefos, C. Meleti, I. C. Ziomas, K. Tourpali, “Spectral measurements of solar UV-B radiation and its relations to total ozone, SO2 and clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D3), 5199–5204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

S. Madronich, “Photodissociation in the atmosphere. 1: Actinic flux and the effects of ground reflections and clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 92(D8), 9740–9752 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1984 (1)

H. Neckel, D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500 A,” Sol. Phys. 90, 205–358 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

J. E. Mentall, J. E. Frederick, J. R. Herman, “The solar irradiance from 200 to 330 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 86(C10), 9881–9884 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ambach, W.

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, W. Ambach, “Total atmospheric ozone determined from spectral measurements of direct solar UV irradiance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 53–56 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, W. Ambach, “Measurements of direct and global UV spectra under varying turbidity,” in Atmospheric Radiation, K. H. Stamnes, ed. Proc. SPIE2049, 195–198 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bais, A. F.

C. S. Zerefos, A. F. Bais, C. Meleti, I. C. Ziomas, “A note on the recent increase of solar UV-B radiation over northern middle latitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1245–1247 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Blumthaler, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, M. Huber, B. Mayer, “Simultaneous spectroradiometry: a study of solar UV irradiance at two altitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2805–2808 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Bais, C. S. Zerefos, K. Tourpali, “Solar UV-B measurements with a double monochromator Brewer spectrophotometer,” NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Atmospheric Studies by Optical Methods, Geomagn. Aeron. (USSR) 34(5), 196–199 (1994).

A. F. Bais, C. S. Zerefos, C. Meleti, I. C. Ziomas, K. Tourpali, “Spectral measurements of solar UV-B radiation and its relations to total ozone, SO2 and clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D3), 5199–5204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Baumann, M. E. M.

H. Tug, M. E. M. Baumann, “Problems in UV-B radiation measurements in biological research. Critical remarks on current techniques and suggestions for improvements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 689–692 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bernhard, G.

G. Seckmeyer, B. Mayer, R. Erp, G. Bernhard, “UV-B in Germany higher in 1993 than in 1992,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 577–580 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Blumthaler, M.

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, W. Ambach, “Total atmospheric ozone determined from spectral measurements of direct solar UV irradiance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 53–56 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Blumthaler, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, M. Huber, B. Mayer, “Simultaneous spectroradiometry: a study of solar UV irradiance at two altitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2805–2808 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Blumthaler, University of Innsbruck, Institute of Medical Physics, Innsbruck, Austria (personal communication, 1995).

M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, W. Ambach, “Measurements of direct and global UV spectra under varying turbidity,” in Atmospheric Radiation, K. H. Stamnes, ed. Proc. SPIE2049, 195–198 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Erp, R.

G. Seckmeyer, B. Mayer, R. Erp, G. Bernhard, “UV-B in Germany higher in 1993 than in 1992,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 577–580 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Frederick, J. E.

J. E. Mentall, J. E. Frederick, J. R. Herman, “The solar irradiance from 200 to 330 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 86(C10), 9881–9884 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Gardiner, B. G.

B. G. Gardiner, P. J. Kirsch, “Setting standards for European ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” , (Commission of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 1995).

Herman, B. M.

Herman, J. R.

J. E. Mentall, J. E. Frederick, J. R. Herman, “The solar irradiance from 200 to 330 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 86(C10), 9881–9884 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Huber, M.

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, W. Ambach, “Total atmospheric ozone determined from spectral measurements of direct solar UV irradiance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 53–56 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Blumthaler, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, M. Huber, B. Mayer, “Simultaneous spectroradiometry: a study of solar UV irradiance at two altitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2805–2808 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, W. Ambach, “Measurements of direct and global UV spectra under varying turbidity,” in Atmospheric Radiation, K. H. Stamnes, ed. Proc. SPIE2049, 195–198 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, R. E.

R. E. Huffman, Atmospheric Ultraviolet Remote Sensing, Vol. 52 of the International Geophysics Series (Academic, New York, 1992).

Kaye, J. A.

J. A. Kaye, T. L. Miller, “The ATLAS series of shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2285–2288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kerr, J. B.

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, “Evidence for large upward trends of ultraviolet-B radiation linked to ozone depletion,” Science 262, 1032–1034 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, R. A. Olafson, “Measurements of ozone with the Brewer ozone spectrophotometer,” in Proceedings of the Quadennial Ozone Symposium, J. London, ed. (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo., 1980), pp. 74–79.

Kirsch, P. J.

B. G. Gardiner, P. J. Kirsch, “Setting standards for European ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” , (Commission of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 1995).

Kohler, U.

W. Vandersee, U. Kohler, “UV-observations with a Brewer Spectrophotometer at Hohenpeissenberg,” in Ozone in the Troposphere and Stratosphere, Part 2, Proceedings of the Quadennial Ozone Symposium (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo., 1992), pp. 742–745.

Labs, D.

H. Neckel, D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500 A,” Sol. Phys. 90, 205–358 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lea, T. K.

Madronich, S.

S. Madronich, “Photodissociation in the atmosphere. 1: Actinic flux and the effects of ground reflections and clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 92(D8), 9740–9752 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, B.

G. Seckmeyer, B. Mayer, R. Erp, G. Bernhard, “UV-B in Germany higher in 1993 than in 1992,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 577–580 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Blumthaler, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, M. Huber, B. Mayer, “Simultaneous spectroradiometry: a study of solar UV irradiance at two altitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2805–2808 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McElroy, C. T.

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, “Evidence for large upward trends of ultraviolet-B radiation linked to ozone depletion,” Science 262, 1032–1034 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, R. A. Olafson, “Measurements of ozone with the Brewer ozone spectrophotometer,” in Proceedings of the Quadennial Ozone Symposium, J. London, ed. (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo., 1980), pp. 74–79.

Meleti, C.

C. S. Zerefos, A. F. Bais, C. Meleti, I. C. Ziomas, “A note on the recent increase of solar UV-B radiation over northern middle latitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1245–1247 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Bais, C. S. Zerefos, C. Meleti, I. C. Ziomas, K. Tourpali, “Spectral measurements of solar UV-B radiation and its relations to total ozone, SO2 and clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D3), 5199–5204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mentall, J. E.

J. E. Mentall, J. E. Frederick, J. R. Herman, “The solar irradiance from 200 to 330 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 86(C10), 9881–9884 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Miller, T. L.

J. A. Kaye, T. L. Miller, “The ATLAS series of shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2285–2288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Neckel, H.

H. Neckel, D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500 A,” Sol. Phys. 90, 205–358 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Olafson, R. A.

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, R. A. Olafson, “Measurements of ozone with the Brewer ozone spectrophotometer,” in Proceedings of the Quadennial Ozone Symposium, J. London, ed. (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo., 1980), pp. 74–79.

Reagan, J. A.

Schotland, R. M.

Seckmeyer, G.

G. Seckmeyer, B. Mayer, R. Erp, G. Bernhard, “UV-B in Germany higher in 1993 than in 1992,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 577–580 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Blumthaler, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, M. Huber, B. Mayer, “Simultaneous spectroradiometry: a study of solar UV irradiance at two altitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2805–2808 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Thomason, L. W.

Tourpali, K.

A. F. Bais, C. S. Zerefos, K. Tourpali, “Solar UV-B measurements with a double monochromator Brewer spectrophotometer,” NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Atmospheric Studies by Optical Methods, Geomagn. Aeron. (USSR) 34(5), 196–199 (1994).

A. F. Bais, C. S. Zerefos, C. Meleti, I. C. Ziomas, K. Tourpali, “Spectral measurements of solar UV-B radiation and its relations to total ozone, SO2 and clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D3), 5199–5204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tug, H.

H. Tug, M. E. M. Baumann, “Problems in UV-B radiation measurements in biological research. Critical remarks on current techniques and suggestions for improvements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 689–692 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vandersee, W.

W. Vandersee, U. Kohler, “UV-observations with a Brewer Spectrophotometer at Hohenpeissenberg,” in Ozone in the Troposphere and Stratosphere, Part 2, Proceedings of the Quadennial Ozone Symposium (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo., 1992), pp. 742–745.

Webb, A. R.

M. Blumthaler, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, M. Huber, B. Mayer, “Simultaneous spectroradiometry: a study of solar UV irradiance at two altitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2805–2808 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zerefos, C. S.

C. S. Zerefos, A. F. Bais, C. Meleti, I. C. Ziomas, “A note on the recent increase of solar UV-B radiation over northern middle latitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1245–1247 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Bais, C. S. Zerefos, K. Tourpali, “Solar UV-B measurements with a double monochromator Brewer spectrophotometer,” NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Atmospheric Studies by Optical Methods, Geomagn. Aeron. (USSR) 34(5), 196–199 (1994).

A. F. Bais, C. S. Zerefos, C. Meleti, I. C. Ziomas, K. Tourpali, “Spectral measurements of solar UV-B radiation and its relations to total ozone, SO2 and clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D3), 5199–5204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ziomas, I. C.

C. S. Zerefos, A. F. Bais, C. Meleti, I. C. Ziomas, “A note on the recent increase of solar UV-B radiation over northern middle latitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1245–1247 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Bais, C. S. Zerefos, C. Meleti, I. C. Ziomas, K. Tourpali, “Spectral measurements of solar UV-B radiation and its relations to total ozone, SO2 and clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D3), 5199–5204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Geophys. Res. Lett. (6)

J. A. Kaye, T. L. Miller, “The ATLAS series of shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2285–2288 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Seckmeyer, B. Mayer, R. Erp, G. Bernhard, “UV-B in Germany higher in 1993 than in 1992,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 577–580 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Zerefos, A. F. Bais, C. Meleti, I. C. Ziomas, “A note on the recent increase of solar UV-B radiation over northern middle latitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1245–1247 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Blumthaler, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, M. Huber, B. Mayer, “Simultaneous spectroradiometry: a study of solar UV irradiance at two altitudes,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2805–2808 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Tug, M. E. M. Baumann, “Problems in UV-B radiation measurements in biological research. Critical remarks on current techniques and suggestions for improvements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 689–692 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, W. Ambach, “Total atmospheric ozone determined from spectral measurements of direct solar UV irradiance,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 53–56 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

J. E. Mentall, J. E. Frederick, J. R. Herman, “The solar irradiance from 200 to 330 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 86(C10), 9881–9884 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. Madronich, “Photodissociation in the atmosphere. 1: Actinic flux and the effects of ground reflections and clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 92(D8), 9740–9752 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Bais, C. S. Zerefos, C. Meleti, I. C. Ziomas, K. Tourpali, “Spectral measurements of solar UV-B radiation and its relations to total ozone, SO2 and clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 98(D3), 5199–5204 (1993).
[CrossRef]

NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Atmospheric Studies by Optical Methods, Geomagn. Aeron. (USSR) (1)

A. F. Bais, C. S. Zerefos, K. Tourpali, “Solar UV-B measurements with a double monochromator Brewer spectrophotometer,” NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Atmospheric Studies by Optical Methods, Geomagn. Aeron. (USSR) 34(5), 196–199 (1994).

Science (1)

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, “Evidence for large upward trends of ultraviolet-B radiation linked to ozone depletion,” Science 262, 1032–1034 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sol. Phys. (1)

H. Neckel, D. Labs, “The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500 A,” Sol. Phys. 90, 205–358 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, W. Ambach, “Measurements of direct and global UV spectra under varying turbidity,” in Atmospheric Radiation, K. H. Stamnes, ed. Proc. SPIE2049, 195–198 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brewer MKIII Spectrophotometer Operator’s Manual, OM-BA-C190, Rev E (SCI-TEC Instruments, Inc., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, 1995).

R. E. Huffman, Atmospheric Ultraviolet Remote Sensing, Vol. 52 of the International Geophysics Series (Academic, New York, 1992).

M. Blumthaler, University of Innsbruck, Institute of Medical Physics, Innsbruck, Austria (personal communication, 1995).

B. G. Gardiner, P. J. Kirsch, “Setting standards for European ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” , (Commission of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 1995).

J. B. Kerr, C. T. McElroy, R. A. Olafson, “Measurements of ozone with the Brewer ozone spectrophotometer,” in Proceedings of the Quadennial Ozone Symposium, J. London, ed. (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo., 1980), pp. 74–79.

W. Vandersee, U. Kohler, “UV-observations with a Brewer Spectrophotometer at Hohenpeissenberg,” in Ozone in the Troposphere and Stratosphere, Part 2, Proceedings of the Quadennial Ozone Symposium (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo., 1992), pp. 742–745.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup used for the calibration of the Brewer direct-Sun spectra.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calibration factor of the Brewer direct-sun spectra as determined for various solar zenith angles by using the Brewer neutral density filter 2: ●, a quadrature fit of these measured values; ◇, quadrature corresponding to measurements with filter 3 (right scale).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Logarithm of solar irradiance versus air mass (Langley plots) for four different wavelengths in the UV region as measured at Izana, Tenerife, in July 1995. Dashed lines represent the least-squares fits on each set of data. Different symbols correspond to data obtained on four different days.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Extraterrestrial solar spectrum as determined by applying the Langley extrapolation method to measurements of the direct-sun irradiance obtained at Izana, Tenerife, by a Brewer spectrophotometer. The thick solid line represents the average spectrum from four different days, and the envelope corresponds to ±1σ limits.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Ratio of the extraterrestrial spectrum on two different days in July 1995 as determined by the Brewer measurements at Izana, Tenerife, to the ATLAS 3 solar spectrum. The thick line represents the ratio smoothed by averaging at 2.5-nm intervals.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Error Budget of the Brewer Direct-Sun Spectral Measurements

Equations (1)

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Fλ=BλDλcosz.

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