Abstract

The intensity and polarization of light scattered from marine aerosols affect visibility and contrast in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL). The polarization properties of scattered light in the MABL vary with size, refractive index, number distributions, and environmental conditions. Laboratory measurements were used to determine the characteristics and variability of the polarization of light scattered by aerosols similar to those in the MABL. Scattering from laboratory-generated sea-salt-containing (SSC) [NaCl, (NH4)2SO4, and seawater] components of marine aerosols was measured with a scanning polarization-modulated nephelometer. Mie theory with Gaussian and log normal size distributions of spheres was used to calculate the polarized light scattering from various aerosol composition models and from experimentally determined distributions of aerosols in the marine boundary layer. The modeling was verified by comparison with scattering from distilled water aerosols. The study suggests that polarimetric techniques can be used to enhance techniques for improving visibility and remote imaging for various aerosol types, Sun angles, and viewing conditions.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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1997 (2)

D. Miller, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, “Laboratory studies of the angle and polarization dependent light scattering in sea ice,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1278–1288 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Miller, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, “A novel bistatic polarization nephelometer for probing scattering through a planar interface,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2089–2095 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1992 (3)

F. Parungo, B. Kopcewicz, C. Nagamoto, R. Schnell, P. Sheridan, C. Zhu, J. Harris, “Aerosol particles in the Kuwait oil fire plumes: their morphology, size distribution, chemical composition, transport, and potential effect on climate,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 15,867–15,882 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Bates, J. A. Calhoun, P. K. Quinn, “Variations in the methanesulfonate to sulfate molar ratio in submicrometer marine aerosol particles over the South Pacific Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 9859–9865 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Novakov, J. E. Penner, “The effect of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols on marine cloud droplet concentrations,” Nature 365, 823–826 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

J. W. Fitzgerald, “Marine aerosols—A review,” Atmos. Environ. Part A 25, 533–545 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

J. Cariou, B. Le Jeune, J. Lotrian, Y. Guern, “Polarization effects of seawater and underwater targets,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1689–1695 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. Hoppel, J. W. Fitzgerald, G. M. Frick, R. E. Larson, E. J. Mack, “Aerosol size distributions and optical properties found in the marine boundary layer over the Atlantic Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 95D, 3659–3686 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Latham, M. H. Smith, “Effect on global warming of wind-dependent aerosol generation at the ocean surface,” Nature (London) 347, 372–373 (1990).

1989 (2)

M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, K. Lofftus, D. B. Shapiro, “Polarized-light scattering studies of marine Chlorella,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1587–1600, (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Kattawar, C. N. Adams, “Stokes vector calculations of the submarine light field in an atmosphere-ocean with scattering according to a Rayleigh phase matrix: effect of interface refractive index on radiance and polarization,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1453–1472 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

R. J. Charlson, J. E. Lovelock, M. O. Andreae, S. G. Warren, “Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulphur, cloud albedo and climate,” Nature (London) 326, 655–661 (1987).

1985 (2)

E. S. Fry, K. J. Voss, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 1322–1326 (1985).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Batten, “Spectral optical constants of soots from polarized angular reflectance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1193–1199 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1983 (3)

J. L. Gras, G. P. Ayers, “Marine aerosol at southern mid-latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 10,661–10,666 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Monahan, C. W. Fairall, K. L. Davidson, P. J. Boyle, “Observed inter-relations between 10 m winds, ocean whitecaps, and marine aerosols,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 109, 379–392 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Hallock, J. Hallajian, “Polarization imaging and mapping,” Appl. Opt. 22, 964–966 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

1981 (4)

1980 (3)

1978 (1)

1977 (1)

E. T. Arakawa, M. W. Williams, T. Inagaki, “Optical properties of arc-evaporated carbon films between 0.6 and 3.8 eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3176–3177 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, “A global average model of atmospheric aerosols for radiative transfer calculations,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 225–246 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. Häanel, “The properties of atmospheric aerosol particles as functions of the relative humidity at thermodynamic equilibrium with the surrounding moist air,” Adv. Geophys. 19, 73–188 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

A. J. Hunt, D. R. Huffman, “A polarization-modulated light scattering instrument for determining liquid aerosol properties,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14 (Suppl. 14–1), 435–440 (1975).

1974 (1)

A. Mészáros, K. Vissy, “Concentration, size distribution, and chemical nature of atmospheric aerosol particles in remote oceanic areas,” Aerosol Sci. 5, 101–109 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (2)

A. J. Hunt, D. R. Huffman, “A new polarization-modulated light scattering instrument,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 1753–1762 (1973).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Hale, M. R. Querry, “Optical constants of water in the 200-nm to 200-µm wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 12, 555–563 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (3)

F. E. Volz, “Infrared refractive index of atmospheric aerosol substance,” Appl. Opt. 11, 755–759 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Junge, “Our knowledge of the physico-chemistry of aerosols in the undisturbed marine environment,” J. Geophys. Res. 77, 5183–5200 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. Chesselet, J. Morelli, P. Buat-Menard, “Variations in ionic ratios between reference sea water and marine aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 77, 5116–5131 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

R. A. Duce, A. H. Woodcock, “Difference in chemical composition of atmospheric sea-salt particles produced in the surf zone and on the open sea in Hawaii,” Tellus 23, 427–435 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

1969 (2)

C. E. Junge, E. Robinson, F. L. Ludwig, “A study of aerosols in the Pacific air masses,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 8, 340–347 (1969).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Dalzell, A. F. Sarofim, “Optical constants of soot and their application to heat-flux calculations,” J. Heat Transfer 91, 100–104 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

R. O. Briggs, G. L. Hatchett, “Techniques for improving underwater visibility with video equipment,” Ocean Sci. Ocean Eng. 1&2, 1284–1308 (1965).

1964 (1)

1962 (1)

M. Komabayashi, “Enrichment of inorganic ions with increasing atomic weight in aerosols, rainwater, and snow in comparison with sea water,” Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 40, 25–38 (1962).

1960 (1)

Adams, C. N.

G. W. Kattawar, C. N. Adams, “Stokes vector calculations of the submarine light field in an atmosphere-ocean with scattering according to a Rayleigh phase matrix: effect of interface refractive index on radiance and polarization,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1453–1472 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Andreae, M. O.

R. J. Charlson, J. E. Lovelock, M. O. Andreae, S. G. Warren, “Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulphur, cloud albedo and climate,” Nature (London) 326, 655–661 (1987).

M. O. Andreae, “The ocean as a source of atmospheric sulfur compounds,” in The Role of Air-Sea Exchange in Geochemical Cycling, P. Buat-Menard, ed. (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1986), pp. 331–362.
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, E. T.

E. T. Arakawa, M. W. Williams, T. Inagaki, “Optical properties of arc-evaporated carbon films between 0.6 and 3.8 eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3176–3177 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ayers, G. P.

J. L. Gras, G. P. Ayers, “Marine aerosol at southern mid-latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 10,661–10,666 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bates, T. S.

T. S. Bates, J. A. Calhoun, P. K. Quinn, “Variations in the methanesulfonate to sulfate molar ratio in submicrometer marine aerosol particles over the South Pacific Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 9859–9865 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Batten, C. E.

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Boyle, P. J.

E. C. Monahan, C. W. Fairall, K. L. Davidson, P. J. Boyle, “Observed inter-relations between 10 m winds, ocean whitecaps, and marine aerosols,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 109, 379–392 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Briggs, R. O.

R. O. Briggs, G. L. Hatchett, “Techniques for improving underwater visibility with video equipment,” Ocean Sci. Ocean Eng. 1&2, 1284–1308 (1965).

Buat-Menard, P.

R. Chesselet, J. Morelli, P. Buat-Menard, “Variations in ionic ratios between reference sea water and marine aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 77, 5116–5131 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Buat-Ménard, P.

R. Chesselet, M. Fontugne, P. Buat-Ménard, U. Ezat, C. E. Lambert, “The origin of particulate organic carbon in the marine atmosphere as indicated by its stable carbon isotopic composition,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 345–348 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Calhoun, J. A.

T. S. Bates, J. A. Calhoun, P. K. Quinn, “Variations in the methanesulfonate to sulfate molar ratio in submicrometer marine aerosol particles over the South Pacific Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 9859–9865 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cariou, J.

Charlson, R. J.

R. J. Charlson, J. E. Lovelock, M. O. Andreae, S. G. Warren, “Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulphur, cloud albedo and climate,” Nature (London) 326, 655–661 (1987).

Chesselet, R.

R. Chesselet, M. Fontugne, P. Buat-Ménard, U. Ezat, C. E. Lambert, “The origin of particulate organic carbon in the marine atmosphere as indicated by its stable carbon isotopic composition,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 345–348 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. Chesselet, J. Morelli, P. Buat-Menard, “Variations in ionic ratios between reference sea water and marine aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 77, 5116–5131 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Covert, D. S.

Dalzell, W. H.

W. H. Dalzell, A. F. Sarofim, “Optical constants of soot and their application to heat-flux calculations,” J. Heat Transfer 91, 100–104 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, K. L.

E. C. Monahan, C. W. Fairall, K. L. Davidson, P. J. Boyle, “Observed inter-relations between 10 m winds, ocean whitecaps, and marine aerosols,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 109, 379–392 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Gathman, K. L. Davidson, “The Navy oceanic vertical aerosol model,” (Naval Command, Control and Ocean Surveillance Center, San Diego, Calif., 1993).

Diermendjian, D.

D. Diermendjian, Electromagnetic Scattering on Spherical Polydispersions (American Elsevier, New York, 1969).

Dorsey, N. E.

N. E. Dorsey, Properties of Ordinary Water-Substance in All Its Phases: Water Vapor, Water and All the Ices, Vol. 81 of American Chemical Society Monograph Series (Reinhold, New York, 1940), pp. 332–338.

Dowling, J. M.

Duce, R. A.

R. A. Duce, A. H. Woodcock, “Difference in chemical composition of atmospheric sea-salt particles produced in the surf zone and on the open sea in Hawaii,” Tellus 23, 427–435 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Evans, W. H.

Ezat, U.

R. Chesselet, M. Fontugne, P. Buat-Ménard, U. Ezat, C. E. Lambert, “The origin of particulate organic carbon in the marine atmosphere as indicated by its stable carbon isotopic composition,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 345–348 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Fairall, C. W.

E. C. Monahan, C. W. Fairall, K. L. Davidson, P. J. Boyle, “Observed inter-relations between 10 m winds, ocean whitecaps, and marine aerosols,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 109, 379–392 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fenn, R. W.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties, (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass., 1979).

Fitzgerald, J. W.

J. W. Fitzgerald, “Marine aerosols—A review,” Atmos. Environ. Part A 25, 533–545 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Hoppel, J. W. Fitzgerald, G. M. Frick, R. E. Larson, E. J. Mack, “Aerosol size distributions and optical properties found in the marine boundary layer over the Atlantic Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 95D, 3659–3686 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fontugne, M.

R. Chesselet, M. Fontugne, P. Buat-Ménard, U. Ezat, C. E. Lambert, “The origin of particulate organic carbon in the marine atmosphere as indicated by its stable carbon isotopic composition,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 345–348 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Frick, G. M.

W. A. Hoppel, J. W. Fitzgerald, G. M. Frick, R. E. Larson, E. J. Mack, “Aerosol size distributions and optical properties found in the marine boundary layer over the Atlantic Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 95D, 3659–3686 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fry, E. S.

Gagne, G.

Garrels, R. M.

R. M. Garrels, F. T. Mackenzie, Evolution of Sedimentary Rocks (Norton, New York, 1971), p. 212.

Gathman, S. G.

S. G. Gathman, K. L. Davidson, “The Navy oceanic vertical aerosol model,” (Naval Command, Control and Ocean Surveillance Center, San Diego, Calif., 1993).

Gilbert, G. D.

G. D. Gilbert, J. C. Pernicka, “Improvement of underwater visibility by reduction of backscatter with a circular polarization technique,” in Underwater Photo-Optics Seminar Proceedings (SPIE, Santa Barbara, Calif., 1966).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, S. S.

Gras, J. L.

J. L. Gras, G. P. Ayers, “Marine aerosol at southern mid-latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 10,661–10,666 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Guern, Y.

Häanel, G.

G. Häanel, “The properties of atmospheric aerosol particles as functions of the relative humidity at thermodynamic equilibrium with the surrounding moist air,” Adv. Geophys. 19, 73–188 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hale, G. M.

Hallajian, J.

Hallock, H. B.

Hansen, M. Z.

Harris, J.

F. Parungo, B. Kopcewicz, C. Nagamoto, R. Schnell, P. Sheridan, C. Zhu, J. Harris, “Aerosol particles in the Kuwait oil fire plumes: their morphology, size distribution, chemical composition, transport, and potential effect on climate,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 15,867–15,882 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hatchett, G. L.

R. O. Briggs, G. L. Hatchett, “Techniques for improving underwater visibility with video equipment,” Ocean Sci. Ocean Eng. 1&2, 1284–1308 (1965).

Hess, M.

Hodkinson, J. R.

Holland, A. C.

Hoppel, W. A.

W. A. Hoppel, J. W. Fitzgerald, G. M. Frick, R. E. Larson, E. J. Mack, “Aerosol size distributions and optical properties found in the marine boundary layer over the Atlantic Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 95D, 3659–3686 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D. R.

R. J. Perry, A. J. Hunt, D. R. Huffman, “Experimental determinations of Mueller scattering matrices for nonspherical particles,” Appl. Opt. 17, 2700–2710 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Hunt, D. R. Huffman, “A polarization-modulated light scattering instrument for determining liquid aerosol properties,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14 (Suppl. 14–1), 435–440 (1975).

A. J. Hunt, D. R. Huffman, “A new polarization-modulated light scattering instrument,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 1753–1762 (1973).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Huffman, Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz., 85721 (personal communication, 1995).

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Hull, P. G.

M. S. Quinby-Hunt, P. G. Hull, A. J. Hunt, “Predicting polarization properties of marine aerosols,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 735–746 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Humphreys, T. J.

Hunt, A. J.

D. Miller, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, “Laboratory studies of the angle and polarization dependent light scattering in sea ice,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1278–1288 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Miller, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, “A novel bistatic polarization nephelometer for probing scattering through a planar interface,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2089–2095 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, K. Lofftus, D. B. Shapiro, “Polarized-light scattering studies of marine Chlorella,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1587–1600, (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Perry, A. J. Hunt, D. R. Huffman, “Experimental determinations of Mueller scattering matrices for nonspherical particles,” Appl. Opt. 17, 2700–2710 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Hunt, D. R. Huffman, “A polarization-modulated light scattering instrument for determining liquid aerosol properties,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14 (Suppl. 14–1), 435–440 (1975).

A. J. Hunt, D. R. Huffman, “A new polarization-modulated light scattering instrument,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 1753–1762 (1973).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Hunt, “An experimental investigation of the angular dependence of polarization of light scattered from small particles,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz., 1974).

M. S. Quinby-Hunt, P. G. Hull, A. J. Hunt, “Predicting polarization properties of marine aerosols,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 735–746 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Inagaki, T.

E. T. Arakawa, M. W. Williams, T. Inagaki, “Optical properties of arc-evaporated carbon films between 0.6 and 3.8 eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3176–3177 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Junge, C. E.

C. E. Junge, “Our knowledge of the physico-chemistry of aerosols in the undisturbed marine environment,” J. Geophys. Res. 77, 5183–5200 (1972).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Junge, E. Robinson, F. L. Ludwig, “A study of aerosols in the Pacific air masses,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 8, 340–347 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Kapustin, V. N.

Kattawar, G.

Kattawar, G. W.

G. W. Kattawar, C. N. Adams, “Stokes vector calculations of the submarine light field in an atmosphere-ocean with scattering according to a Rayleigh phase matrix: effect of interface refractive index on radiance and polarization,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1453–1472 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Kattawar, E. S. Fry, “Inequalities between the elements of the Mueller scattering matrix: comments” Appl. Opt. 21, 18 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Plass, T. J. Humphreys, G. W. Kattawar, “Ocean-atmosphere interface: its influence on radiation,” Appl. Opt. 20, 917–930 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koepke, P.

Komabayashi, M.

M. Komabayashi, “Enrichment of inorganic ions with increasing atomic weight in aerosols, rainwater, and snow in comparison with sea water,” Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 40, 25–38 (1962).

Kopcewicz, B.

F. Parungo, B. Kopcewicz, C. Nagamoto, R. Schnell, P. Sheridan, C. Zhu, J. Harris, “Aerosol particles in the Kuwait oil fire plumes: their morphology, size distribution, chemical composition, transport, and potential effect on climate,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 15,867–15,882 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lambert, C. E.

R. Chesselet, M. Fontugne, P. Buat-Ménard, U. Ezat, C. E. Lambert, “The origin of particulate organic carbon in the marine atmosphere as indicated by its stable carbon isotopic composition,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 345–348 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Larson, R. E.

W. A. Hoppel, J. W. Fitzgerald, G. M. Frick, R. E. Larson, E. J. Mack, “Aerosol size distributions and optical properties found in the marine boundary layer over the Atlantic Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 95D, 3659–3686 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Latham, J.

J. Latham, M. H. Smith, “Effect on global warming of wind-dependent aerosol generation at the ocean surface,” Nature (London) 347, 372–373 (1990).

Le Jeune, B.

Lofftus, K.

M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, K. Lofftus, D. B. Shapiro, “Polarized-light scattering studies of marine Chlorella,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1587–1600, (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lotrian, J.

Lovelock, J. E.

R. J. Charlson, J. E. Lovelock, M. O. Andreae, S. G. Warren, “Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulphur, cloud albedo and climate,” Nature (London) 326, 655–661 (1987).

Ludwig, F. L.

C. E. Junge, E. Robinson, F. L. Ludwig, “A study of aerosols in the Pacific air masses,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 8, 340–347 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Mack, E. J.

W. A. Hoppel, J. W. Fitzgerald, G. M. Frick, R. E. Larson, E. J. Mack, “Aerosol size distributions and optical properties found in the marine boundary layer over the Atlantic Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 95D, 3659–3686 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mackenzie, F. T.

R. M. Garrels, F. T. Mackenzie, Evolution of Sedimentary Rocks (Norton, New York, 1971), p. 212.

Mertens, L. E.

L. E. Mertens, In-Water Photography (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1970).

Mészáros, A.

A. Mészáros, K. Vissy, “Concentration, size distribution, and chemical nature of atmospheric aerosol particles in remote oceanic areas,” Aerosol Sci. 5, 101–109 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D.

D. Miller, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, “A novel bistatic polarization nephelometer for probing scattering through a planar interface,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2089–2095 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Miller, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, “Laboratory studies of the angle and polarization dependent light scattering in sea ice,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1278–1288 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monahan, E. C.

E. C. Monahan, C. W. Fairall, K. L. Davidson, P. J. Boyle, “Observed inter-relations between 10 m winds, ocean whitecaps, and marine aerosols,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 109, 379–392 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Woolf, E. C. Monahan, D. E. Spiel, “Quantification of the marine aerosol produced by whitecaps,” in Preprint, Seventh Conference on Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1988), pp. 182–185.

Morelli, J.

R. Chesselet, J. Morelli, P. Buat-Menard, “Variations in ionic ratios between reference sea water and marine aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 77, 5116–5131 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Nagamoto, C.

F. Parungo, B. Kopcewicz, C. Nagamoto, R. Schnell, P. Sheridan, C. Zhu, J. Harris, “Aerosol particles in the Kuwait oil fire plumes: their morphology, size distribution, chemical composition, transport, and potential effect on climate,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 15,867–15,882 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Novakov, T.

T. Novakov, J. E. Penner, “The effect of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols on marine cloud droplet concentrations,” Nature 365, 823–826 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Parungo, F.

F. Parungo, B. Kopcewicz, C. Nagamoto, R. Schnell, P. Sheridan, C. Zhu, J. Harris, “Aerosol particles in the Kuwait oil fire plumes: their morphology, size distribution, chemical composition, transport, and potential effect on climate,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 15,867–15,882 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Penner, J. E.

T. Novakov, J. E. Penner, “The effect of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols on marine cloud droplet concentrations,” Nature 365, 823–826 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pernicka, J. C.

G. D. Gilbert, J. C. Pernicka, “Improvement of underwater visibility by reduction of backscatter with a circular polarization technique,” in Underwater Photo-Optics Seminar Proceedings (SPIE, Santa Barbara, Calif., 1966).
[CrossRef]

Perry, R. J.

Plass, G. N.

Pluchino, A. B.

Pollack, J. B.

O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, “A global average model of atmospheric aerosols for radiative transfer calculations,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 225–246 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Quan, X.

Querry, M. R.

Quinby-Hunt, M. S.

D. Miller, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, “A novel bistatic polarization nephelometer for probing scattering through a planar interface,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2089–2095 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Miller, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, “Laboratory studies of the angle and polarization dependent light scattering in sea ice,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1278–1288 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, K. Lofftus, D. B. Shapiro, “Polarized-light scattering studies of marine Chlorella,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1587–1600, (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Quinby-Hunt, P. G. Hull, A. J. Hunt, “Predicting polarization properties of marine aerosols,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 735–746 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Quinn, P. K.

T. S. Bates, J. A. Calhoun, P. K. Quinn, “Variations in the methanesulfonate to sulfate molar ratio in submicrometer marine aerosol particles over the South Pacific Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 9859–9865 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Randall, C. M.

Robinson, E.

C. E. Junge, E. Robinson, F. L. Ludwig, “A study of aerosols in the Pacific air masses,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 8, 340–347 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Sarofim, A. F.

W. H. Dalzell, A. F. Sarofim, “Optical constants of soot and their application to heat-flux calculations,” J. Heat Transfer 91, 100–104 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Schnell, R.

F. Parungo, B. Kopcewicz, C. Nagamoto, R. Schnell, P. Sheridan, C. Zhu, J. Harris, “Aerosol particles in the Kuwait oil fire plumes: their morphology, size distribution, chemical composition, transport, and potential effect on climate,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 15,867–15,882 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, D. B.

M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, K. Lofftus, D. B. Shapiro, “Polarized-light scattering studies of marine Chlorella,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1587–1600, (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sheridan, P.

F. Parungo, B. Kopcewicz, C. Nagamoto, R. Schnell, P. Sheridan, C. Zhu, J. Harris, “Aerosol particles in the Kuwait oil fire plumes: their morphology, size distribution, chemical composition, transport, and potential effect on climate,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 15,867–15,882 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shettle, E. P.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties, (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass., 1979).

Smith, M. H.

J. Latham, M. H. Smith, “Effect on global warming of wind-dependent aerosol generation at the ocean surface,” Nature (London) 347, 372–373 (1990).

Solomon, J. E.

Spiel, D. E.

D. K. Woolf, E. C. Monahan, D. E. Spiel, “Quantification of the marine aerosol produced by whitecaps,” in Preprint, Seventh Conference on Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1988), pp. 182–185.

Street, R. L.

C. S. Wang, R. L. Street, “Measurements of spray at an air-water interface,” in Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1978), Vol. 2, pp. 141–152.
[CrossRef]

Stull, V. R.

Toon, O. B.

O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, “A global average model of atmospheric aerosols for radiative transfer calculations,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 225–246 (1976).
[CrossRef]

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).

Vissy, K.

A. Mészáros, K. Vissy, “Concentration, size distribution, and chemical nature of atmospheric aerosol particles in remote oceanic areas,” Aerosol Sci. 5, 101–109 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Volz, F. E.

Voss, K. J.

E. S. Fry, K. J. Voss, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 1322–1326 (1985).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Voss, E. S. Fry, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for ocean water,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4427–4439 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C. S.

C. S. Wang, R. L. Street, “Measurements of spray at an air-water interface,” in Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1978), Vol. 2, pp. 141–152.
[CrossRef]

Warren, S. G.

R. J. Charlson, J. E. Lovelock, M. O. Andreae, S. G. Warren, “Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulphur, cloud albedo and climate,” Nature (London) 326, 655–661 (1987).

Williams, M. W.

E. T. Arakawa, M. W. Williams, T. Inagaki, “Optical properties of arc-evaporated carbon films between 0.6 and 3.8 eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3176–3177 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Woodcock, A. H.

R. A. Duce, A. H. Woodcock, “Difference in chemical composition of atmospheric sea-salt particles produced in the surf zone and on the open sea in Hawaii,” Tellus 23, 427–435 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Woolf, D. K.

D. K. Woolf, E. C. Monahan, D. E. Spiel, “Quantification of the marine aerosol produced by whitecaps,” in Preprint, Seventh Conference on Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1988), pp. 182–185.

Zhu, C.

F. Parungo, B. Kopcewicz, C. Nagamoto, R. Schnell, P. Sheridan, C. Zhu, J. Harris, “Aerosol particles in the Kuwait oil fire plumes: their morphology, size distribution, chemical composition, transport, and potential effect on climate,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 15,867–15,882 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Geophys. (1)

G. Häanel, “The properties of atmospheric aerosol particles as functions of the relative humidity at thermodynamic equilibrium with the surrounding moist air,” Adv. Geophys. 19, 73–188 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Aerosol Sci. (1)

A. Mészáros, K. Vissy, “Concentration, size distribution, and chemical nature of atmospheric aerosol particles in remote oceanic areas,” Aerosol Sci. 5, 101–109 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (18)

V. N. Kapustin, D. S. Covert, “Measurements of the humidification processes of hygroscopic particles,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1349–1352 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Hale, M. R. Querry, “Optical constants of water in the 200-nm to 200-µm wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 12, 555–563 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Volz, “Infrared refractive index of atmospheric aerosol substance,” Appl. Opt. 11, 755–759 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. N. Plass, T. J. Humphreys, G. W. Kattawar, “Ocean-atmosphere interface: its influence on radiation,” Appl. Opt. 20, 917–930 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. B. Hallock, J. Hallajian, “Polarization imaging and mapping,” Appl. Opt. 22, 964–966 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cariou, B. Le Jeune, J. Lotrian, Y. Guern, “Polarization effects of seawater and underwater targets,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1689–1695 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Solomon, “Polarization mapping,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1537–1544 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Koepke, M. Hess, “Scattering functions of tropospheric aerosols: the effects of nonspherical particles,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2422–2430 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Perry, A. J. Hunt, D. R. Huffman, “Experimental determinations of Mueller scattering matrices for nonspherical particles,” Appl. Opt. 17, 2700–2710 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Z. Hansen, W. H. Evans, “Polar nephelometer for atmospheric particulate studies,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3389–3395 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Holland, G. Gagne, “The scattering of polarized light by polydisperse systems of irregular particles,” Appl. Opt. 9, 1113–1121 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Voss, E. S. Fry, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for ocean water,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4427–4439 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Fry, G. Kattawar, “Relationships between elements of the Stokes matrix,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2811–2814 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Kattawar, E. S. Fry, “Inequalities between the elements of the Mueller scattering matrix: comments” Appl. Opt. 21, 18 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. Miller, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, “Laboratory studies of the angle and polarization dependent light scattering in sea ice,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1278–1288 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Quan, E. S. Fry, “Empirical equation for the index of refraction of seawater,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3477–3480 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Pluchino, S. S. Goldberg, J. M. Dowling, C. M. Randall, “Refractive-index measurements of single micron-sized carbon particles,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3370–3372 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Batten, “Spectral optical constants of soots from polarized angular reflectance measurements,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1193–1199 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Environ. Part A (1)

J. W. Fitzgerald, “Marine aerosols—A review,” Atmos. Environ. Part A 25, 533–545 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

R. Chesselet, M. Fontugne, P. Buat-Ménard, U. Ezat, C. E. Lambert, “The origin of particulate organic carbon in the marine atmosphere as indicated by its stable carbon isotopic composition,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 8, 345–348 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (2)

O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, “A global average model of atmospheric aerosols for radiative transfer calculations,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 225–246 (1976).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Junge, E. Robinson, F. L. Ludwig, “A study of aerosols in the Pacific air masses,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 8, 340–347 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

E. T. Arakawa, M. W. Williams, T. Inagaki, “Optical properties of arc-evaporated carbon films between 0.6 and 3.8 eV,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3176–3177 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (5)

F. Parungo, B. Kopcewicz, C. Nagamoto, R. Schnell, P. Sheridan, C. Zhu, J. Harris, “Aerosol particles in the Kuwait oil fire plumes: their morphology, size distribution, chemical composition, transport, and potential effect on climate,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 15,867–15,882 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Chesselet, J. Morelli, P. Buat-Menard, “Variations in ionic ratios between reference sea water and marine aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 77, 5116–5131 (1972).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Junge, “Our knowledge of the physico-chemistry of aerosols in the undisturbed marine environment,” J. Geophys. Res. 77, 5183–5200 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Gras, G. P. Ayers, “Marine aerosol at southern mid-latitudes,” J. Geophys. Res. 88, 10,661–10,666 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Bates, J. A. Calhoun, P. K. Quinn, “Variations in the methanesulfonate to sulfate molar ratio in submicrometer marine aerosol particles over the South Pacific Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 9859–9865 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. (1)

W. A. Hoppel, J. W. Fitzgerald, G. M. Frick, R. E. Larson, E. J. Mack, “Aerosol size distributions and optical properties found in the marine boundary layer over the Atlantic Ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 95D, 3659–3686 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Heat Transfer (1)

W. H. Dalzell, A. F. Sarofim, “Optical constants of soot and their application to heat-flux calculations,” J. Heat Transfer 91, 100–104 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. J. Hunt, D. R. Huffman, “A polarization-modulated light scattering instrument for determining liquid aerosol properties,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 14 (Suppl. 14–1), 435–440 (1975).

Limnol. Oceanogr. (3)

E. S. Fry, K. J. Voss, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 1322–1326 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, K. Lofftus, D. B. Shapiro, “Polarized-light scattering studies of marine Chlorella,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1587–1600, (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Kattawar, C. N. Adams, “Stokes vector calculations of the submarine light field in an atmosphere-ocean with scattering according to a Rayleigh phase matrix: effect of interface refractive index on radiance and polarization,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1453–1472 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. (1)

M. Komabayashi, “Enrichment of inorganic ions with increasing atomic weight in aerosols, rainwater, and snow in comparison with sea water,” Meteorol. Soc. Jpn. 40, 25–38 (1962).

Nature (1)

T. Novakov, J. E. Penner, “The effect of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols on marine cloud droplet concentrations,” Nature 365, 823–826 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (2)

R. J. Charlson, J. E. Lovelock, M. O. Andreae, S. G. Warren, “Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulphur, cloud albedo and climate,” Nature (London) 326, 655–661 (1987).

J. Latham, M. H. Smith, “Effect on global warming of wind-dependent aerosol generation at the ocean surface,” Nature (London) 347, 372–373 (1990).

Ocean Sci. Ocean Eng. (1)

R. O. Briggs, G. L. Hatchett, “Techniques for improving underwater visibility with video equipment,” Ocean Sci. Ocean Eng. 1&2, 1284–1308 (1965).

Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

E. C. Monahan, C. W. Fairall, K. L. Davidson, P. J. Boyle, “Observed inter-relations between 10 m winds, ocean whitecaps, and marine aerosols,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 109, 379–392 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

D. Miller, M. S. Quinby-Hunt, A. J. Hunt, “A novel bistatic polarization nephelometer for probing scattering through a planar interface,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2089–2095 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Hunt, D. R. Huffman, “A new polarization-modulated light scattering instrument,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 1753–1762 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Tellus (1)

R. A. Duce, A. H. Woodcock, “Difference in chemical composition of atmospheric sea-salt particles produced in the surf zone and on the open sea in Hawaii,” Tellus 23, 427–435 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Other (15)

C. S. Wang, R. L. Street, “Measurements of spray at an air-water interface,” in Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1978), Vol. 2, pp. 141–152.
[CrossRef]

M. O. Andreae, “The ocean as a source of atmospheric sulfur compounds,” in The Role of Air-Sea Exchange in Geochemical Cycling, P. Buat-Menard, ed. (Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1986), pp. 331–362.
[CrossRef]

D. K. Woolf, E. C. Monahan, D. E. Spiel, “Quantification of the marine aerosol produced by whitecaps,” in Preprint, Seventh Conference on Ocean-Atmosphere Interaction (American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass., 1988), pp. 182–185.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties, (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscomb Air Force Base, Mass., 1979).

S. G. Gathman, K. L. Davidson, “The Navy oceanic vertical aerosol model,” (Naval Command, Control and Ocean Surveillance Center, San Diego, Calif., 1993).

N. E. Dorsey, Properties of Ordinary Water-Substance in All Its Phases: Water Vapor, Water and All the Ices, Vol. 81 of American Chemical Society Monograph Series (Reinhold, New York, 1940), pp. 332–338.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957).

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

G. D. Gilbert, J. C. Pernicka, “Improvement of underwater visibility by reduction of backscatter with a circular polarization technique,” in Underwater Photo-Optics Seminar Proceedings (SPIE, Santa Barbara, Calif., 1966).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Mertens, In-Water Photography (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1970).

D. Diermendjian, Electromagnetic Scattering on Spherical Polydispersions (American Elsevier, New York, 1969).

M. S. Quinby-Hunt, P. G. Hull, A. J. Hunt, “Predicting polarization properties of marine aerosols,” in Ocean Optics XII, J. S. Jaffe, ed., Proc. SPIE2258, 735–746 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Hunt, “An experimental investigation of the angular dependence of polarization of light scattered from small particles,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz., 1974).

D. R. Huffman, Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz., 85721 (personal communication, 1995).

R. M. Garrels, F. T. Mackenzie, Evolution of Sedimentary Rocks (Norton, New York, 1971), p. 212.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Effect of aerosols on visibility. a, The pronounced forward scattering of large aerosol particles scatter sunlight (or moonlight) into the viewer-object plane when the Sun is behind the viewed object. Scattering plotted in the inset is the angular distribution of the total intensity (phase function) of light (λ = 532 nm) scattered by a seawater earosol with a r mode ∼ 0.7 µm and relative refractive index of 1.34 - 0i. Both experimental data and calculation are shown. b, When particles are very small relative to the wavelength of light, the proportion of backscattered light relative to forward scattering is significant as is shown in the inset. (Scattering predicted for an aerosol with particles of r mode ∼ 0.03 µm, relative refractive index of 1.335 - 0i, and λ = 532 nm.) In this case light is scattered into the viewer-object plane when the Sun (or Moon) is above or behind the viewer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of the measured and the calculated angle dependences of all 16 elements of the Mueller scattering matrix for a distilled water aerosol. Calculations indicate that the r mode is 1 µm and the refractive index is 1.33 - 0i at a wavelength of 532 nm. For some of the elements multiple data sets are shown; agreement is excellent. Calculations are only made for S 11, S 12 = S 21, S 33 = S 44, and S 34 = - S 43. S 22 is 1, and all other elements are zero by symmetry. These relationships are borne out by the experimental observations. (a) Mueller matrix elements from the first two columns of the matrix.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental apparatus. a, Scanning polarization-modulated nephelometer as designed by Hunt52 and Hunt and Huffman.53 b, Aerosols pass from the nebulizer-desiccation system into the focusing element in the delivery attachment at the focus of the scattering zone of the nephelometer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of scattering predicted for a marine aerosol as described in the AFGL model25 at various humidities with scattering calculated with the Rayleigh approximation. Details of the AFGL are described in the text and Table 1. Note that S 34 is zero in the Rayleigh approximation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of the scattering predicted by the AFGL marine aerosol at 50% and 99% RH with aerosols in which the sea-salt number distribution is increased tenfold.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental Mueller scattering matrix elements for four room-temperature aerosols: distilled water, seawater, a 3.5% NaCl solution, and a 3.5% (NH4)2SO4 solution. The scattering observed for all three salt aerosols is nearly the same within experimental error. The difference observed in the distilled water aerosol scattering can be attributed to the presence of somewhat larger particles in the aerosol.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental Mueller scattering matrix elements, S 11, S 12, S 22, S 33, and S 34, for NaCl at room temperature, 70°, 100°, and 105 °C.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental Mueller scattering matrix elements, S 11, S 12, S 22, S 33, and S 34, for (NH4)2SO4 at room temperature, 80° and 180 °C.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Experimental Mueller scattering matrix elements, S 11, S 12, S 22, S 33, and S 34, for seawater at room temperature, 90° and 140 °C.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Mueller scattering matrix elements, S 11, S 12, S 33, and S 34, calculated for soots having a range of complex refractive indices and size distributions as described in Table 3.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Mueller scattering matrix elements, S 11, S 12, S 33, and S 34, calculated for soot (r mode = 0.55 µm, n = 1.75 - 0.45i, log normal, σ = 0.4] and sea salt (r mode = 0.35 µm, n = 1.355 - 0.45i, log normal, σ = 0.4) compared with the polarized scattering measured for a seawater aerosol at 47 °C, having r mode approximately 0.57 µm and n = 1.36 - 0i

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Input Parameters for the AFGL Model for Marine Aerosolsa

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Table 2 Experimental Conditions and the Calculated Radius at the Peak of the Size Distribution rmode and Complex Refractive Index

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Table 3 Various Descriptions of Soot Used for Investigating the Effect of Varying Refractive Indices and Distributions on Scattering in the MABLa

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