Abstract

Novel designs for phased-array wavelength-division multiplexers based on self-imaging properties of multimode interference (MMI) couplers are presented. These devices, which operate on N equally spaced wavelength channels, consist of two MMI couplers connected by an array of N monomode waveguides. The MMI couplers function as power splitters/combiners, and the waveguide array is the dispersive element. The excellent characteristics of MMI couplers offer the possibility of designing small-size devices with low loss and with high uniformity among different channels. A general theoretical formulation for an N-channel multiplexer is presented, and a simple procedure for finding an optimum set of lengths for the array guides is given. We show that these multiplexers can function as N × N wavelength-selective interconnecting components. The simulated performance of three variations of a five-channel device, designed in a rib waveguide system, is given. It is demonstrated that sidelobes in the multiplexer spectral response can be suppressed by weighting the power samples in the array waveguides through appropriate design of a nonuniform MMI power splitter.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. L. B. Soldano, F. B. Veerman, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, A. H. Dubost, E. C. M. Pennings, “Planar monomode optical couplers based on multimode interference effects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1843–1850 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, M. K. Smit, “Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1004–1009 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. M. Heaton, R. M. Jenkins, D. R. Wight, J. T. Parker, J. C. H. Birbeck, K. P. Hilton, “Novel 1-to-N way integrated optical beam splitters using symmetric mode mixing in GaAs/AlGaAs multimode waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1754–1756, (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Ferreras, F. Rodrígues, E. Gómez-Salas, J. L. de Miguel, F. Hernández-Gil, “Useful formulas for multimode interference power splitter/combiner design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1224–1227 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. R. Paiam, C. F. Janz, R. I. MacDonald, J. N. Broughton, “Compact planar 980/1550-nm wavelength multi/demultiplexer based on multimode interference,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1180–1182 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615–627 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. C. M. Pennings, R. van Roijen, M. J. N. van Stralen, P. J. de Waard, R. G. M. P. Koumans, B. H. Verbeek, “Reflection properties of multimode interference devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 715–718 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. M. Jenkins, J. M. Heaton, D. R. Wight, J. T. Parker, J. C. H. Birbeck, G. W. Smith, K. P. Hilton, “Novel 1 × N and N × N integrated optical switches using self-imaging multimode GaAs/AlGaAs waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 684–686, (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Bachmann, Ch. Nadler, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, “Compact polarization-insensitive multi-leg 1 × 4 Mach-Zehnder switch in InGaAsP/InP,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communication (Delft U. Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 519–522.
  10. C. van Dam, M. R. Amersfoort, G. M. ten Kate, F. P. G. M. van Ham, M. K. Smit, P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, “Novel InP-based phased-array wavelength demultiplexer using a generalized MMI-MZI configuration,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Integrated Optics (Istituto Internationale delle Communicazioni, Genova, Italy, 1994), pp. 275–278.
  11. L. O. Lierstuen, A. Sudbø, “8-channel wavelength division multiplexer based on multimode interference couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1034–1036 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Bachmann, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, “General self-imaging properties in N × N multimode interference couplers including phase relations,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3905–3911 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. H. Verbeek, A. A. M. Staring, E. J. Jansen, R. van Roijen, J. J. M. Binsma, T. van Dongen, M. R. Amersfoort, C. van Dam, M. K. Smit, “Large bandwidth polarization independent and compact 8 channel PHASAR demultiplexer/filter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. PD13-1–PD13-4.
  14. M. Zirngibl, C. Dragone, C. H. Joyner, “Demonstration of a 15 × 15 arrayed waveguide multiplexer on InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1250–1253 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Takahashi, S. Suzuki, I. Nishi, “Wavelength multiplexer based on SiO2–Ta2O5 arrayed-waveguide grating,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 989–995 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Takahashi, K. Oda, H. Toba, Y. Inoue, “Transmission characteristics of arrayed waveguide N × N wavelength multiplexer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(3), 447–455, (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. B. Glance, “Wavelength-tunable add/drop optical filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 245–247 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  18. N. J. Frigo, P. P. Iannone, P. D. Magill, T. E. Darcie, M. M. Downs, B. N. Desai, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, G. E. Bodeep, “A wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network with cost-shared components,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1365–1367 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Bachmann, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, “Overlapping-image multimode interference couplers with a reduced number of self-images for uniform and nonuniform power splitting,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6898–6910 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. R. Paiam, R. I. MacDonald, “Planar phased-array wavelength multiplexers based on multimode interference couplers,” in Silicon-Based Monolithic and Hybrid Optoelectronic Devices, D. C. Houghton, B. Jalali, eds., Proc. SPIE3007, 104–111, (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (1)

B. Glance, “Wavelength-tunable add/drop optical filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 245–247 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (5)

M. Bachmann, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, “Overlapping-image multimode interference couplers with a reduced number of self-images for uniform and nonuniform power splitting,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6898–6910 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. O. Lierstuen, A. Sudbø, “8-channel wavelength division multiplexer based on multimode interference couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1034–1036 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Takahashi, K. Oda, H. Toba, Y. Inoue, “Transmission characteristics of arrayed waveguide N × N wavelength multiplexer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(3), 447–455, (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Paiam, C. F. Janz, R. I. MacDonald, J. N. Broughton, “Compact planar 980/1550-nm wavelength multi/demultiplexer based on multimode interference,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1180–1182 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (6)

E. C. M. Pennings, R. van Roijen, M. J. N. van Stralen, P. J. de Waard, R. G. M. P. Koumans, B. H. Verbeek, “Reflection properties of multimode interference devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 715–718 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Jenkins, J. M. Heaton, D. R. Wight, J. T. Parker, J. C. H. Birbeck, G. W. Smith, K. P. Hilton, “Novel 1 × N and N × N integrated optical switches using self-imaging multimode GaAs/AlGaAs waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 684–686, (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, M. K. Smit, “Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1004–1009 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Takahashi, S. Suzuki, I. Nishi, “Wavelength multiplexer based on SiO2–Ta2O5 arrayed-waveguide grating,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 989–995 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Bachmann, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, “General self-imaging properties in N × N multimode interference couplers including phase relations,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3905–3911 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. J. Frigo, P. P. Iannone, P. D. Magill, T. E. Darcie, M. M. Downs, B. N. Desai, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, G. E. Bodeep, “A wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network with cost-shared components,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1365–1367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

A. Ferreras, F. Rodrígues, E. Gómez-Salas, J. L. de Miguel, F. Hernández-Gil, “Useful formulas for multimode interference power splitter/combiner design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1224–1227 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

L. B. Soldano, F. B. Veerman, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, A. H. Dubost, E. C. M. Pennings, “Planar monomode optical couplers based on multimode interference effects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1843–1850 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Heaton, R. M. Jenkins, D. R. Wight, J. T. Parker, J. C. H. Birbeck, K. P. Hilton, “Novel 1-to-N way integrated optical beam splitters using symmetric mode mixing in GaAs/AlGaAs multimode waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1754–1756, (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Zirngibl, C. Dragone, C. H. Joyner, “Demonstration of a 15 × 15 arrayed waveguide multiplexer on InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1250–1253 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Amersfoort, M. R.

C. van Dam, M. R. Amersfoort, G. M. ten Kate, F. P. G. M. van Ham, M. K. Smit, P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, “Novel InP-based phased-array wavelength demultiplexer using a generalized MMI-MZI configuration,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Integrated Optics (Istituto Internationale delle Communicazioni, Genova, Italy, 1994), pp. 275–278.

B. H. Verbeek, A. A. M. Staring, E. J. Jansen, R. van Roijen, J. J. M. Binsma, T. van Dongen, M. R. Amersfoort, C. van Dam, M. K. Smit, “Large bandwidth polarization independent and compact 8 channel PHASAR demultiplexer/filter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. PD13-1–PD13-4.

Bachmann, M.

M. Bachmann, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, “Overlapping-image multimode interference couplers with a reduced number of self-images for uniform and nonuniform power splitting,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6898–6910 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bachmann, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, “General self-imaging properties in N × N multimode interference couplers including phase relations,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3905–3911 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, M. K. Smit, “Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1004–1009 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. van Dam, M. R. Amersfoort, G. M. ten Kate, F. P. G. M. van Ham, M. K. Smit, P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, “Novel InP-based phased-array wavelength demultiplexer using a generalized MMI-MZI configuration,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Integrated Optics (Istituto Internationale delle Communicazioni, Genova, Italy, 1994), pp. 275–278.

M. Bachmann, Ch. Nadler, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, “Compact polarization-insensitive multi-leg 1 × 4 Mach-Zehnder switch in InGaAsP/InP,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communication (Delft U. Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 519–522.

Besse, P. A.

M. Bachmann, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, “Overlapping-image multimode interference couplers with a reduced number of self-images for uniform and nonuniform power splitting,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6898–6910 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bachmann, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, “General self-imaging properties in N × N multimode interference couplers including phase relations,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3905–3911 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, M. K. Smit, “Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1004–1009 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. van Dam, M. R. Amersfoort, G. M. ten Kate, F. P. G. M. van Ham, M. K. Smit, P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, “Novel InP-based phased-array wavelength demultiplexer using a generalized MMI-MZI configuration,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Integrated Optics (Istituto Internationale delle Communicazioni, Genova, Italy, 1994), pp. 275–278.

M. Bachmann, Ch. Nadler, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, “Compact polarization-insensitive multi-leg 1 × 4 Mach-Zehnder switch in InGaAsP/InP,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communication (Delft U. Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 519–522.

Binsma, J. J. M.

B. H. Verbeek, A. A. M. Staring, E. J. Jansen, R. van Roijen, J. J. M. Binsma, T. van Dongen, M. R. Amersfoort, C. van Dam, M. K. Smit, “Large bandwidth polarization independent and compact 8 channel PHASAR demultiplexer/filter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. PD13-1–PD13-4.

Birbeck, J. C. H.

R. M. Jenkins, J. M. Heaton, D. R. Wight, J. T. Parker, J. C. H. Birbeck, G. W. Smith, K. P. Hilton, “Novel 1 × N and N × N integrated optical switches using self-imaging multimode GaAs/AlGaAs waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 684–686, (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Heaton, R. M. Jenkins, D. R. Wight, J. T. Parker, J. C. H. Birbeck, K. P. Hilton, “Novel 1-to-N way integrated optical beam splitters using symmetric mode mixing in GaAs/AlGaAs multimode waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1754–1756, (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bodeep, G. E.

N. J. Frigo, P. P. Iannone, P. D. Magill, T. E. Darcie, M. M. Downs, B. N. Desai, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, G. E. Bodeep, “A wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network with cost-shared components,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1365–1367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Broughton, J. N.

M. R. Paiam, C. F. Janz, R. I. MacDonald, J. N. Broughton, “Compact planar 980/1550-nm wavelength multi/demultiplexer based on multimode interference,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1180–1182 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Darcie, T. E.

N. J. Frigo, P. P. Iannone, P. D. Magill, T. E. Darcie, M. M. Downs, B. N. Desai, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, G. E. Bodeep, “A wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network with cost-shared components,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1365–1367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

de Miguel, J. L.

A. Ferreras, F. Rodrígues, E. Gómez-Salas, J. L. de Miguel, F. Hernández-Gil, “Useful formulas for multimode interference power splitter/combiner design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1224–1227 (1993).
[CrossRef]

de Waard, P. J.

E. C. M. Pennings, R. van Roijen, M. J. N. van Stralen, P. J. de Waard, R. G. M. P. Koumans, B. H. Verbeek, “Reflection properties of multimode interference devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 715–718 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Desai, B. N.

N. J. Frigo, P. P. Iannone, P. D. Magill, T. E. Darcie, M. M. Downs, B. N. Desai, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, G. E. Bodeep, “A wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network with cost-shared components,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1365–1367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Downs, M. M.

N. J. Frigo, P. P. Iannone, P. D. Magill, T. E. Darcie, M. M. Downs, B. N. Desai, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, G. E. Bodeep, “A wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network with cost-shared components,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1365–1367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dragone, C.

N. J. Frigo, P. P. Iannone, P. D. Magill, T. E. Darcie, M. M. Downs, B. N. Desai, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, G. E. Bodeep, “A wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network with cost-shared components,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1365–1367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Zirngibl, C. Dragone, C. H. Joyner, “Demonstration of a 15 × 15 arrayed waveguide multiplexer on InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1250–1253 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dubost, A. H.

L. B. Soldano, F. B. Veerman, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, A. H. Dubost, E. C. M. Pennings, “Planar monomode optical couplers based on multimode interference effects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1843–1850 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ferreras, A.

A. Ferreras, F. Rodrígues, E. Gómez-Salas, J. L. de Miguel, F. Hernández-Gil, “Useful formulas for multimode interference power splitter/combiner design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1224–1227 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Frigo, N. J.

N. J. Frigo, P. P. Iannone, P. D. Magill, T. E. Darcie, M. M. Downs, B. N. Desai, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, G. E. Bodeep, “A wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network with cost-shared components,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1365–1367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Glance, B.

B. Glance, “Wavelength-tunable add/drop optical filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 245–247 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gómez-Salas, E.

A. Ferreras, F. Rodrígues, E. Gómez-Salas, J. L. de Miguel, F. Hernández-Gil, “Useful formulas for multimode interference power splitter/combiner design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1224–1227 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Heaton, J. M.

R. M. Jenkins, J. M. Heaton, D. R. Wight, J. T. Parker, J. C. H. Birbeck, G. W. Smith, K. P. Hilton, “Novel 1 × N and N × N integrated optical switches using self-imaging multimode GaAs/AlGaAs waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 684–686, (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Heaton, R. M. Jenkins, D. R. Wight, J. T. Parker, J. C. H. Birbeck, K. P. Hilton, “Novel 1-to-N way integrated optical beam splitters using symmetric mode mixing in GaAs/AlGaAs multimode waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1754–1756, (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hernández-Gil, F.

A. Ferreras, F. Rodrígues, E. Gómez-Salas, J. L. de Miguel, F. Hernández-Gil, “Useful formulas for multimode interference power splitter/combiner design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1224–1227 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hilton, K. P.

R. M. Jenkins, J. M. Heaton, D. R. Wight, J. T. Parker, J. C. H. Birbeck, G. W. Smith, K. P. Hilton, “Novel 1 × N and N × N integrated optical switches using self-imaging multimode GaAs/AlGaAs waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 684–686, (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Heaton, R. M. Jenkins, D. R. Wight, J. T. Parker, J. C. H. Birbeck, K. P. Hilton, “Novel 1-to-N way integrated optical beam splitters using symmetric mode mixing in GaAs/AlGaAs multimode waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1754–1756, (1992).
[CrossRef]

Iannone, P. P.

N. J. Frigo, P. P. Iannone, P. D. Magill, T. E. Darcie, M. M. Downs, B. N. Desai, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, G. E. Bodeep, “A wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network with cost-shared components,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1365–1367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, Y.

H. Takahashi, K. Oda, H. Toba, Y. Inoue, “Transmission characteristics of arrayed waveguide N × N wavelength multiplexer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(3), 447–455, (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, E. J.

B. H. Verbeek, A. A. M. Staring, E. J. Jansen, R. van Roijen, J. J. M. Binsma, T. van Dongen, M. R. Amersfoort, C. van Dam, M. K. Smit, “Large bandwidth polarization independent and compact 8 channel PHASAR demultiplexer/filter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. PD13-1–PD13-4.

Janz, C. F.

M. R. Paiam, C. F. Janz, R. I. MacDonald, J. N. Broughton, “Compact planar 980/1550-nm wavelength multi/demultiplexer based on multimode interference,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1180–1182 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jenkins, R. M.

R. M. Jenkins, J. M. Heaton, D. R. Wight, J. T. Parker, J. C. H. Birbeck, G. W. Smith, K. P. Hilton, “Novel 1 × N and N × N integrated optical switches using self-imaging multimode GaAs/AlGaAs waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 684–686, (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Heaton, R. M. Jenkins, D. R. Wight, J. T. Parker, J. C. H. Birbeck, K. P. Hilton, “Novel 1-to-N way integrated optical beam splitters using symmetric mode mixing in GaAs/AlGaAs multimode waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1754–1756, (1992).
[CrossRef]

Joyner, C. H.

M. Zirngibl, C. Dragone, C. H. Joyner, “Demonstration of a 15 × 15 arrayed waveguide multiplexer on InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1250–1253 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Koch, T. L.

N. J. Frigo, P. P. Iannone, P. D. Magill, T. E. Darcie, M. M. Downs, B. N. Desai, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, G. E. Bodeep, “A wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network with cost-shared components,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1365–1367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Koren, U.

N. J. Frigo, P. P. Iannone, P. D. Magill, T. E. Darcie, M. M. Downs, B. N. Desai, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, G. E. Bodeep, “A wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network with cost-shared components,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1365–1367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Koumans, R. G. M. P.

E. C. M. Pennings, R. van Roijen, M. J. N. van Stralen, P. J. de Waard, R. G. M. P. Koumans, B. H. Verbeek, “Reflection properties of multimode interference devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 715–718 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lierstuen, L. O.

L. O. Lierstuen, A. Sudbø, “8-channel wavelength division multiplexer based on multimode interference couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1034–1036 (1995).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, R. I.

M. R. Paiam, C. F. Janz, R. I. MacDonald, J. N. Broughton, “Compact planar 980/1550-nm wavelength multi/demultiplexer based on multimode interference,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1180–1182 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Paiam, R. I. MacDonald, “Planar phased-array wavelength multiplexers based on multimode interference couplers,” in Silicon-Based Monolithic and Hybrid Optoelectronic Devices, D. C. Houghton, B. Jalali, eds., Proc. SPIE3007, 104–111, (1997).
[CrossRef]

Magill, P. D.

N. J. Frigo, P. P. Iannone, P. D. Magill, T. E. Darcie, M. M. Downs, B. N. Desai, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, G. E. Bodeep, “A wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network with cost-shared components,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1365–1367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Melchior, H.

M. Bachmann, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, “Overlapping-image multimode interference couplers with a reduced number of self-images for uniform and nonuniform power splitting,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6898–6910 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, M. K. Smit, “Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1004–1009 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Bachmann, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, “General self-imaging properties in N × N multimode interference couplers including phase relations,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3905–3911 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. van Dam, M. R. Amersfoort, G. M. ten Kate, F. P. G. M. van Ham, M. K. Smit, P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, “Novel InP-based phased-array wavelength demultiplexer using a generalized MMI-MZI configuration,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Integrated Optics (Istituto Internationale delle Communicazioni, Genova, Italy, 1994), pp. 275–278.

M. Bachmann, Ch. Nadler, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, “Compact polarization-insensitive multi-leg 1 × 4 Mach-Zehnder switch in InGaAsP/InP,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communication (Delft U. Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 519–522.

Nadler, Ch.

M. Bachmann, Ch. Nadler, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, “Compact polarization-insensitive multi-leg 1 × 4 Mach-Zehnder switch in InGaAsP/InP,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communication (Delft U. Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 519–522.

Nishi, I.

H. Takahashi, S. Suzuki, I. Nishi, “Wavelength multiplexer based on SiO2–Ta2O5 arrayed-waveguide grating,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 989–995 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Oda, K.

H. Takahashi, K. Oda, H. Toba, Y. Inoue, “Transmission characteristics of arrayed waveguide N × N wavelength multiplexer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(3), 447–455, (1995).
[CrossRef]

Paiam, M. R.

M. R. Paiam, C. F. Janz, R. I. MacDonald, J. N. Broughton, “Compact planar 980/1550-nm wavelength multi/demultiplexer based on multimode interference,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1180–1182 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Paiam, R. I. MacDonald, “Planar phased-array wavelength multiplexers based on multimode interference couplers,” in Silicon-Based Monolithic and Hybrid Optoelectronic Devices, D. C. Houghton, B. Jalali, eds., Proc. SPIE3007, 104–111, (1997).
[CrossRef]

Parker, J. T.

R. M. Jenkins, J. M. Heaton, D. R. Wight, J. T. Parker, J. C. H. Birbeck, G. W. Smith, K. P. Hilton, “Novel 1 × N and N × N integrated optical switches using self-imaging multimode GaAs/AlGaAs waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 684–686, (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Heaton, R. M. Jenkins, D. R. Wight, J. T. Parker, J. C. H. Birbeck, K. P. Hilton, “Novel 1-to-N way integrated optical beam splitters using symmetric mode mixing in GaAs/AlGaAs multimode waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1754–1756, (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pennings, E. C. M.

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. C. M. Pennings, R. van Roijen, M. J. N. van Stralen, P. J. de Waard, R. G. M. P. Koumans, B. H. Verbeek, “Reflection properties of multimode interference devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 715–718 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Soldano, F. B. Veerman, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, A. H. Dubost, E. C. M. Pennings, “Planar monomode optical couplers based on multimode interference effects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1843–1850 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Presby, H. M.

N. J. Frigo, P. P. Iannone, P. D. Magill, T. E. Darcie, M. M. Downs, B. N. Desai, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, G. E. Bodeep, “A wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network with cost-shared components,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1365–1367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rodrígues, F.

A. Ferreras, F. Rodrígues, E. Gómez-Salas, J. L. de Miguel, F. Hernández-Gil, “Useful formulas for multimode interference power splitter/combiner design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1224–1227 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M. K.

P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, M. K. Smit, “Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1004–1009 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Soldano, F. B. Veerman, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, A. H. Dubost, E. C. M. Pennings, “Planar monomode optical couplers based on multimode interference effects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1843–1850 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. van Dam, M. R. Amersfoort, G. M. ten Kate, F. P. G. M. van Ham, M. K. Smit, P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, “Novel InP-based phased-array wavelength demultiplexer using a generalized MMI-MZI configuration,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Integrated Optics (Istituto Internationale delle Communicazioni, Genova, Italy, 1994), pp. 275–278.

B. H. Verbeek, A. A. M. Staring, E. J. Jansen, R. van Roijen, J. J. M. Binsma, T. van Dongen, M. R. Amersfoort, C. van Dam, M. K. Smit, “Large bandwidth polarization independent and compact 8 channel PHASAR demultiplexer/filter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. PD13-1–PD13-4.

Smith, G. W.

R. M. Jenkins, J. M. Heaton, D. R. Wight, J. T. Parker, J. C. H. Birbeck, G. W. Smith, K. P. Hilton, “Novel 1 × N and N × N integrated optical switches using self-imaging multimode GaAs/AlGaAs waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 684–686, (1994).
[CrossRef]

Soldano, L. B.

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, M. K. Smit, “Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1004–1009 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Soldano, F. B. Veerman, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, A. H. Dubost, E. C. M. Pennings, “Planar monomode optical couplers based on multimode interference effects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1843–1850 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Staring, A. A. M.

B. H. Verbeek, A. A. M. Staring, E. J. Jansen, R. van Roijen, J. J. M. Binsma, T. van Dongen, M. R. Amersfoort, C. van Dam, M. K. Smit, “Large bandwidth polarization independent and compact 8 channel PHASAR demultiplexer/filter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. PD13-1–PD13-4.

Sudbø, A.

L. O. Lierstuen, A. Sudbø, “8-channel wavelength division multiplexer based on multimode interference couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1034–1036 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, S.

H. Takahashi, S. Suzuki, I. Nishi, “Wavelength multiplexer based on SiO2–Ta2O5 arrayed-waveguide grating,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 989–995 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

H. Takahashi, K. Oda, H. Toba, Y. Inoue, “Transmission characteristics of arrayed waveguide N × N wavelength multiplexer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(3), 447–455, (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Takahashi, S. Suzuki, I. Nishi, “Wavelength multiplexer based on SiO2–Ta2O5 arrayed-waveguide grating,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 989–995 (1994).
[CrossRef]

ten Kate, G. M.

C. van Dam, M. R. Amersfoort, G. M. ten Kate, F. P. G. M. van Ham, M. K. Smit, P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, “Novel InP-based phased-array wavelength demultiplexer using a generalized MMI-MZI configuration,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Integrated Optics (Istituto Internationale delle Communicazioni, Genova, Italy, 1994), pp. 275–278.

Toba, H.

H. Takahashi, K. Oda, H. Toba, Y. Inoue, “Transmission characteristics of arrayed waveguide N × N wavelength multiplexer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(3), 447–455, (1995).
[CrossRef]

van Dam, C.

C. van Dam, M. R. Amersfoort, G. M. ten Kate, F. P. G. M. van Ham, M. K. Smit, P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, “Novel InP-based phased-array wavelength demultiplexer using a generalized MMI-MZI configuration,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Integrated Optics (Istituto Internationale delle Communicazioni, Genova, Italy, 1994), pp. 275–278.

B. H. Verbeek, A. A. M. Staring, E. J. Jansen, R. van Roijen, J. J. M. Binsma, T. van Dongen, M. R. Amersfoort, C. van Dam, M. K. Smit, “Large bandwidth polarization independent and compact 8 channel PHASAR demultiplexer/filter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. PD13-1–PD13-4.

van Dongen, T.

B. H. Verbeek, A. A. M. Staring, E. J. Jansen, R. van Roijen, J. J. M. Binsma, T. van Dongen, M. R. Amersfoort, C. van Dam, M. K. Smit, “Large bandwidth polarization independent and compact 8 channel PHASAR demultiplexer/filter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. PD13-1–PD13-4.

van Ham, F. P. G. M.

C. van Dam, M. R. Amersfoort, G. M. ten Kate, F. P. G. M. van Ham, M. K. Smit, P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, “Novel InP-based phased-array wavelength demultiplexer using a generalized MMI-MZI configuration,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Integrated Optics (Istituto Internationale delle Communicazioni, Genova, Italy, 1994), pp. 275–278.

van Roijen, R.

E. C. M. Pennings, R. van Roijen, M. J. N. van Stralen, P. J. de Waard, R. G. M. P. Koumans, B. H. Verbeek, “Reflection properties of multimode interference devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 715–718 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Verbeek, A. A. M. Staring, E. J. Jansen, R. van Roijen, J. J. M. Binsma, T. van Dongen, M. R. Amersfoort, C. van Dam, M. K. Smit, “Large bandwidth polarization independent and compact 8 channel PHASAR demultiplexer/filter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. PD13-1–PD13-4.

van Stralen, M. J. N.

E. C. M. Pennings, R. van Roijen, M. J. N. van Stralen, P. J. de Waard, R. G. M. P. Koumans, B. H. Verbeek, “Reflection properties of multimode interference devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 715–718 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Veerman, F. B.

L. B. Soldano, F. B. Veerman, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, A. H. Dubost, E. C. M. Pennings, “Planar monomode optical couplers based on multimode interference effects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1843–1850 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Verbeek, B. H.

E. C. M. Pennings, R. van Roijen, M. J. N. van Stralen, P. J. de Waard, R. G. M. P. Koumans, B. H. Verbeek, “Reflection properties of multimode interference devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 715–718 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Soldano, F. B. Veerman, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, A. H. Dubost, E. C. M. Pennings, “Planar monomode optical couplers based on multimode interference effects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1843–1850 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Verbeek, A. A. M. Staring, E. J. Jansen, R. van Roijen, J. J. M. Binsma, T. van Dongen, M. R. Amersfoort, C. van Dam, M. K. Smit, “Large bandwidth polarization independent and compact 8 channel PHASAR demultiplexer/filter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. PD13-1–PD13-4.

Wight, D. R.

R. M. Jenkins, J. M. Heaton, D. R. Wight, J. T. Parker, J. C. H. Birbeck, G. W. Smith, K. P. Hilton, “Novel 1 × N and N × N integrated optical switches using self-imaging multimode GaAs/AlGaAs waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 684–686, (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Heaton, R. M. Jenkins, D. R. Wight, J. T. Parker, J. C. H. Birbeck, K. P. Hilton, “Novel 1-to-N way integrated optical beam splitters using symmetric mode mixing in GaAs/AlGaAs multimode waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1754–1756, (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zirngibl, M.

M. Zirngibl, C. Dragone, C. H. Joyner, “Demonstration of a 15 × 15 arrayed waveguide multiplexer on InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1250–1253 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. M. Heaton, R. M. Jenkins, D. R. Wight, J. T. Parker, J. C. H. Birbeck, K. P. Hilton, “Novel 1-to-N way integrated optical beam splitters using symmetric mode mixing in GaAs/AlGaAs multimode waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1754–1756, (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Jenkins, J. M. Heaton, D. R. Wight, J. T. Parker, J. C. H. Birbeck, G. W. Smith, K. P. Hilton, “Novel 1 × N and N × N integrated optical switches using self-imaging multimode GaAs/AlGaAs waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 684–686, (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (7)

A. Ferreras, F. Rodrígues, E. Gómez-Salas, J. L. de Miguel, F. Hernández-Gil, “Useful formulas for multimode interference power splitter/combiner design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1224–1227 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Paiam, C. F. Janz, R. I. MacDonald, J. N. Broughton, “Compact planar 980/1550-nm wavelength multi/demultiplexer based on multimode interference,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1180–1182 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. C. M. Pennings, R. van Roijen, M. J. N. van Stralen, P. J. de Waard, R. G. M. P. Koumans, B. H. Verbeek, “Reflection properties of multimode interference devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 715–718 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. O. Lierstuen, A. Sudbø, “8-channel wavelength division multiplexer based on multimode interference couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1034–1036 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Zirngibl, C. Dragone, C. H. Joyner, “Demonstration of a 15 × 15 arrayed waveguide multiplexer on InP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1250–1253 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. Glance, “Wavelength-tunable add/drop optical filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 245–247 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Frigo, P. P. Iannone, P. D. Magill, T. E. Darcie, M. M. Downs, B. N. Desai, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, G. E. Bodeep, “A wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network with cost-shared components,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1365–1367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

H. Takahashi, S. Suzuki, I. Nishi, “Wavelength multiplexer based on SiO2–Ta2O5 arrayed-waveguide grating,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 989–995 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Takahashi, K. Oda, H. Toba, Y. Inoue, “Transmission characteristics of arrayed waveguide N × N wavelength multiplexer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(3), 447–455, (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Soldano, F. B. Veerman, M. K. Smit, B. H. Verbeek, A. H. Dubost, E. C. M. Pennings, “Planar monomode optical couplers based on multimode interference effects,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1843–1850 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, L. B. Soldano, M. K. Smit, “Optical bandwidth and fabrication tolerances of multimode interference couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 1004–1009 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

M. Bachmann, Ch. Nadler, P. A. Besse, H. Melchior, “Compact polarization-insensitive multi-leg 1 × 4 Mach-Zehnder switch in InGaAsP/InP,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communication (Delft U. Press, Delft, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 519–522.

C. van Dam, M. R. Amersfoort, G. M. ten Kate, F. P. G. M. van Ham, M. K. Smit, P. A. Besse, M. Bachmann, H. Melchior, “Novel InP-based phased-array wavelength demultiplexer using a generalized MMI-MZI configuration,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Integrated Optics (Istituto Internationale delle Communicazioni, Genova, Italy, 1994), pp. 275–278.

B. H. Verbeek, A. A. M. Staring, E. J. Jansen, R. van Roijen, J. J. M. Binsma, T. van Dongen, M. R. Amersfoort, C. van Dam, M. K. Smit, “Large bandwidth polarization independent and compact 8 channel PHASAR demultiplexer/filter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 4 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. PD13-1–PD13-4.

M. R. Paiam, R. I. MacDonald, “Planar phased-array wavelength multiplexers based on multimode interference couplers,” in Silicon-Based Monolithic and Hybrid Optoelectronic Devices, D. C. Houghton, B. Jalali, eds., Proc. SPIE3007, 104–111, (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

General layout of a MMI phasar multiplexer that consists of two MMI couplers connected by an array of N monomode waveguides. Array guides do not cross, and the shortest array guide can be any arm other than arm 1 or arm N (i.e., m ≠ 1, N). (a) With an N × N MMI coupler as the power splitter, (b) with a 1 × N MMI nonuniform power splitter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

General layout of a MMI phasar multiplexer that is similar to the structure depicted in Fig. 1(a) except that the shortest array guide in this case is the first arm (m = 1).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of a general N × N MMI coupler with equally spaced access guides. The same numbering direction has been used for both input and output guides.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of a 1 × N MMI power splitter where parameters h 2 and N ′ have to be chosen from h 2 = 1, 2 and N ′ = 2N + h 2 - 1, 2N + h 2 such that the term h 1 + h 2 + N ′ is even. Depending on the position of the input guide, both equal and unequal power splitting is possible. All the values of h 1 except N ′/2, N ′/3, and 2N ′/3 result in a nonuniform power distribution.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized output power distribution of a 1 × 5 MMI nonuniform power splitter versus the array guide factor (d j ). The number next to each symbol indicates the corresponding output j.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Layout of the five-channel MMI phasar multiplexers with an optimized set of values d j : (a) with a 5 × 5 MMI coupler as the power splitter, (b) with a 1 × 5 MMI nonuniform power splitter.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Layout of the five-channel MMI phasar multiplexer in which the shortest array guide is the first arm (m = 1).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Light intensity pattern in the 5 × 5 MMI coupler of length L c = 3L π/5 showing the excitation at input 3 (top) and input 1 (bottom). The coupler is 30 µm wide and 708 µm long.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Transmission loss of the 5 × 5 MMI coupler; the 7-dB inherent loss of the coupler is included. Each group of bars relate to the five images of an input.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Spectral response of the multiplexer of Fig. 6(a); the channel spacing is 2 nm. The responses of all five routes associated with the input guide i = m are shown, where m = 2. The routes originating from other inputs have similar transmissions.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Spectral response of the multiplexer of Fig. 6(b); the transmission at only one output guide is displayed. Other routes behave similarly, except for appropriate wavelength shifts of integer multiples of 2 nm.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Spectral response of the multiplexer of Fig 7; the response of only one route is displayed. Other routes exhibit similar transmissions, except for appropriate wave-length shifts of integer multiples of 2 nm.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Spectral response of a combined configuration of multiplexers of Figs. 6(b) and 7. Only one channel is shown.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Values of Ψj,k for m = 2 in a Five-Channel Multiplexer a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Wavelength Assignment of a Five-Channel MMI-Phasar Multiplexer a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Optimum Set of Values of the Array Arm Factor dj for an N-channel Multiplexer a

Tables Icon

Table 4 Various Parameters of the Designed Five-Channel Multiplexers

Equations (36)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

s=-CeilN-1/2,···, CeilN/2-1;
si,k=si,k if i=k and k=i.
Lj2>Lj1 if j2>j1m or j2<j1m.
m=2, 3,···, CeilN/2.
Lj-LmdjΔL for j=1,···,N,
dj2>dj1 if j2>j1m or j2<j1m.
Lc=3Lπ/N,
Lπ=πβ0-β14nverWe23λ0,
xiin=2i-1We/2N,
xjout=2j-1We/2N.
φi,j=ϕ1-π2-1i+j+N+π4N×i+j-i2-j2+-1i+j+N2ij-i-j+12,
ϕ1=-β03LπN-9π8N+3π4.
h1=1,···,N-1;h2=1,2;N=2N+h2-1,2N+h2;
Lc=3Lπ/N,
xin=h1We/N,
xjout=2j-2+h2We/N,
rj2=4Nsin2h22+j-1h1πN,
φj=ϕ1-πNh12+h224+j-12+h2j-1-π2sgnsinh22+j-1h1πN,
ϕ1=β03LπN-πN+5π4,
sgnx=+1,x>0-1,x<0.
Δφj,k=φj,k-φm,k-φj,m-φm,m,
Δφj,k=π-1N2N-1j+mj-1/2-m-1/2×-1k+mk-1/2-m-1/2-π1N21--1j+m--1k+m+-1j+k.
Ψj,k=-N/2πΔφj,kmod N,
Ψj,k=--1N4-1j+mj-1/2-m-1/2×-1k+mk-1/2-m-1/2mod N.
dj=Ψj,k1+BjN  for j=1,···, N,
s mod N=Ψj1,k  for k=1,···,N,
Ψj1,k1+A1NΨj2,k1+A2N=Ψj1,k2+A3NΨj2,k2+A4N  for all j1,k1,j2,k2,
Ψj1,k1Ψj2,k2-Ψj1,k2Ψj2,k1mod N=0.
si,k-si,mmod N=sm,k-sm,mmod N.
si,k mod N=sm,i+sm,k-sm,mmod N.
Lj-Lmβλsi,k-φi,j+φj,k-φi,m-φm,k=Ai,j,k2π,
Lj-Lm2πng0/λ0-2φm,j-φm,m=Am,j,m2π,
Lj-Lm=Am,j,m+φm,j-φm,mπλ0ng0.
Am,j,m=RnddjΔL ng0λ0+φm,j-φm,mπ,
ΔL=ρ λ0ng0=ρ-1Nλ0+Δλng0+Δλdngdλ,
ΔL=λ0λ0+ΔλNΔλng0-λ0dng/dλ.

Metrics