Abstract

We propose an efficient, simple, and scalable diode side-pumping configuration of a solid-state rod laser. The rod is excited in a diffusive cavity and diode powers are transferred by a thin plate into the cavity. In multitransverse-mode cw operation, 40 W of laser power was generated with an optical-to-optical slope efficiency of 52.2% at a diode output power of 135.1 W and an electrical input power of 327.3 W into the diodes. These values correspond to an optical-to-optical total efficiency of 29.6% and an electrical-to-optical total efficiency of 12.2%. The electrical-to-optical slope efficiency was 30.3%.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. Kaneda, M. Oka, H. Masuda, S. Kubota, “7.6 W of continuous-wave radiation in a TEM00 mode from a laser-diode end-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1003–1005 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. Golla, S. Knoke, W. Schöne, G. Ernst, M. Bode, A. Tünnermann, H. Welling, “300-W cw diode-laser side-pumped Nd:YAG rod laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1148–1150 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. J. Koshel, I. A. Walmsley, “Modeling of the gain distribution for diode pumping of a solid-state laser rod with non-imaging optics,” Appl. Opt. 32, 1517–1527 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. I. Freitag, D. Golla, S. Knoke, W. Schöne, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, H. Welling, “Amplitude and frequency stability of a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser operating at a single-frequency continuous-wave output power of 20 W,” Opt. Lett. 20, 462–464 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. H. Allik, W. W. Hovis, D. P. Caffey, V. King, “Efficient diode-array-pumped Nd:YAG and Nd:Lu:YAG lasers,” Opt. Lett. 14, 116–118 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. L. R. Marshall, A. Kaz, R. L. Burnham, “Highly efficient TEM00 operation of transversely diode-pumped Nd:YAG lasers,” Opt. Lett. 17, 186–188 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. Golla, S. Knoke, A. Tünnermann, H. Welling, “Design and laser performance of diode-laser side-pumped Nd:YAG lasers operating at high output powers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 62, paper CTuC3.
  8. A. D. Hays, R. Burnham, G. L. Harnagel, “High-efficiency diode-array side-pumped neodymium lasers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Postdeadline papers, Vol. 11 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD09.
  9. T. Brand, “Compact 170-W continuous-wave diode-pumped Nd:YAG rod laser with a cusp-shaped reflector,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1776–1778 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. N. Uehara, K. Nakahara, K. Ueda, “Continuous-wave TEM00-mode 26.5-W-output virtual-point-source diode-array-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1707–1709 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Burnham, A. D. Hays, “High-power diode-array-pumped frequency-doubled cw Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 14, 27–29 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. J. Shine, A. J. Alfrey, R. L. Byer, “40-W cw, TEM00-mode, diode-laser-pumped, Nd:YAG miniature-slab laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 459–461 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. J. Shine, A. J. Alfrey, R. L. Byer, “40 W cw, TEM00 mode, diode-laser-pumped, Nd:YAG slab laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 24 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 216.
  14. L. R. Marshall, A. Kaz, “CW-diode-pumped nonlinear converters: beyond 10 W,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Postdeadline Papers (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995) paper PD16.
  15. J. Harrison, P. F. Moulton, G. A. Scott, “13-W, M2 < 1.2 Nd:YLF laser pumped by a pair of 20-W diode laser bars,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Postdeadline papers, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CPD20.
  16. A. Ishimori, T. Yamamoto, T. Uchiumi, S. Yagi, K. Shigihara, “Pumping configuration without focusing lenses for a small-sized diode-pumped Nd:YAG slab laser,” Opt. Lett. 17, 40–42 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. Wälti, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, P. Schwarzenbach, “Operation of an eightfold transversely diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser using glass plates,” in 1994 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, Technical Digest (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., Piscataway, N.J., 1994), p. 409, paper CFH3.
  18. D. Findlay, R. A. Clay, “The measurement of internal losses in 4-level lasers,” Phys. Lett. 20, 277–278 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. Koechner, Solid State Laser Engineering, 3rd ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), Chap. 3, p. 132.

1995

1993

1992

1989

1966

D. Findlay, R. A. Clay, “The measurement of internal losses in 4-level lasers,” Phys. Lett. 20, 277–278 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Alfrey, A. J.

R. J. Shine, A. J. Alfrey, R. L. Byer, “40-W cw, TEM00-mode, diode-laser-pumped, Nd:YAG miniature-slab laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 459–461 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Shine, A. J. Alfrey, R. L. Byer, “40 W cw, TEM00 mode, diode-laser-pumped, Nd:YAG slab laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 24 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 216.

Allik, T. H.

Bode, M.

Brand, T.

Burnham, R.

R. Burnham, A. D. Hays, “High-power diode-array-pumped frequency-doubled cw Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 14, 27–29 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Hays, R. Burnham, G. L. Harnagel, “High-efficiency diode-array side-pumped neodymium lasers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Postdeadline papers, Vol. 11 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD09.

Burnham, R. L.

Byer, R. L.

R. J. Shine, A. J. Alfrey, R. L. Byer, “40-W cw, TEM00-mode, diode-laser-pumped, Nd:YAG miniature-slab laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 459–461 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Shine, A. J. Alfrey, R. L. Byer, “40 W cw, TEM00 mode, diode-laser-pumped, Nd:YAG slab laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 24 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 216.

Caffey, D. P.

Clay, R. A.

D. Findlay, R. A. Clay, “The measurement of internal losses in 4-level lasers,” Phys. Lett. 20, 277–278 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Ernst, G.

Findlay, D.

D. Findlay, R. A. Clay, “The measurement of internal losses in 4-level lasers,” Phys. Lett. 20, 277–278 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Freitag, I.

Golla, D.

I. Freitag, D. Golla, S. Knoke, W. Schöne, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, H. Welling, “Amplitude and frequency stability of a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser operating at a single-frequency continuous-wave output power of 20 W,” Opt. Lett. 20, 462–464 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Golla, S. Knoke, W. Schöne, G. Ernst, M. Bode, A. Tünnermann, H. Welling, “300-W cw diode-laser side-pumped Nd:YAG rod laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1148–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Golla, S. Knoke, A. Tünnermann, H. Welling, “Design and laser performance of diode-laser side-pumped Nd:YAG lasers operating at high output powers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 62, paper CTuC3.

Harnagel, G. L.

A. D. Hays, R. Burnham, G. L. Harnagel, “High-efficiency diode-array side-pumped neodymium lasers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Postdeadline papers, Vol. 11 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD09.

Harrison, J.

J. Harrison, P. F. Moulton, G. A. Scott, “13-W, M2 < 1.2 Nd:YLF laser pumped by a pair of 20-W diode laser bars,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Postdeadline papers, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CPD20.

Hays, A. D.

R. Burnham, A. D. Hays, “High-power diode-array-pumped frequency-doubled cw Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 14, 27–29 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Hays, R. Burnham, G. L. Harnagel, “High-efficiency diode-array side-pumped neodymium lasers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Postdeadline papers, Vol. 11 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD09.

Hovis, W. W.

Ishimori, A.

Kaneda, Y.

Kaz, A.

L. R. Marshall, A. Kaz, R. L. Burnham, “Highly efficient TEM00 operation of transversely diode-pumped Nd:YAG lasers,” Opt. Lett. 17, 186–188 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. R. Marshall, A. Kaz, “CW-diode-pumped nonlinear converters: beyond 10 W,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Postdeadline Papers (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995) paper PD16.

King, V.

Knoke, S.

I. Freitag, D. Golla, S. Knoke, W. Schöne, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, H. Welling, “Amplitude and frequency stability of a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser operating at a single-frequency continuous-wave output power of 20 W,” Opt. Lett. 20, 462–464 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Golla, S. Knoke, W. Schöne, G. Ernst, M. Bode, A. Tünnermann, H. Welling, “300-W cw diode-laser side-pumped Nd:YAG rod laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1148–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Golla, S. Knoke, A. Tünnermann, H. Welling, “Design and laser performance of diode-laser side-pumped Nd:YAG lasers operating at high output powers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 62, paper CTuC3.

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner, Solid State Laser Engineering, 3rd ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), Chap. 3, p. 132.

Koshel, R. J.

Kubota, S.

Lüthy, W.

R. Wälti, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, P. Schwarzenbach, “Operation of an eightfold transversely diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser using glass plates,” in 1994 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, Technical Digest (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., Piscataway, N.J., 1994), p. 409, paper CFH3.

Marshall, L. R.

L. R. Marshall, A. Kaz, R. L. Burnham, “Highly efficient TEM00 operation of transversely diode-pumped Nd:YAG lasers,” Opt. Lett. 17, 186–188 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. R. Marshall, A. Kaz, “CW-diode-pumped nonlinear converters: beyond 10 W,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Postdeadline Papers (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995) paper PD16.

Masuda, H.

Moulton, P. F.

J. Harrison, P. F. Moulton, G. A. Scott, “13-W, M2 < 1.2 Nd:YLF laser pumped by a pair of 20-W diode laser bars,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Postdeadline papers, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CPD20.

Nakahara, K.

Oka, M.

Schöne, W.

Schwarzenbach, P.

R. Wälti, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, P. Schwarzenbach, “Operation of an eightfold transversely diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser using glass plates,” in 1994 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, Technical Digest (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., Piscataway, N.J., 1994), p. 409, paper CFH3.

Scott, G. A.

J. Harrison, P. F. Moulton, G. A. Scott, “13-W, M2 < 1.2 Nd:YLF laser pumped by a pair of 20-W diode laser bars,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Postdeadline papers, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CPD20.

Shigihara, K.

Shine, R. J.

R. J. Shine, A. J. Alfrey, R. L. Byer, “40-W cw, TEM00-mode, diode-laser-pumped, Nd:YAG miniature-slab laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 459–461 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Shine, A. J. Alfrey, R. L. Byer, “40 W cw, TEM00 mode, diode-laser-pumped, Nd:YAG slab laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 24 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 216.

Tünnermann, A.

I. Freitag, D. Golla, S. Knoke, W. Schöne, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, H. Welling, “Amplitude and frequency stability of a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser operating at a single-frequency continuous-wave output power of 20 W,” Opt. Lett. 20, 462–464 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Golla, S. Knoke, W. Schöne, G. Ernst, M. Bode, A. Tünnermann, H. Welling, “300-W cw diode-laser side-pumped Nd:YAG rod laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1148–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Golla, S. Knoke, A. Tünnermann, H. Welling, “Design and laser performance of diode-laser side-pumped Nd:YAG lasers operating at high output powers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 62, paper CTuC3.

Uchiumi, T.

Ueda, K.

Uehara, N.

Walmsley, I. A.

Wälti, R.

R. Wälti, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, P. Schwarzenbach, “Operation of an eightfold transversely diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser using glass plates,” in 1994 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, Technical Digest (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., Piscataway, N.J., 1994), p. 409, paper CFH3.

Weber, H. P.

R. Wälti, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, P. Schwarzenbach, “Operation of an eightfold transversely diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser using glass plates,” in 1994 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, Technical Digest (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., Piscataway, N.J., 1994), p. 409, paper CFH3.

Welling, H.

D. Golla, S. Knoke, W. Schöne, G. Ernst, M. Bode, A. Tünnermann, H. Welling, “300-W cw diode-laser side-pumped Nd:YAG rod laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1148–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Freitag, D. Golla, S. Knoke, W. Schöne, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, H. Welling, “Amplitude and frequency stability of a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser operating at a single-frequency continuous-wave output power of 20 W,” Opt. Lett. 20, 462–464 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Golla, S. Knoke, A. Tünnermann, H. Welling, “Design and laser performance of diode-laser side-pumped Nd:YAG lasers operating at high output powers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 62, paper CTuC3.

Yagi, S.

Yamamoto, T.

Zellmer, H.

Appl. Opt.

Opt. Lett.

R. Burnham, A. D. Hays, “High-power diode-array-pumped frequency-doubled cw Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 14, 27–29 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Allik, W. W. Hovis, D. P. Caffey, V. King, “Efficient diode-array-pumped Nd:YAG and Nd:Lu:YAG lasers,” Opt. Lett. 14, 116–118 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ishimori, T. Yamamoto, T. Uchiumi, S. Yagi, K. Shigihara, “Pumping configuration without focusing lenses for a small-sized diode-pumped Nd:YAG slab laser,” Opt. Lett. 17, 40–42 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. R. Marshall, A. Kaz, R. L. Burnham, “Highly efficient TEM00 operation of transversely diode-pumped Nd:YAG lasers,” Opt. Lett. 17, 186–188 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kaneda, M. Oka, H. Masuda, S. Kubota, “7.6 W of continuous-wave radiation in a TEM00 mode from a laser-diode end-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1003–1005 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Shine, A. J. Alfrey, R. L. Byer, “40-W cw, TEM00-mode, diode-laser-pumped, Nd:YAG miniature-slab laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 459–461 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Freitag, D. Golla, S. Knoke, W. Schöne, H. Zellmer, A. Tünnermann, H. Welling, “Amplitude and frequency stability of a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser operating at a single-frequency continuous-wave output power of 20 W,” Opt. Lett. 20, 462–464 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Golla, S. Knoke, W. Schöne, G. Ernst, M. Bode, A. Tünnermann, H. Welling, “300-W cw diode-laser side-pumped Nd:YAG rod laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1148–1150 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Uehara, K. Nakahara, K. Ueda, “Continuous-wave TEM00-mode 26.5-W-output virtual-point-source diode-array-pumped Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1707–1709 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Brand, “Compact 170-W continuous-wave diode-pumped Nd:YAG rod laser with a cusp-shaped reflector,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1776–1778 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Lett.

D. Findlay, R. A. Clay, “The measurement of internal losses in 4-level lasers,” Phys. Lett. 20, 277–278 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. Koechner, Solid State Laser Engineering, 3rd ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992), Chap. 3, p. 132.

D. Golla, S. Knoke, A. Tünnermann, H. Welling, “Design and laser performance of diode-laser side-pumped Nd:YAG lasers operating at high output powers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 62, paper CTuC3.

A. D. Hays, R. Burnham, G. L. Harnagel, “High-efficiency diode-array side-pumped neodymium lasers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Postdeadline papers, Vol. 11 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD09.

R. J. Shine, A. J. Alfrey, R. L. Byer, “40 W cw, TEM00 mode, diode-laser-pumped, Nd:YAG slab laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 24 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 216.

L. R. Marshall, A. Kaz, “CW-diode-pumped nonlinear converters: beyond 10 W,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Postdeadline Papers (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995) paper PD16.

J. Harrison, P. F. Moulton, G. A. Scott, “13-W, M2 < 1.2 Nd:YLF laser pumped by a pair of 20-W diode laser bars,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Postdeadline papers, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper CPD20.

R. Wälti, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, P. Schwarzenbach, “Operation of an eightfold transversely diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser using glass plates,” in 1994 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe, Technical Digest (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., Piscataway, N.J., 1994), p. 409, paper CFH3.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross section of the diode side-pumping configuration of a Nd:YAG laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the pumping block; #1, #2 and #3 show the modules.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fluorescence profile integrated along the Nd:YAG rod axis at 135.1-W total output power of diode arrays in the case of uniform pumping. In the gray-scale plot, white signifies the region with maximum fluorescence intensity and black signifies the region with no fluorescence.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Multitransverse-mode laser output power with an output mirror of 9.8% transmission as a function of the total output power of six laser diodes for uniform pumping.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Multitransverse-mode laser output power with an output mirror of 9.8% transmission as a function of the total electrical input power into the laser diodes for uniform pumping.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of Lasing Results with Multitransverse-Mode Operation Between Uniform and Nonuniform Pumping Distributions

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