Abstract

The Beamlet is a single-beam prototype of future multibeam megajoule-class Nd:glass laser drivers for inertial confinement fusion. It uses a multipass main amplifier, adaptive optics, and efficient, high-fluence frequency conversion to the third harmonic. The Beamlet amplifier contains Brewster-angle glass slabs with a clear aperture of 39 cm × 39 cm and a full-aperture plasma-electrode Pockels cell switch. It has been successfully tested over a range of pulse lengths from 1–10 ns up to energies at 1.053 µm of 5.8 kJ at 1 ns and 17.3 kJ at 10 ns. A 39-actuator deformable mirror corrects the beam quality to a Strehl ratio of as much as 0.4. The 1.053-µm output has been converted to the third harmonic at efficiencies as high as 80% and fluences as high as 8.7 J/cm2 for 3-ns pulses.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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1995 (3)

M. Andre, M. Novaro, D. Schirmann, “Technologie pour un laser megajoules,” Rev. Sci. Tech. Direction Appl. Militaires 13, 73–84 (1995).

J. Lindl, “Development of the indirect-drive approach to inertial confinement fusion and the target physics basis for ignition and gain,” Phys. Plasmas 2, 3933–4024 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Rhodes, B. Woods, J. J. DeYoreo, D. Roberts, L. J. Atherton, “Performance of large-aperture optical switches for high-energy ICF lasers,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5313–5330 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

T. R. Boehly, R. S. Craxton, T. H. Hinterman, P. A. Jaanimagi, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kesselr, R. L. Kremens, S. A. Kumpan, S. A. Letzring, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. M. Soures, C. P. Verdon, “The Omega upgrade laser system,” Fusion Technol. 26, part 2, 722–729 (1994).

1993 (1)

1992 (5)

1989 (2)

1988 (1)

G. Thiell, A. Adolf, M. Andre, N. Fleurot, D. D. Juraszek, D. Schirman, “The Phébus experimental facility operating at 250 ps and 0.53 µm,” Laser Particle Beams 6, 93–103 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

J. Goldhar, M. A. Henesian, “Large-aperture electrooptical switches with plasma electrodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1137–1147 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

C. Yamanaka, “Inertial confinement fusion in Japan,” Laser Particle Beams 2, 425–431 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

W. W. Simmons, R. O. Godwin, “Nova laser fusion facility—design, engineering and assembly overview,” Nucl. Technol. Fusion 4, 8–24 (1983).

1981 (2)

R. S. Craxton, “High-efficiency frequency tripling schemes for high-power Nd:glass lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1771–1782 (1981).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Simmons, J. T. Hunt, W. E. Warren, “Light propagation through large laser systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1727–1744 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

W. Seka, S. D. Jacobs, J. E. Rizzo, R. Boni, R. S. Craxton, “Demonstration of high-efficiency third-harmonic conversion of high-power Nd-glass laser radiation,” Opt. Commun. 34, 469–473 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Craxton, “Theory of high-efficiency third harmonic generation of high-power Nd-glass radiation,” Opt. Commun. 34, 474–478 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1972 (1)

Adolf, A.

G. Thiell, A. Adolf, M. Andre, N. Fleurot, D. D. Juraszek, D. Schirman, “The Phébus experimental facility operating at 250 ps and 0.53 µm,” Laser Particle Beams 6, 93–103 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Andre, M.

M. Andre, M. Novaro, D. Schirmann, “Technologie pour un laser megajoules,” Rev. Sci. Tech. Direction Appl. Militaires 13, 73–84 (1995).

G. Thiell, A. Adolf, M. Andre, N. Fleurot, D. D. Juraszek, D. Schirman, “The Phébus experimental facility operating at 250 ps and 0.53 µm,” Laser Particle Beams 6, 93–103 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Arisholm, G.

G. Arisholm, P. Narum, “Transient transverse stimulated Brillouin scattering with a broad-band pump,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2075–2083 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Atherton, L. J.

M. A. Rhodes, B. Woods, J. J. DeYoreo, D. Roberts, L. J. Atherton, “Performance of large-aperture optical switches for high-energy ICF lasers,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5313–5330 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Rainer, L. J. Atherton, J. J. De Yoreo, “Laser damage to production- and research-grade KDP crystals,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1848, 46–58 (1992).

J. H. Campbell, L. J. Atherton, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Kozlowski, R. T. Maney, R. C. Montesanti, L. M. Sheehan, C. B. Barker, “Large aperture, high damage threshold optics for Beamlet,” 5(1), 52–61 (1995). Available from NTIS; see Ref. 1.

Auerbach, J. M.

J. M. Auerbach, V. P. Karpenko, “Serrated-aperture apodizers for high-energy laser systems,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3179–3183 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Barker, B. M. Van Wonterghem, J. M. Auerbach, R. J. Foley, J. R. Murray, J. H. Campbell, J. A. Caird, D. R. Speck, B. Woods, “Design and performance of the Beamlet laser third harmonic frequency converter,” in Solid-State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 398–404 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Auerbach, J. K. Lawson, M. D. Rotter, B. M. Van Wonterghem, W. H. Williams, “Performance modeling of Beamlet,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 405–411 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Barker, C. B.

J. H. Campbell, L. J. Atherton, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Kozlowski, R. T. Maney, R. C. Montesanti, L. M. Sheehan, C. B. Barker, “Large aperture, high damage threshold optics for Beamlet,” 5(1), 52–61 (1995). Available from NTIS; see Ref. 1.

Barker, C. E.

C. E. Barker, B. M. Van Wonterghem, J. M. Auerbach, R. J. Foley, J. R. Murray, J. H. Campbell, J. A. Caird, D. R. Speck, B. Woods, “Design and performance of the Beamlet laser third harmonic frequency converter,” in Solid-State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 398–404 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Barker, R. A. Sacks, B. M. Van Wonterghem, J. A. Caird, J. R. Murray, J. H. Campbell, K. Kyle, R. B. Ehrlich, N. D. Nielsen, “Transverse stimulated Raman scattering in KDP,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 501–505 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bel’kov, S. A.

V. N. Novikov, S. A. Bel’kov, G. G. Kochemasov, S. M. Kulikov, N. N. Rukavishnikov, S. A. Sukharev, I. N. Voronich, A. I. Zaretskii, “Stimulated Raman scattering in frequency conversion crystals,” in Solid-State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 506–512 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bett, T. H.

M. J. Norman, R. M. Stevenson, I. C. Smith, D. Bowley-Booth, I. K. Pearce, T. H. Bett, “Recent improvements to the HELEN laser system,” in Conference Proceedings of QE-9: The Ninth National Quantum Electronics Conference (Oxford U. Press, London, 1989), p. 66.

Bibeau, C.

Bliss, E. S.

J. T. Salmon, E. S. Bliss, T. W. Long, E. L. Orham, R. W. Presta, C. D. Swift, R. S. Ward, “Real-time wavefront correction using a zonal deformable mirror and a Hartmann sensor,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. SPIE1542, 459–467 (1991);J. T. Salmon, E. S. Bliss, J. L. Byrd, M. Feldman, M. W. Kartz, J. S. Toeppen, B. M. Van Wonterghem, S. E. Winters, “Adaptive optics system for solid-state laser systems used in inertial confinement fusion,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 105–115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Boehly, T. R.

T. R. Boehly, R. S. Craxton, T. H. Hinterman, P. A. Jaanimagi, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kesselr, R. L. Kremens, S. A. Kumpan, S. A. Letzring, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. M. Soures, C. P. Verdon, “The Omega upgrade laser system,” Fusion Technol. 26, part 2, 722–729 (1994).

Boni, R.

W. Seka, S. D. Jacobs, J. E. Rizzo, R. Boni, R. S. Craxton, “Demonstration of high-efficiency third-harmonic conversion of high-power Nd-glass laser radiation,” Opt. Commun. 34, 469–473 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bowley-Booth, D.

M. J. Norman, R. M. Stevenson, I. C. Smith, D. Bowley-Booth, I. K. Pearce, T. H. Bett, “Recent improvements to the HELEN laser system,” in Conference Proceedings of QE-9: The Ninth National Quantum Electronics Conference (Oxford U. Press, London, 1989), p. 66.

Burkhart, S. C.

Caird, J. A.

C. E. Barker, R. A. Sacks, B. M. Van Wonterghem, J. A. Caird, J. R. Murray, J. H. Campbell, K. Kyle, R. B. Ehrlich, N. D. Nielsen, “Transverse stimulated Raman scattering in KDP,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 501–505 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Barker, B. M. Van Wonterghem, J. M. Auerbach, R. J. Foley, J. R. Murray, J. H. Campbell, J. A. Caird, D. R. Speck, B. Woods, “Design and performance of the Beamlet laser third harmonic frequency converter,” in Solid-State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 398–404 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. H.

C. E. Barker, B. M. Van Wonterghem, J. M. Auerbach, R. J. Foley, J. R. Murray, J. H. Campbell, J. A. Caird, D. R. Speck, B. Woods, “Design and performance of the Beamlet laser third harmonic frequency converter,” in Solid-State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 398–404 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Campbell, G. J. Edwards, J. E. Marion, “Damage and fracture in large aperture, fused silica, vacuum spatial filter lenses,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 522–534 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Barker, R. A. Sacks, B. M. Van Wonterghem, J. A. Caird, J. R. Murray, J. H. Campbell, K. Kyle, R. B. Ehrlich, N. D. Nielsen, “Transverse stimulated Raman scattering in KDP,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 501–505 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Campbell, “Recent advances in phosphate laser glasses for high power applications,” in Inorganic Optical Materials, P. Klocek, ed., Vol. CR64 of SPIE Critical Reviews Series (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1996), pp. 3–39.

M. R. Kozlowski, I. M. Thomas, J. H. Campbell, F. Rainer, “High-power optical coatings for a megajoule-class ICF laser,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. SPIE1782, 105–121 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Campbell, L. J. Atherton, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Kozlowski, R. T. Maney, R. C. Montesanti, L. M. Sheehan, C. B. Barker, “Large aperture, high damage threshold optics for Beamlet,” 5(1), 52–61 (1995). Available from NTIS; see Ref. 1.

J. H. Campbell, F. Rainer, M. Kozlowski, C. R. Wolfe, I. M. Thomas, F. Milanovich, “Damage resistant optics for a mega-joule solid state laser,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 444–456 (1990).

Craxton, R. S.

T. R. Boehly, R. S. Craxton, T. H. Hinterman, P. A. Jaanimagi, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kesselr, R. L. Kremens, S. A. Kumpan, S. A. Letzring, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. M. Soures, C. P. Verdon, “The Omega upgrade laser system,” Fusion Technol. 26, part 2, 722–729 (1994).

R. S. Craxton, “High-efficiency frequency tripling schemes for high-power Nd:glass lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1771–1782 (1981).
[CrossRef]

W. Seka, S. D. Jacobs, J. E. Rizzo, R. Boni, R. S. Craxton, “Demonstration of high-efficiency third-harmonic conversion of high-power Nd-glass laser radiation,” Opt. Commun. 34, 469–473 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Craxton, “Theory of high-efficiency third harmonic generation of high-power Nd-glass radiation,” Opt. Commun. 34, 474–478 (1980).
[CrossRef]

De Yoreo, J. J.

J. H. Campbell, L. J. Atherton, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Kozlowski, R. T. Maney, R. C. Montesanti, L. M. Sheehan, C. B. Barker, “Large aperture, high damage threshold optics for Beamlet,” 5(1), 52–61 (1995). Available from NTIS; see Ref. 1.

F. Rainer, L. J. Atherton, J. J. De Yoreo, “Laser damage to production- and research-grade KDP crystals,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1848, 46–58 (1992).

DeYoreo, J. J.

M. A. Rhodes, B. Woods, J. J. DeYoreo, D. Roberts, L. J. Atherton, “Performance of large-aperture optical switches for high-energy ICF lasers,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5313–5330 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ebbers, C. A.

Edwards, G. J.

J. H. Campbell, G. J. Edwards, J. E. Marion, “Damage and fracture in large aperture, fused silica, vacuum spatial filter lenses,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 522–534 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Eggleston, J. M.

Ehrlich, R. B.

Erlandson, A. C.

A. C. Erlandson, M. D. Rotter, K. S. Jancaitis, D. N. Frank, R. W. McCracken, “Design and performance of the Beamlet amplifiers,” 5(1), 18–28 (1995); M. D. Rotter, R. W. McCracken, A. C. Erlandson, D. W. Brown, “Thermal recovery measurements on multisegment amplifers,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE 2633, 70–81 (1995).

Fleurot, N.

G. Thiell, A. Adolf, M. Andre, N. Fleurot, D. D. Juraszek, D. Schirman, “The Phébus experimental facility operating at 250 ps and 0.53 µm,” Laser Particle Beams 6, 93–103 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Foley, R. J.

C. E. Barker, B. M. Van Wonterghem, J. M. Auerbach, R. J. Foley, J. R. Murray, J. H. Campbell, J. A. Caird, D. R. Speck, B. Woods, “Design and performance of the Beamlet laser third harmonic frequency converter,” in Solid-State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 398–404 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Frank, D. N.

A. C. Erlandson, M. D. Rotter, K. S. Jancaitis, D. N. Frank, R. W. McCracken, “Design and performance of the Beamlet amplifiers,” 5(1), 18–28 (1995); M. D. Rotter, R. W. McCracken, A. C. Erlandson, D. W. Brown, “Thermal recovery measurements on multisegment amplifers,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE 2633, 70–81 (1995).

Glaze, J. A.

Godwin, R. O.

W. W. Simmons, R. O. Godwin, “Nova laser fusion facility—design, engineering and assembly overview,” Nucl. Technol. Fusion 4, 8–24 (1983).

Goldhar, J.

J. Goldhar, M. A. Henesian, “Large-aperture electrooptical switches with plasma electrodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1137–1147 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Happe, J.

Henesian, M. A.

Hinterman, T. H.

T. R. Boehly, R. S. Craxton, T. H. Hinterman, P. A. Jaanimagi, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kesselr, R. L. Kremens, S. A. Kumpan, S. A. Letzring, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. M. Soures, C. P. Verdon, “The Omega upgrade laser system,” Fusion Technol. 26, part 2, 722–729 (1994).

Hunt, J. T.

J. T. Hunt, D. R. Speck, “Present and future performance of the Nova laser system,” Opt. Eng. 28, 461–468 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Simmons, J. T. Hunt, W. E. Warren, “Light propagation through large laser systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1727–1744 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Hunt, J. A. Glaze, W. W. Simmons, P. Renard, “Suppression of self-focusing through low-pass spatial filtering and relay imaging,” Appl. Opt. 17, 2053–2057 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaanimagi, P. A.

T. R. Boehly, R. S. Craxton, T. H. Hinterman, P. A. Jaanimagi, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kesselr, R. L. Kremens, S. A. Kumpan, S. A. Letzring, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. M. Soures, C. P. Verdon, “The Omega upgrade laser system,” Fusion Technol. 26, part 2, 722–729 (1994).

Jacobs, S. D.

W. Seka, S. D. Jacobs, J. E. Rizzo, R. Boni, R. S. Craxton, “Demonstration of high-efficiency third-harmonic conversion of high-power Nd-glass laser radiation,” Opt. Commun. 34, 469–473 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Jancaitis, K. S.

A. C. Erlandson, M. D. Rotter, K. S. Jancaitis, D. N. Frank, R. W. McCracken, “Design and performance of the Beamlet amplifiers,” 5(1), 18–28 (1995); M. D. Rotter, R. W. McCracken, A. C. Erlandson, D. W. Brown, “Thermal recovery measurements on multisegment amplifers,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE 2633, 70–81 (1995).

Juraszek, D. D.

G. Thiell, A. Adolf, M. Andre, N. Fleurot, D. D. Juraszek, D. Schirman, “The Phébus experimental facility operating at 250 ps and 0.53 µm,” Laser Particle Beams 6, 93–103 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Karpenko, V.

B. M. Van Wonterghem, D. R. Speck, M. J. Norman, V. Karpenko, R. B. Wilcox, “The Beamlet front end: prototype of a new pulse generation subsystem,” 3(1), 9 (1993). Available from NTIS; see Ref. 1.

Karpenko, V. P.

Kelly, J. H.

T. R. Boehly, R. S. Craxton, T. H. Hinterman, P. A. Jaanimagi, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kesselr, R. L. Kremens, S. A. Kumpan, S. A. Letzring, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. M. Soures, C. P. Verdon, “The Omega upgrade laser system,” Fusion Technol. 26, part 2, 722–729 (1994).

Kesselr, T. J.

T. R. Boehly, R. S. Craxton, T. H. Hinterman, P. A. Jaanimagi, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kesselr, R. L. Kremens, S. A. Kumpan, S. A. Letzring, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. M. Soures, C. P. Verdon, “The Omega upgrade laser system,” Fusion Technol. 26, part 2, 722–729 (1994).

Kidder, R. E.

Kochemasov, G. G.

V. N. Novikov, S. A. Bel’kov, G. G. Kochemasov, S. M. Kulikov, N. N. Rukavishnikov, S. A. Sukharev, I. N. Voronich, A. I. Zaretskii, “Stimulated Raman scattering in frequency conversion crystals,” in Solid-State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 506–512 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kozlowski, M.

J. H. Campbell, F. Rainer, M. Kozlowski, C. R. Wolfe, I. M. Thomas, F. Milanovich, “Damage resistant optics for a mega-joule solid state laser,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 444–456 (1990).

Kozlowski, M. R.

J. H. Campbell, L. J. Atherton, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Kozlowski, R. T. Maney, R. C. Montesanti, L. M. Sheehan, C. B. Barker, “Large aperture, high damage threshold optics for Beamlet,” 5(1), 52–61 (1995). Available from NTIS; see Ref. 1.

M. R. Kozlowski, I. M. Thomas, J. H. Campbell, F. Rainer, “High-power optical coatings for a megajoule-class ICF laser,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. SPIE1782, 105–121 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kremens, R. L.

T. R. Boehly, R. S. Craxton, T. H. Hinterman, P. A. Jaanimagi, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kesselr, R. L. Kremens, S. A. Kumpan, S. A. Letzring, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. M. Soures, C. P. Verdon, “The Omega upgrade laser system,” Fusion Technol. 26, part 2, 722–729 (1994).

Kulikov, S. M.

V. N. Novikov, S. A. Bel’kov, G. G. Kochemasov, S. M. Kulikov, N. N. Rukavishnikov, S. A. Sukharev, I. N. Voronich, A. I. Zaretskii, “Stimulated Raman scattering in frequency conversion crystals,” in Solid-State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 506–512 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kumpan, S. A.

T. R. Boehly, R. S. Craxton, T. H. Hinterman, P. A. Jaanimagi, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kesselr, R. L. Kremens, S. A. Kumpan, S. A. Letzring, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. M. Soures, C. P. Verdon, “The Omega upgrade laser system,” Fusion Technol. 26, part 2, 722–729 (1994).

Kushner, M. J.

Kyle, K.

C. E. Barker, R. A. Sacks, B. M. Van Wonterghem, J. A. Caird, J. R. Murray, J. H. Campbell, K. Kyle, R. B. Ehrlich, N. D. Nielsen, “Transverse stimulated Raman scattering in KDP,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 501–505 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kyrazis, D. T.

Laniesse, F.

S. Seznec, C. S. Vann, F. Laniesse, J. E. Murray, H. G. Patton, B. M. Van Wonterghem, “Testing a new laser architecture concept on Beamlet,” 5(2), 142–150 (1995). Available from NTIS; see Ref. 1.

Larson, D.

D. Larson, “Beamlet pulsed-power system,” 5(1), 62–67 (1995). Available from NTIS; see Ref. 1.

Laumann, C. W.

Lawson, J. K.

Letzring, S. A.

T. R. Boehly, R. S. Craxton, T. H. Hinterman, P. A. Jaanimagi, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kesselr, R. L. Kremens, S. A. Kumpan, S. A. Letzring, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. M. Soures, C. P. Verdon, “The Omega upgrade laser system,” Fusion Technol. 26, part 2, 722–729 (1994).

Lindl, J.

J. Lindl, “Development of the indirect-drive approach to inertial confinement fusion and the target physics basis for ignition and gain,” Phys. Plasmas 2, 3933–4024 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Long, T. W.

J. T. Salmon, E. S. Bliss, T. W. Long, E. L. Orham, R. W. Presta, C. D. Swift, R. S. Ward, “Real-time wavefront correction using a zonal deformable mirror and a Hartmann sensor,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. SPIE1542, 459–467 (1991);J. T. Salmon, E. S. Bliss, J. L. Byrd, M. Feldman, M. W. Kartz, J. S. Toeppen, B. M. Van Wonterghem, S. E. Winters, “Adaptive optics system for solid-state laser systems used in inertial confinement fusion,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 105–115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Maney, R. T.

J. H. Campbell, L. J. Atherton, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Kozlowski, R. T. Maney, R. C. Montesanti, L. M. Sheehan, C. B. Barker, “Large aperture, high damage threshold optics for Beamlet,” 5(1), 52–61 (1995). Available from NTIS; see Ref. 1.

Marion, J. E.

J. H. Campbell, G. J. Edwards, J. E. Marion, “Damage and fracture in large aperture, fused silica, vacuum spatial filter lenses,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 522–534 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McCracken, R. W.

A. C. Erlandson, M. D. Rotter, K. S. Jancaitis, D. N. Frank, R. W. McCracken, “Design and performance of the Beamlet amplifiers,” 5(1), 18–28 (1995); M. D. Rotter, R. W. McCracken, A. C. Erlandson, D. W. Brown, “Thermal recovery measurements on multisegment amplifers,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE 2633, 70–81 (1995).

McCrory, R. L.

T. R. Boehly, R. S. Craxton, T. H. Hinterman, P. A. Jaanimagi, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kesselr, R. L. Kremens, S. A. Kumpan, S. A. Letzring, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. M. Soures, C. P. Verdon, “The Omega upgrade laser system,” Fusion Technol. 26, part 2, 722–729 (1994).

Mead, S. W.

Milanovich, F.

J. H. Campbell, F. Rainer, M. Kozlowski, C. R. Wolfe, I. M. Thomas, F. Milanovich, “Damage resistant optics for a mega-joule solid state laser,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 444–456 (1990).

Montesanti, R. C.

J. H. Campbell, L. J. Atherton, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Kozlowski, R. T. Maney, R. C. Montesanti, L. M. Sheehan, C. B. Barker, “Large aperture, high damage threshold optics for Beamlet,” 5(1), 52–61 (1995). Available from NTIS; see Ref. 1.

Morse, S. F. B.

T. R. Boehly, R. S. Craxton, T. H. Hinterman, P. A. Jaanimagi, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kesselr, R. L. Kremens, S. A. Kumpan, S. A. Letzring, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. M. Soures, C. P. Verdon, “The Omega upgrade laser system,” Fusion Technol. 26, part 2, 722–729 (1994).

Murray, J. E.

S. Seznec, C. S. Vann, F. Laniesse, J. E. Murray, H. G. Patton, B. M. Van Wonterghem, “Testing a new laser architecture concept on Beamlet,” 5(2), 142–150 (1995). Available from NTIS; see Ref. 1.

Murray, J. R.

J. R. Murray, J. Ray Smith, R. B. Ehrlich, D. T. Kyrazis, C. E. Thompson, T. L. Weiland, R. B. Wilcox, “Experimental observation and suppression of transverse stimulated Brillouin scattering in large optical components,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 2402–2411 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Barker, R. A. Sacks, B. M. Van Wonterghem, J. A. Caird, J. R. Murray, J. H. Campbell, K. Kyle, R. B. Ehrlich, N. D. Nielsen, “Transverse stimulated Raman scattering in KDP,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 501–505 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Barker, B. M. Van Wonterghem, J. M. Auerbach, R. J. Foley, J. R. Murray, J. H. Campbell, J. A. Caird, D. R. Speck, B. Woods, “Design and performance of the Beamlet laser third harmonic frequency converter,” in Solid-State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 398–404 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Narum, P.

G. Arisholm, P. Narum, “Transient transverse stimulated Brillouin scattering with a broad-band pump,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2075–2083 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, N.

Nielsen, N. D.

C. E. Barker, R. A. Sacks, B. M. Van Wonterghem, J. A. Caird, J. R. Murray, J. H. Campbell, K. Kyle, R. B. Ehrlich, N. D. Nielsen, “Transverse stimulated Raman scattering in KDP,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 501–505 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Norman, M. J.

B. M. Van Wonterghem, D. R. Speck, M. J. Norman, V. Karpenko, R. B. Wilcox, “The Beamlet front end: prototype of a new pulse generation subsystem,” 3(1), 9 (1993). Available from NTIS; see Ref. 1.

M. J. Norman, R. M. Stevenson, I. C. Smith, D. Bowley-Booth, I. K. Pearce, T. H. Bett, “Recent improvements to the HELEN laser system,” in Conference Proceedings of QE-9: The Ninth National Quantum Electronics Conference (Oxford U. Press, London, 1989), p. 66.

Novaro, M.

M. Andre, M. Novaro, D. Schirmann, “Technologie pour un laser megajoules,” Rev. Sci. Tech. Direction Appl. Militaires 13, 73–84 (1995).

Novikov, V. N.

V. N. Novikov, S. A. Bel’kov, G. G. Kochemasov, S. M. Kulikov, N. N. Rukavishnikov, S. A. Sukharev, I. N. Voronich, A. I. Zaretskii, “Stimulated Raman scattering in frequency conversion crystals,” in Solid-State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 506–512 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Orham, E. L.

J. T. Salmon, E. S. Bliss, T. W. Long, E. L. Orham, R. W. Presta, C. D. Swift, R. S. Ward, “Real-time wavefront correction using a zonal deformable mirror and a Hartmann sensor,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. SPIE1542, 459–467 (1991);J. T. Salmon, E. S. Bliss, J. L. Byrd, M. Feldman, M. W. Kartz, J. S. Toeppen, B. M. Van Wonterghem, S. E. Winters, “Adaptive optics system for solid-state laser systems used in inertial confinement fusion,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 105–115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Patton, H. G.

S. Seznec, C. S. Vann, F. Laniesse, J. E. Murray, H. G. Patton, B. M. Van Wonterghem, “Testing a new laser architecture concept on Beamlet,” 5(2), 142–150 (1995). Available from NTIS; see Ref. 1.

Pearce, I. K.

M. J. Norman, R. M. Stevenson, I. C. Smith, D. Bowley-Booth, I. K. Pearce, T. H. Bett, “Recent improvements to the HELEN laser system,” in Conference Proceedings of QE-9: The Ninth National Quantum Electronics Conference (Oxford U. Press, London, 1989), p. 66.

Perry, M. D.

Petruzzi, J.

Presta, R. W.

J. T. Salmon, E. S. Bliss, T. W. Long, E. L. Orham, R. W. Presta, C. D. Swift, R. S. Ward, “Real-time wavefront correction using a zonal deformable mirror and a Hartmann sensor,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. SPIE1542, 459–467 (1991);J. T. Salmon, E. S. Bliss, J. L. Byrd, M. Feldman, M. W. Kartz, J. S. Toeppen, B. M. Van Wonterghem, S. E. Winters, “Adaptive optics system for solid-state laser systems used in inertial confinement fusion,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 105–115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rainer, F.

S. W. Mead, R. E. Kidder, J. E. Swain, F. Rainer, J. Petruzzi, “Preliminary measurements of x-ray and neutron emission from laser-produced plasmas,” Appl. Opt. 11, 345–352 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Rainer, L. J. Atherton, J. J. De Yoreo, “Laser damage to production- and research-grade KDP crystals,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1848, 46–58 (1992).

M. R. Kozlowski, I. M. Thomas, J. H. Campbell, F. Rainer, “High-power optical coatings for a megajoule-class ICF laser,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. SPIE1782, 105–121 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Campbell, F. Rainer, M. Kozlowski, C. R. Wolfe, I. M. Thomas, F. Milanovich, “Damage resistant optics for a mega-joule solid state laser,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 444–456 (1990).

Ray Smith, J.

Renard, P.

Rhodes, M. A.

M. A. Rhodes, B. Woods, J. J. DeYoreo, D. Roberts, L. J. Atherton, “Performance of large-aperture optical switches for high-energy ICF lasers,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5313–5330 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rizzo, J. E.

W. Seka, S. D. Jacobs, J. E. Rizzo, R. Boni, R. S. Craxton, “Demonstration of high-efficiency third-harmonic conversion of high-power Nd-glass laser radiation,” Opt. Commun. 34, 469–473 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, D.

M. A. Rhodes, B. Woods, J. J. DeYoreo, D. Roberts, L. J. Atherton, “Performance of large-aperture optical switches for high-energy ICF lasers,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5313–5330 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rotter, M. D.

J. M. Auerbach, J. K. Lawson, M. D. Rotter, B. M. Van Wonterghem, W. H. Williams, “Performance modeling of Beamlet,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 405–411 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Erlandson, M. D. Rotter, K. S. Jancaitis, D. N. Frank, R. W. McCracken, “Design and performance of the Beamlet amplifiers,” 5(1), 18–28 (1995); M. D. Rotter, R. W. McCracken, A. C. Erlandson, D. W. Brown, “Thermal recovery measurements on multisegment amplifers,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE 2633, 70–81 (1995).

Rukavishnikov, N. N.

V. N. Novikov, S. A. Bel’kov, G. G. Kochemasov, S. M. Kulikov, N. N. Rukavishnikov, S. A. Sukharev, I. N. Voronich, A. I. Zaretskii, “Stimulated Raman scattering in frequency conversion crystals,” in Solid-State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 506–512 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sacks, R. A.

C. E. Barker, R. A. Sacks, B. M. Van Wonterghem, J. A. Caird, J. R. Murray, J. H. Campbell, K. Kyle, R. B. Ehrlich, N. D. Nielsen, “Transverse stimulated Raman scattering in KDP,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 501–505 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Salmon, J. T.

J. T. Salmon, E. S. Bliss, T. W. Long, E. L. Orham, R. W. Presta, C. D. Swift, R. S. Ward, “Real-time wavefront correction using a zonal deformable mirror and a Hartmann sensor,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. SPIE1542, 459–467 (1991);J. T. Salmon, E. S. Bliss, J. L. Byrd, M. Feldman, M. W. Kartz, J. S. Toeppen, B. M. Van Wonterghem, S. E. Winters, “Adaptive optics system for solid-state laser systems used in inertial confinement fusion,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 105–115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schirman, D.

G. Thiell, A. Adolf, M. Andre, N. Fleurot, D. D. Juraszek, D. Schirman, “The Phébus experimental facility operating at 250 ps and 0.53 µm,” Laser Particle Beams 6, 93–103 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Schirmann, D.

M. Andre, M. Novaro, D. Schirmann, “Technologie pour un laser megajoules,” Rev. Sci. Tech. Direction Appl. Militaires 13, 73–84 (1995).

Seka, W.

T. R. Boehly, R. S. Craxton, T. H. Hinterman, P. A. Jaanimagi, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kesselr, R. L. Kremens, S. A. Kumpan, S. A. Letzring, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. M. Soures, C. P. Verdon, “The Omega upgrade laser system,” Fusion Technol. 26, part 2, 722–729 (1994).

W. Seka, S. D. Jacobs, J. E. Rizzo, R. Boni, R. S. Craxton, “Demonstration of high-efficiency third-harmonic conversion of high-power Nd-glass laser radiation,” Opt. Commun. 34, 469–473 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Seznec, S.

S. Seznec, C. S. Vann, F. Laniesse, J. E. Murray, H. G. Patton, B. M. Van Wonterghem, “Testing a new laser architecture concept on Beamlet,” 5(2), 142–150 (1995). Available from NTIS; see Ref. 1.

Sheehan, L. M.

J. H. Campbell, L. J. Atherton, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Kozlowski, R. T. Maney, R. C. Montesanti, L. M. Sheehan, C. B. Barker, “Large aperture, high damage threshold optics for Beamlet,” 5(1), 52–61 (1995). Available from NTIS; see Ref. 1.

Simmons, W. W.

W. W. Simmons, R. O. Godwin, “Nova laser fusion facility—design, engineering and assembly overview,” Nucl. Technol. Fusion 4, 8–24 (1983).

W. W. Simmons, J. T. Hunt, W. E. Warren, “Light propagation through large laser systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1727–1744 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Hunt, J. A. Glaze, W. W. Simmons, P. Renard, “Suppression of self-focusing through low-pass spatial filtering and relay imaging,” Appl. Opt. 17, 2053–2057 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skupsky, S.

T. R. Boehly, R. S. Craxton, T. H. Hinterman, P. A. Jaanimagi, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kesselr, R. L. Kremens, S. A. Kumpan, S. A. Letzring, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. M. Soures, C. P. Verdon, “The Omega upgrade laser system,” Fusion Technol. 26, part 2, 722–729 (1994).

Smith, I. C.

M. J. Norman, R. M. Stevenson, I. C. Smith, D. Bowley-Booth, I. K. Pearce, T. H. Bett, “Recent improvements to the HELEN laser system,” in Conference Proceedings of QE-9: The Ninth National Quantum Electronics Conference (Oxford U. Press, London, 1989), p. 66.

Soures, J. M.

T. R. Boehly, R. S. Craxton, T. H. Hinterman, P. A. Jaanimagi, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kesselr, R. L. Kremens, S. A. Kumpan, S. A. Letzring, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. M. Soures, C. P. Verdon, “The Omega upgrade laser system,” Fusion Technol. 26, part 2, 722–729 (1994).

Speck, D. R.

C. Bibeau, D. R. Speck, R. B. Ehrlich, C. W. Laumann, D. T. Kyrazis, M. A. Henesian, J. K. Lawson, M. D. Perry, P. J. Wegner, T. L. Weiland, “Power, energy, and temporal performance of the Nova laser facility with recent improvements to the amplifier system,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5799–5808 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Wegner, M. A. Henesian, D. R. Speck, C. Bibeau, R. B. Ehrlich, C. W. Laumann, J. K. Lawson, T. L. Weiland, “Harmonic conversion of large-aperture 1.05-µm laser beams for inertial confinement fusion research,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6414–6426 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Lawson, D. R. Speck, C. Bibeau, S. C. Burkhart, M. A. Henesian, C. W. Laumann, T. L. Weiland, R. Wilcox, “Temporal shaping of third-harmonic pulses on the Nova laser system,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5061–5068 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Hunt, D. R. Speck, “Present and future performance of the Nova laser system,” Opt. Eng. 28, 461–468 (1989).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Van Wonterghem, D. R. Speck, M. J. Norman, V. Karpenko, R. B. Wilcox, “The Beamlet front end: prototype of a new pulse generation subsystem,” 3(1), 9 (1993). Available from NTIS; see Ref. 1.

C. E. Barker, B. M. Van Wonterghem, J. M. Auerbach, R. J. Foley, J. R. Murray, J. H. Campbell, J. A. Caird, D. R. Speck, B. Woods, “Design and performance of the Beamlet laser third harmonic frequency converter,” in Solid-State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 398–404 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, R. M.

M. J. Norman, R. M. Stevenson, I. C. Smith, D. Bowley-Booth, I. K. Pearce, T. H. Bett, “Recent improvements to the HELEN laser system,” in Conference Proceedings of QE-9: The Ninth National Quantum Electronics Conference (Oxford U. Press, London, 1989), p. 66.

Sukharev, S. A.

V. N. Novikov, S. A. Bel’kov, G. G. Kochemasov, S. M. Kulikov, N. N. Rukavishnikov, S. A. Sukharev, I. N. Voronich, A. I. Zaretskii, “Stimulated Raman scattering in frequency conversion crystals,” in Solid-State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 506–512 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Swain, J. E.

Swift, C. D.

J. T. Salmon, E. S. Bliss, T. W. Long, E. L. Orham, R. W. Presta, C. D. Swift, R. S. Ward, “Real-time wavefront correction using a zonal deformable mirror and a Hartmann sensor,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. SPIE1542, 459–467 (1991);J. T. Salmon, E. S. Bliss, J. L. Byrd, M. Feldman, M. W. Kartz, J. S. Toeppen, B. M. Van Wonterghem, S. E. Winters, “Adaptive optics system for solid-state laser systems used in inertial confinement fusion,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 105–115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Thiell, G.

G. Thiell, A. Adolf, M. Andre, N. Fleurot, D. D. Juraszek, D. Schirman, “The Phébus experimental facility operating at 250 ps and 0.53 µm,” Laser Particle Beams 6, 93–103 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, I. M.

M. R. Kozlowski, I. M. Thomas, J. H. Campbell, F. Rainer, “High-power optical coatings for a megajoule-class ICF laser,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. SPIE1782, 105–121 (1992).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Thomas, “Optical and environmentally protective coatings for KDP harmonic converter crystals,” presented at the SPIE 1991 International Symposium, San Diego, Calif., 21–26 July 1991.

J. H. Campbell, F. Rainer, M. Kozlowski, C. R. Wolfe, I. M. Thomas, F. Milanovich, “Damage resistant optics for a mega-joule solid state laser,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 444–456 (1990).

Thompson, C. E.

Van Wonterghem, B. M.

C. E. Barker, R. A. Sacks, B. M. Van Wonterghem, J. A. Caird, J. R. Murray, J. H. Campbell, K. Kyle, R. B. Ehrlich, N. D. Nielsen, “Transverse stimulated Raman scattering in KDP,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 501–505 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Van Wonterghem, D. R. Speck, M. J. Norman, V. Karpenko, R. B. Wilcox, “The Beamlet front end: prototype of a new pulse generation subsystem,” 3(1), 9 (1993). Available from NTIS; see Ref. 1.

C. E. Barker, B. M. Van Wonterghem, J. M. Auerbach, R. J. Foley, J. R. Murray, J. H. Campbell, J. A. Caird, D. R. Speck, B. Woods, “Design and performance of the Beamlet laser third harmonic frequency converter,” in Solid-State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 398–404 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Auerbach, J. K. Lawson, M. D. Rotter, B. M. Van Wonterghem, W. H. Williams, “Performance modeling of Beamlet,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 405–411 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Seznec, C. S. Vann, F. Laniesse, J. E. Murray, H. G. Patton, B. M. Van Wonterghem, “Testing a new laser architecture concept on Beamlet,” 5(2), 142–150 (1995). Available from NTIS; see Ref. 1.

Vann, C. S.

S. Seznec, C. S. Vann, F. Laniesse, J. E. Murray, H. G. Patton, B. M. Van Wonterghem, “Testing a new laser architecture concept on Beamlet,” 5(2), 142–150 (1995). Available from NTIS; see Ref. 1.

Velsko, S. P.

Verdon, C. P.

T. R. Boehly, R. S. Craxton, T. H. Hinterman, P. A. Jaanimagi, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kesselr, R. L. Kremens, S. A. Kumpan, S. A. Letzring, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. M. Soures, C. P. Verdon, “The Omega upgrade laser system,” Fusion Technol. 26, part 2, 722–729 (1994).

Voronich, I. N.

V. N. Novikov, S. A. Bel’kov, G. G. Kochemasov, S. M. Kulikov, N. N. Rukavishnikov, S. A. Sukharev, I. N. Voronich, A. I. Zaretskii, “Stimulated Raman scattering in frequency conversion crystals,” in Solid-State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 506–512 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ward, R. S.

J. T. Salmon, E. S. Bliss, T. W. Long, E. L. Orham, R. W. Presta, C. D. Swift, R. S. Ward, “Real-time wavefront correction using a zonal deformable mirror and a Hartmann sensor,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. SPIE1542, 459–467 (1991);J. T. Salmon, E. S. Bliss, J. L. Byrd, M. Feldman, M. W. Kartz, J. S. Toeppen, B. M. Van Wonterghem, S. E. Winters, “Adaptive optics system for solid-state laser systems used in inertial confinement fusion,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 105–115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Warren, W. E.

W. W. Simmons, J. T. Hunt, W. E. Warren, “Light propagation through large laser systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1727–1744 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Wegner, P. J.

Weiland, T. L.

Wilcox, R.

Wilcox, R. B.

J. R. Murray, J. Ray Smith, R. B. Ehrlich, D. T. Kyrazis, C. E. Thompson, T. L. Weiland, R. B. Wilcox, “Experimental observation and suppression of transverse stimulated Brillouin scattering in large optical components,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 2402–2411 (1989).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Van Wonterghem, D. R. Speck, M. J. Norman, V. Karpenko, R. B. Wilcox, “The Beamlet front end: prototype of a new pulse generation subsystem,” 3(1), 9 (1993). Available from NTIS; see Ref. 1.

Williams, W. H.

J. M. Auerbach, J. K. Lawson, M. D. Rotter, B. M. Van Wonterghem, W. H. Williams, “Performance modeling of Beamlet,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 405–411 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, C. R.

J. H. Campbell, F. Rainer, M. Kozlowski, C. R. Wolfe, I. M. Thomas, F. Milanovich, “Damage resistant optics for a mega-joule solid state laser,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 444–456 (1990).

Woods, B.

M. A. Rhodes, B. Woods, J. J. DeYoreo, D. Roberts, L. J. Atherton, “Performance of large-aperture optical switches for high-energy ICF lasers,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5313–5330 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Barker, B. M. Van Wonterghem, J. M. Auerbach, R. J. Foley, J. R. Murray, J. H. Campbell, J. A. Caird, D. R. Speck, B. Woods, “Design and performance of the Beamlet laser third harmonic frequency converter,” in Solid-State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 398–404 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yamanaka, C.

C. Yamanaka, “Inertial confinement fusion in Japan,” Laser Particle Beams 2, 425–431 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Zaretskii, A. I.

V. N. Novikov, S. A. Bel’kov, G. G. Kochemasov, S. M. Kulikov, N. N. Rukavishnikov, S. A. Sukharev, I. N. Voronich, A. I. Zaretskii, “Stimulated Raman scattering in frequency conversion crystals,” in Solid-State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 506–512 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (8)

M. A. Rhodes, B. Woods, J. J. DeYoreo, D. Roberts, L. J. Atherton, “Performance of large-aperture optical switches for high-energy ICF lasers,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5313–5330 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Mead, R. E. Kidder, J. E. Swain, F. Rainer, J. Petruzzi, “Preliminary measurements of x-ray and neutron emission from laser-produced plasmas,” Appl. Opt. 11, 345–352 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Hunt, J. A. Glaze, W. W. Simmons, P. Renard, “Suppression of self-focusing through low-pass spatial filtering and relay imaging,” Appl. Opt. 17, 2053–2057 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Ebbers, J. Happe, N. Nielsen, S. P. Velsko, “Optical absorption at 1.06 µm in highly deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1960–1964 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Lawson, D. R. Speck, C. Bibeau, S. C. Burkhart, M. A. Henesian, C. W. Laumann, T. L. Weiland, R. Wilcox, “Temporal shaping of third-harmonic pulses on the Nova laser system,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5061–5068 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Wegner, M. A. Henesian, D. R. Speck, C. Bibeau, R. B. Ehrlich, C. W. Laumann, J. K. Lawson, T. L. Weiland, “Harmonic conversion of large-aperture 1.05-µm laser beams for inertial confinement fusion research,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6414–6426 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Auerbach, V. P. Karpenko, “Serrated-aperture apodizers for high-energy laser systems,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3179–3183 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Bibeau, D. R. Speck, R. B. Ehrlich, C. W. Laumann, D. T. Kyrazis, M. A. Henesian, J. K. Lawson, M. D. Perry, P. J. Wegner, T. L. Weiland, “Power, energy, and temporal performance of the Nova laser facility with recent improvements to the amplifier system,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5799–5808 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fusion Technol. (1)

T. R. Boehly, R. S. Craxton, T. H. Hinterman, P. A. Jaanimagi, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kesselr, R. L. Kremens, S. A. Kumpan, S. A. Letzring, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, S. Skupsky, J. M. Soures, C. P. Verdon, “The Omega upgrade laser system,” Fusion Technol. 26, part 2, 722–729 (1994).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

J. Goldhar, M. A. Henesian, “Large-aperture electrooptical switches with plasma electrodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1137–1147 (1986).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Simmons, J. T. Hunt, W. E. Warren, “Light propagation through large laser systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1727–1744 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. Arisholm, P. Narum, “Transient transverse stimulated Brillouin scattering with a broad-band pump,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2075–2083 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Craxton, “High-efficiency frequency tripling schemes for high-power Nd:glass lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1771–1782 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Particle Beams (2)

C. Yamanaka, “Inertial confinement fusion in Japan,” Laser Particle Beams 2, 425–431 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. Thiell, A. Adolf, M. Andre, N. Fleurot, D. D. Juraszek, D. Schirman, “The Phébus experimental facility operating at 250 ps and 0.53 µm,” Laser Particle Beams 6, 93–103 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Technol. Fusion (1)

W. W. Simmons, R. O. Godwin, “Nova laser fusion facility—design, engineering and assembly overview,” Nucl. Technol. Fusion 4, 8–24 (1983).

Opt. Commun. (2)

W. Seka, S. D. Jacobs, J. E. Rizzo, R. Boni, R. S. Craxton, “Demonstration of high-efficiency third-harmonic conversion of high-power Nd-glass laser radiation,” Opt. Commun. 34, 469–473 (1980).
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R. S. Craxton, “Theory of high-efficiency third harmonic generation of high-power Nd-glass radiation,” Opt. Commun. 34, 474–478 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. T. Hunt, D. R. Speck, “Present and future performance of the Nova laser system,” Opt. Eng. 28, 461–468 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Plasmas (1)

J. Lindl, “Development of the indirect-drive approach to inertial confinement fusion and the target physics basis for ignition and gain,” Phys. Plasmas 2, 3933–4024 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Tech. Direction Appl. Militaires (1)

M. Andre, M. Novaro, D. Schirmann, “Technologie pour un laser megajoules,” Rev. Sci. Tech. Direction Appl. Militaires 13, 73–84 (1995).

Other (18)

“National Ignition Facility Conceptual Design Report,” (May1994) Available from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), U.S. Dept. of Commerce, 5285 Port Royal Rd., Springfield, Va. 22161; J. A. Paisner, J. D. Boyes, S. A. Kumpan, W. H. Lowdermilk, M. S. Sorem, “Conceptual design of the National Ignition Facility,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 2–12 (1995).

B. M. Van Wonterghem, D. R. Speck, M. J. Norman, V. Karpenko, R. B. Wilcox, “The Beamlet front end: prototype of a new pulse generation subsystem,” 3(1), 9 (1993). Available from NTIS; see Ref. 1.

A. C. Erlandson, M. D. Rotter, K. S. Jancaitis, D. N. Frank, R. W. McCracken, “Design and performance of the Beamlet amplifiers,” 5(1), 18–28 (1995); M. D. Rotter, R. W. McCracken, A. C. Erlandson, D. W. Brown, “Thermal recovery measurements on multisegment amplifers,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE 2633, 70–81 (1995).

D. Larson, “Beamlet pulsed-power system,” 5(1), 62–67 (1995). Available from NTIS; see Ref. 1.

S. Seznec, C. S. Vann, F. Laniesse, J. E. Murray, H. G. Patton, B. M. Van Wonterghem, “Testing a new laser architecture concept on Beamlet,” 5(2), 142–150 (1995). Available from NTIS; see Ref. 1.

M. J. Norman, R. M. Stevenson, I. C. Smith, D. Bowley-Booth, I. K. Pearce, T. H. Bett, “Recent improvements to the HELEN laser system,” in Conference Proceedings of QE-9: The Ninth National Quantum Electronics Conference (Oxford U. Press, London, 1989), p. 66.

J. T. Salmon, E. S. Bliss, T. W. Long, E. L. Orham, R. W. Presta, C. D. Swift, R. S. Ward, “Real-time wavefront correction using a zonal deformable mirror and a Hartmann sensor,” in Active and Adaptive Optical Systems, M. A. Ealey, ed., Proc. SPIE1542, 459–467 (1991);J. T. Salmon, E. S. Bliss, J. L. Byrd, M. Feldman, M. W. Kartz, J. S. Toeppen, B. M. Van Wonterghem, S. E. Winters, “Adaptive optics system for solid-state laser systems used in inertial confinement fusion,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 105–115 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Campbell, L. J. Atherton, J. J. De Yoreo, M. R. Kozlowski, R. T. Maney, R. C. Montesanti, L. M. Sheehan, C. B. Barker, “Large aperture, high damage threshold optics for Beamlet,” 5(1), 52–61 (1995). Available from NTIS; see Ref. 1.

M. R. Kozlowski, I. M. Thomas, J. H. Campbell, F. Rainer, “High-power optical coatings for a megajoule-class ICF laser,” in Thin Films for Optical Systems, K. H. Guenther, ed., Proc. SPIE1782, 105–121 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. Rainer, L. J. Atherton, J. J. De Yoreo, “Laser damage to production- and research-grade KDP crystals,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1848, 46–58 (1992).

I. M. Thomas, “Optical and environmentally protective coatings for KDP harmonic converter crystals,” presented at the SPIE 1991 International Symposium, San Diego, Calif., 21–26 July 1991.

C. E. Barker, R. A. Sacks, B. M. Van Wonterghem, J. A. Caird, J. R. Murray, J. H. Campbell, K. Kyle, R. B. Ehrlich, N. D. Nielsen, “Transverse stimulated Raman scattering in KDP,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 501–505 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Novikov, S. A. Bel’kov, G. G. Kochemasov, S. M. Kulikov, N. N. Rukavishnikov, S. A. Sukharev, I. N. Voronich, A. I. Zaretskii, “Stimulated Raman scattering in frequency conversion crystals,” in Solid-State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 506–512 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Campbell, “Recent advances in phosphate laser glasses for high power applications,” in Inorganic Optical Materials, P. Klocek, ed., Vol. CR64 of SPIE Critical Reviews Series (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Bellingham, Wash., 1996), pp. 3–39.

J. H. Campbell, F. Rainer, M. Kozlowski, C. R. Wolfe, I. M. Thomas, F. Milanovich, “Damage resistant optics for a mega-joule solid state laser,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1990, H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, M. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1441, 444–456 (1990).

J. M. Auerbach, J. K. Lawson, M. D. Rotter, B. M. Van Wonterghem, W. H. Williams, “Performance modeling of Beamlet,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 405–411 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Campbell, G. J. Edwards, J. E. Marion, “Damage and fracture in large aperture, fused silica, vacuum spatial filter lenses,” in Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 522–534 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Barker, B. M. Van Wonterghem, J. M. Auerbach, R. J. Foley, J. R. Murray, J. H. Campbell, J. A. Caird, D. R. Speck, B. Woods, “Design and performance of the Beamlet laser third harmonic frequency converter,” in Solid-State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, M. André, H. T. Powell, eds., Proc. SPIE2633, 398–404 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (33)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Single-pass MOPA laser architecture commonly used in existing ICF lasers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Three generic schemes for separating the input and the output beams for a multipass laser architecture: (a) polarization rotator and polarizer, (b) near-field angle separation, (c) far-field angle separation. The NIF and the prototype Beamlet use a combination of far-field angle separation and polarization rotation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic layout of the multipass prototype Beamlet.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Photograph of assembled 2 × 2 Beamlet amplifiers with 39.5 cm × 39.5 cm, hard-edged apertures (this supports approximately a 35 cm × 35 cm beam size), (b) schematic drawing showing key elements of the design; the top right-hand square is the active beam aperture.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Plan view of the Beamlet as configured for the tests described in this paper.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Photograph of the fully assembled Beamlet prototype laser. The laser is housed in a nominally class 10,000 clean room whose temperature is controlled to approximately ±1 K. Portable clean rooms providing class 100 cleanliness levels can be positioned anywhere within the system.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Pinhole-array layout at the focal plane of the Beamlet multipass cavity.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of the measured and the calculated temporal square-pulse distortions versus output energy at 1.05 µm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Gain profile for a five-slab-long amplifier. Amplified spontaneous emission causes the gain to roll off near the edges in the horizontal direction of the slab.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Two-dimensional plot of the measured parabolic beam profile injected into the main amplifier cavity.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Measured and predicted Beamlet output energies at 1.05 µm versus energy of the pulse injected into the multipass cavity.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Comparison of temporal shapes of the injected and output pulses. The 5-GHz phase modulation causes the amplitude modulation seen on the pulse shape.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Beamlet shot data plotted in 1ω irradiance versus fluence space. The region below the solid curve represents the safe operating region.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Contrast-enhanced image of beam-fluence profile showing beam modulation (noise) caused by various effects, as discussed in the text.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Image of the beam-fluence profile showing the reduction in modulation after the optical finishing of several components in the laser beam line has been improved; compare with Fig. 14.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Histogram of the measured and the calculated fluence distributions over the central area of the 1.05-µm output beam near-field image that is shown in Fig. 15.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Near-field image of the 1.053-µm output beam for a 5.5-GW/cm2 shot at a 200-ps pulse width. The white dots are hot spots with an irradiance nearly five times the average irradiance.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Far-field image of the 1.05-µm output beam for a 5.5-GW/cm2 shot at a 200-ps pulse width. The circular outline of the transport spatial filter pinhole can be detected at the edge of the image. The image is overexposed to enhance the wings of the spot.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Beam modulation of short pulses propagating through the unpumped booster amplifier grows rapidly as a function of the nonlinear phase shift (B integral) in the final amplifier section of the Beamlet. This modulation is representative of the last time slice of a long saturating pulse propagating through the amplifier chain under normal operation. The rapid growth of beam modulation for Δ B greater than 2 rad is apparent.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

The Beamlet deformable mirror has 39 actuators mounted to the back of a 7.0 cm × 7.0 cm × 0.4 cm coated fused-silica substrate. The range of motion of individual actuators is approximately 10 µm.

Fig. 21
Fig. 21

Far-field irradiance distribution of the 1.05-µm beam when the adaptive optic system corrects for only static optical wave-front aberrations in the system.

Fig. 22
Fig. 22

Far-field irradiance distribution of the 1.05-µm beam for a shot with correction for static and power (focus) wave-front aberrations in the beam optical path.

Fig. 23
Fig. 23

Far-field irradiance distribution of the 1.05-µm beam for a shot with full precorrection for static and dynamic (flash-lamp pump-induced) phase-front aberrations.

Fig. 24
Fig. 24

Encircled energy fraction versus divergence angle determined by radial integration of the far-field irradiance distribution shown in Fig. 23.

Fig. 25
Fig. 25

Type I (KDP)/type II(KD*P) frequency-tripling scheme used on the Beamlet.

Fig. 26
Fig. 26

Second-harmonic conversion efficiency versus 1ω drive irradiance with a 32 cm × 32 cm × 1.1 cm KDP type I doubling crystal. The conversion efficiency agrees with the plane-wave model at 0-, ±250-, and ±350-µrad detuning angles.

Fig. 27
Fig. 27

Third-harmonic conversion efficiency versus 1ω drive irradiance achieved with 3-ns square pulses with 30-GHz 1ω bandwidth (90 GHz at 3ω). The type II tripling crystal was 80% deuterated KD*P 32 cm × 32 cm × 0.95 cm with 0-µrad detuning. The doubling crystal was detuned at ∼250 µrad to achieve optimum 3ω conversion.

Fig. 28
Fig. 28

(a) Near-field image, (b) horizontal and vertical fluence line-outs of that image of a 351-nm output pulse from the Beamlet harmonic generator. The peak-to-mean irradiance modulation is ∼1.35 to 1.

Fig. 29
Fig. 29

Comparison of normalized probability distribution of fluences for the 1ω drive pulse with corresponding 351-nm output observed during a 3-ns shot at a 1ω input drive irradiance of 3.3 GW/cm2.

Fig. 30
Fig. 30

Encircled energy fraction versus divergence angle determined by radial integration of the 1ω and 3ω far-field irradiance distributions.

Fig. 31
Fig. 31

Simulated NIF-like 3ω temporal pulse shape with a 30:1 irradiance contrast ratio generated with a 9:1 1ω drive pulse to the harmonic converter. The foot of the actual NIF pulse is 15 ns long rather than 7 ns, as used in this experiment.

Fig. 32
Fig. 32

Input 1ω pulse shape (injected into the main multipass cavity) with a 75:1 irradiance contrast and a complex temporal shape needed to achieve the desired 1ω output pulse shape to the frequency converter (see Fig. 31).

Fig. 33
Fig. 33

Third-harmonic output energy versus 1ω input energy. The data were recorded at pulse lengths of 1, 1.7, and 3 ns with the 37-cm crystals. The four outlying points at 3 ns are shots deliberately detuned to verify alignment.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Laser Damage Thresholds and Maximum Safe Operating Fluences for the Beamlet Opticsa

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Table 2 Optical Transmission Data for the Beamlet Amplifier Components

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Table 3 Typical Magnitude, Scale Size, and Time Constants for Important Wave-Front Aberration Sources in a Large Glass Laser System

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Table 4 Summary of Beamlet Third-Harmonic Performance Parameters

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