Abstract

Because of the worldwide growth in air traffic and its increasing effects on the atmospheric environment, it is necessary to quantify the direct aircraft emissions at all altitudes. In this study Fourier-transform infrared emission spectroscopy as a remote-sensing multi-component-analyzing technique for aircraft exhausts was investigated at ground level with a double pendulum interferometer and a line-by-line computer algorithm that was applied to a multilayer radiative transfer problem. Initial measurements were made to specify the spectral windows for traceable compounds, to test the sensitivity of the system, and to develop calibration and continuum handling procedures. To obtain information about the radial temperature and concentration profiles, we developed an algorithm for the analysis of an axial-symmetric multilayered plume by use of the CO2 hot band at approximately 2400 cm-1. Measurements were made with several in-service engines. Effects that were due to engine aging were detected but have to be analyzed systematically in the near future. Validation measurements were carried out with a conventional propane gas burner to compare the results with those obtained with standard measurement equipment. These measurements showed good agreement to within ±20% for the CO and NOx results. The overall accuracy of the system was found to be ±30%. The detection limits of the system for a typical engine plume (380 °C, Φ = 50 cm) are below 0.1% for CO2, ∼0.7% for H2O, ∼20 ppmv (parts per million by volume) for CO, and ∼90 ppmv for NO.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. U. Schumann, “On the effect of emissions from aircraft engines on the state of the atmosphere,” Ann. Geophys. 12, 365–384 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. N. Liou, S. C. Ou, G. Koenig, “An investigation of the climatic effect of contrail cirrus,” in Air Traffic and the Environment: Background, Tendencies, and Potential Global Atmospheric Effects, Proceedings of a DLR International Scientific Colloquium, U. Schumann, ed. (Springer–Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 1990), pp. 154–169.
  3. C. Johnson, J. Henshaw, G. McInnes, “The impact of aircraft NOx emissions on tropospheric ozone and global warming,” Nature, (London) 355, 69–71 (1992).
  4. R. A. Egli, “Climatic effects of air traffic,” Environ. Conserv. 22, 196–198 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. J. Schmitt, “Global inventories of aircraft emissions,” in Impact of Aircraft and Spacecraft Upon the Atmosphere, Proceedings of a DLR International Scientific Colloquium, U. Schumann, D. Wurzel, eds. (DLR, Köln–Porz, Germany, 1994), pp. 65–70.
  6. S. L. Baughcum, S. C. Henderson, P. S. Hertel, D. R. Maggiora, C. A. Oncina, “Stratospheric emissions effects database development,” (NASA, Hampton, Va., 1994).
  7. Z. H. Landau, M. Metwally, R. Van Alstyne, C. A. Ward, “Jet aircraft engine exhaust emissions database development: Year 1990 and 2015 scenarios,” (NASA, Hampton, Va., 1994).
  8. M. Lecht, P. Schimming, G. Winterfeld, “Ermittlung der Emissionen ziviler Triebwerkstypen im Teillastbereich,” (DLR, Köln–Porz, Germany, 1986).
  9. F. Deidewig, “Schadstoffemissionen ziviler Flugtriebwerke am Beispiel des CFM56-3 und CF6-8C2,” (DLR, Köln–Porz, Germany, 1992).
  10. U. Schumann, ed., “AERONOX, the impact of NOx emissions from aircraft upon the atmosphere at flight altitudes 8–15 km,” , (EC–DLR, Brussels, Belgium, 1995).
  11. P. Schulte, H. Schlager, “Inferred NOx emission indices of jet engines at cruise altitude from in situ NO and CO2 measurements within aircraft plumes,” in Impact of Aircraft and Spacecraft Upon the Atmosphere, Proceedings of a DLR International Scientific Colloquium, U. Schumann, D. Wurzel, eds. (DLR, Köln–Porz, Germany, 1994), pp. 113–118.
  12. D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, K. A. Boering, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, S. Anthony, T. F. Hanisco, P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. J. Salawitch, N. Louisnard, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, S. G. Donnelly, R. C. Wamsley, L. A. Del Negro, S. Solomon, S. C. Wofsy, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, K. K. Kelly, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, “Emission measurements of the Concorde supersonic aircraft in the lower stratosphere,” Science 270, 70–74 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. S. Storlarski, S. L. Baughcum, W. H. Brune, A. R. Douglas, D. W. Fahey, R. R. Friedl, S. C. Liu, R. A. Plumb, L. R. Poole, H. L. Wesoky, D. R. Worsnop, “1995 Scientific assessment of the atmospheric effects of stratospheric aircraft,” , (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1995).
  14. K. Schäfer, R. Haus, J. Heland, “Measurements of compounds in the open atmosphere by Fourier-transform-infrared-spectroscopy: methods and results of FTIS–maps,” in Proceedings of the TNO/EURASAP Workshop on the Reliability of VOC Emission Data Bases (TNO Institute of Environmental Sciences, Delft, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 109–113.
  15. K. Schäfer, R. Haus, J. Heland, “Inspection of non-CO2 greenhouse gases from emission sources and in ambient air by Fourier-transform-spectrometry: measurements with FTIS–MAPS,” in Non-CO2Greenhouse Gases, Proceedings of the International Symposium, J. van Ham, L. J. H. M. Jansen, R. J. Swart, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1994), pp. 191–196.
  16. K. Schäfer, R. Haus, J. Heland, “Measurements of gaseous compounds from emission sources and in ambient air by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: method and results of FTIS–maps,” in Optical Sensing for Environmental Monitoring, Proceedings of an International Speciality Conference, (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 455–465.
  17. R. G. Jaacks, H. Rippel, “Double pendulum Michelson interferometer with extended spectral resolution,” Appl. Opt. 28, 29–30 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Kayser–Threde GmbH, K300 Handbuch, (Kayser–Threde GmbH, München, Germany, 1994).
  19. R. Haus, K. Schäfer, W. Bautzer, J. Heland, H. Mosebach, H. Bittner, T. Eisenmann, “Mobile Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy monitoring of air pollution,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5682–5689 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. R. Haus, K. Schäfer, J. I. Hughes, J. Heland, W. Bautzer, “FTIS remote sensing of smoke stack and test flare emissions,” in Air Pollution and Visibility Measurements, P. Fabian, V. Klein, M. Tacke, K. Weber, C. Werner, eds., Proc. SPIE2506, 45–54 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  21. K. Schäfer, J. Heland, R. Sussmann, R. Haus, H. Mosebach, T. Eisenmann, A. Gronauer, G. Depta, C. Werner, “FTIR-Spektroskopie zur Bestimmung der Emissionsquellen von atmosphärischen Spurengasen: Beispiele von Messungen an Schornsteinen und Flugzeugturbinen, bei der Gülleausbringung., an Ställen und Kompostanlagen,” VDI Ber. (Ver. Dtsch. Ing.) 1257257–289 (1996).
  22. C. Werner, R. Haus, F. Köpp, K. Schäfer, “Remote sensing of mass fluxes of trace gases in the boundary layer,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 249–251 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Kayser–Threde GmbH, White Cell Produktbeschreibung, (Kayser–Threde GmbH, München, Germany, 1993).
  24. R. M. Goody, Y. L. Yung, Atmospheric Radiation (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1989).
  25. R. Haus, H. Goering, Atmosphärenphysikalische Grundlagen der Infrarotspektroskopischen Luftanalyse (Heinrich–Hertz Institute, Academy of Sciences, Berlin, Germany, 1991).
  26. J. Heland, FTIR-Emissionsspektroskopie an Flugzeugabgasen (Wissenschafts–Verlag, Dr. W. Maraun, Frankfurt/Main, Germany, 1996).
  27. L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, C. Benner, D. V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  28. L. S. Rothman, R. B. Wattson, R. R. Gamache, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, “hitran hawks and hitemp high-temperature molecular database,” in Atmospheric Propagation and Remote Sensing IV, J. C. Dainty, ed., Proc SPIE2471, 105–111 (1995).
  29. L. S. Rothman, R. B. Wattson, R. R. Gamache, D. Goorvitch, R. L. Hawkins, J. E. A. Selby, C. Camy-Peyret, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, “hitemp, the high-temperature molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1997), to be published.
  30. V. S. Matveev, “Priblizhennye predstavlenija koefficienta pogloshchenija i ekvivalentnych shirin linij c Fojgtovskim konturom (Approximative descriptions of the absorption coefficient and the spectral linewidth with the Voigt profile),” Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 16, 228–233 (1972).
  31. W. Döhler, “Vergleiche theoretisch berechneter und experimenteller Transmissionsfunktionen von Kohlendioxid im Bereich der 15-µm-Bande bei homogenen Bedingungen,” Abh. Meteorol. Dienstes Dtsch. Demok. Repub. 120, 6–7 (1978).
  32. A. Klim, “A comparison of methods for the calculation of Voigt-profiles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 26, 527–545 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  33. G. Herzberg, Molekülspektren und Molekülstruktur, I. Zweiatomige Moleküle (Verlag von Theodor Steinkopff, Dresden, Germany, 1939).
  34. G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure, II. Infrared and Raman Spectra of Polyatomic Molecules (Van Nostrand, Princeton, N.J., 1956).
  35. L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Barbe, N. Husson, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, “The hitran database: 1986 edition,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4058–4097 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. R. H. Norton, C. P. Rinsland, “ATMOS data processing and science analysis methods,” Appl. Opt. 30, 389–400 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. R. R. Gamache, R. L. Hawkins, L. S. Rothman, “Total internal partition sums in the temperature range 70–3000 K: atmospheric linear molecules,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 142, 205–219 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  38. B. J. Vastag, S. R. Horman, “Calibration of a Michelson interferometer spectrometer,” in 1981 International Conference on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, S. C. Columbia, H. Sakai, eds., Proc SPIE289, 745–79 (1981).
  39. E. Lindermeir, P. Haschberger, V. Tank, H. Dietl, “Calibration of a Fourier transform spectrometer using three blackbody sources,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4527–4533 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. J. H. Seinfeld, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics of Air Pollution (Wiley, New York, 1986).
  41. H. B. Faulkner, “An emission database for U.S. navy and air force aircraft engines,” presented at the ASME Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exposition, Amsterdam, June 1988.
  42. International Civil Aviation Organization, “Engine exhaust emissions databank,” ICAO Doc. 9646, 1st ed., (ICAO Document Sales Unit, 1000 Sherbrooke Street West, Suite 400, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2R2, Canada, 1995).
  43. S. M. Dash, H. S. Pergament, “Acomputational model for the prediction of jet entrainment in the vicinity of nozzle boat-tails (the BOAT code),” (Aeronautical Research Associates of Princeton, Inc., Princeton, N.J., 1978).
  44. J.-M. Hartmann, M. Y. Perrin, Q. Ma, R. H. Tipping, “The infrared continuum of pure water vapor: calculations and high-temperature measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 49, 675–691 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  45. R. R. Gamache, J.-M. Hartmann, L. Rosenmann, “Collisional broadening of water vapor lines. I. A survey of experimental results,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 481–499 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  46. R. C. Miake-Lye, R. C. Brown, M. R. Anderson, C. E. Kolb, “Calculations of condensation and chemistry in an aircraft contrail,” in Impact of Aircraft and Spacecraft Upon the Atmosphere, Proceedings of a DLR International Scientific Colloquium, U. Schumann, D. Wurzel, eds. (DLR, Köln-Porz, Germany, 1994) pp. 274–279.
  47. J. O. Chase, R. W. Hurn, “Measuring gaseous emissions from an aircraft turbine engine,” in Vehicle Emissions—Part 3 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, N.Y., 1971), pp. 184–190.
  48. C. W. Spicer, M. W. Holdren, D. L. Smith, D. P. Hughes, M. D. Smith, “Chemical composition of exhaust from aircraft turbine engines,” presented at the Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exposition, Brussels, Belgium, 11–14 June 1990.
  49. J. D. Few, H. S. Lowry, “Reevaluation of nitric oxide concentration in exhaust of jet engines and combustors,” (Arnold Engineering Development Center, Arnold Air Force Station, Tenn., 1981).
  50. P. Wiesen, J. Kleffmann, R. Kurtenbach, K. H. Becker, “Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from aero engines,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2027–2030 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  51. C. W. Spicer, M. W. Holdren, R. M. Riggin, T. F. Lyon, “Chemical composition and photochemical reactivity of exhaust from aircraft turbine engines,” Ann. Geophys. 12, 944–955 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  52. E. Lindermeir, “Evaluation of infrared emission spectra of aircraft exhaust with the FitFas software,” Ann. Geophys. 12, 417–421 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  53. R. Busen, U. Schumann, “Visible contrail formation from fuels with different sulfur content,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1357–1360 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  54. U. Schumann, J. Ström, R. Busen, R. Baumann, K. Gierens, M. Krautstrunk, F. P. Schröder, J. Stingl, “In situ observations of particles in jet aircraft exhausts and contrails for different sulfur containing fuels,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 6853–6869 (1996).
  55. F. Arnold, J. Schneider, M. Klemm, J. Scheid, T. Stilp, H. Schlager, P. Schulte, M. E. Reinhardt, “Mass spectrometric measurements of SO2 and reactive nitrogen gases in the exhaust plumes of commercial jet airliners at cruise altitudes,” in Impact of Aircraft and Spacecraft Upon the Atmosphere, Proceedings of a DLR International Scientific Colloquium, U. Schumann, D. Wurzel, eds. (DLR, Köln–Porz, Germany, 1994), pp. 323–328.
  56. P. L. Hanst, S. T. Hanst, Infrared Spectra for Quantitative Analysis of Gases, Vols. 1 and 2 (Infrared Analysis Inc., Potomac, Md., 1993).
  57. R. Kurtenbach, P. Wiesen, University of Wuppertal, 42097 Wuppertal, Germany (personal communication).
  58. L. A. Gross, P. R. Griffith, “Spectroscopic temperature estimates by infrared emission spectrometry,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 39, 463–472 (1988).
    [CrossRef]

1996

K. Schäfer, J. Heland, R. Sussmann, R. Haus, H. Mosebach, T. Eisenmann, A. Gronauer, G. Depta, C. Werner, “FTIR-Spektroskopie zur Bestimmung der Emissionsquellen von atmosphärischen Spurengasen: Beispiele von Messungen an Schornsteinen und Flugzeugturbinen, bei der Gülleausbringung., an Ställen und Kompostanlagen,” VDI Ber. (Ver. Dtsch. Ing.) 1257257–289 (1996).

U. Schumann, J. Ström, R. Busen, R. Baumann, K. Gierens, M. Krautstrunk, F. P. Schröder, J. Stingl, “In situ observations of particles in jet aircraft exhausts and contrails for different sulfur containing fuels,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 6853–6869 (1996).

1995

R. Busen, U. Schumann, “Visible contrail formation from fuels with different sulfur content,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1357–1360 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Werner, R. Haus, F. Köpp, K. Schäfer, “Remote sensing of mass fluxes of trace gases in the boundary layer,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 249–251 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Egli, “Climatic effects of air traffic,” Environ. Conserv. 22, 196–198 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, K. A. Boering, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, S. Anthony, T. F. Hanisco, P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. J. Salawitch, N. Louisnard, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, S. G. Donnelly, R. C. Wamsley, L. A. Del Negro, S. Solomon, S. C. Wofsy, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, K. K. Kelly, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, “Emission measurements of the Concorde supersonic aircraft in the lower stratosphere,” Science 270, 70–74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

U. Schumann, “On the effect of emissions from aircraft engines on the state of the atmosphere,” Ann. Geophys. 12, 365–384 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Haus, K. Schäfer, W. Bautzer, J. Heland, H. Mosebach, H. Bittner, T. Eisenmann, “Mobile Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy monitoring of air pollution,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5682–5689 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Gamache, J.-M. Hartmann, L. Rosenmann, “Collisional broadening of water vapor lines. I. A survey of experimental results,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 481–499 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Wiesen, J. Kleffmann, R. Kurtenbach, K. H. Becker, “Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from aero engines,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2027–2030 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Spicer, M. W. Holdren, R. M. Riggin, T. F. Lyon, “Chemical composition and photochemical reactivity of exhaust from aircraft turbine engines,” Ann. Geophys. 12, 944–955 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Lindermeir, “Evaluation of infrared emission spectra of aircraft exhaust with the FitFas software,” Ann. Geophys. 12, 417–421 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

J.-M. Hartmann, M. Y. Perrin, Q. Ma, R. H. Tipping, “The infrared continuum of pure water vapor: calculations and high-temperature measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 49, 675–691 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

E. Lindermeir, P. Haschberger, V. Tank, H. Dietl, “Calibration of a Fourier transform spectrometer using three blackbody sources,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4527–4533 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Johnson, J. Henshaw, G. McInnes, “The impact of aircraft NOx emissions on tropospheric ozone and global warming,” Nature, (London) 355, 69–71 (1992).

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, C. Benner, D. V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

1990

R. R. Gamache, R. L. Hawkins, L. S. Rothman, “Total internal partition sums in the temperature range 70–3000 K: atmospheric linear molecules,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 142, 205–219 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

1988

L. A. Gross, P. R. Griffith, “Spectroscopic temperature estimates by infrared emission spectrometry,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 39, 463–472 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

1981

A. Klim, “A comparison of methods for the calculation of Voigt-profiles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 26, 527–545 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978

W. Döhler, “Vergleiche theoretisch berechneter und experimenteller Transmissionsfunktionen von Kohlendioxid im Bereich der 15-µm-Bande bei homogenen Bedingungen,” Abh. Meteorol. Dienstes Dtsch. Demok. Repub. 120, 6–7 (1978).

1972

V. S. Matveev, “Priblizhennye predstavlenija koefficienta pogloshchenija i ekvivalentnych shirin linij c Fojgtovskim konturom (Approximative descriptions of the absorption coefficient and the spectral linewidth with the Voigt profile),” Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 16, 228–233 (1972).

Anderson, M. R.

R. C. Miake-Lye, R. C. Brown, M. R. Anderson, C. E. Kolb, “Calculations of condensation and chemistry in an aircraft contrail,” in Impact of Aircraft and Spacecraft Upon the Atmosphere, Proceedings of a DLR International Scientific Colloquium, U. Schumann, D. Wurzel, eds. (DLR, Köln-Porz, Germany, 1994) pp. 274–279.

Anthony, S.

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, K. A. Boering, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, S. Anthony, T. F. Hanisco, P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. J. Salawitch, N. Louisnard, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, S. G. Donnelly, R. C. Wamsley, L. A. Del Negro, S. Solomon, S. C. Wofsy, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, K. K. Kelly, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, “Emission measurements of the Concorde supersonic aircraft in the lower stratosphere,” Science 270, 70–74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, F.

F. Arnold, J. Schneider, M. Klemm, J. Scheid, T. Stilp, H. Schlager, P. Schulte, M. E. Reinhardt, “Mass spectrometric measurements of SO2 and reactive nitrogen gases in the exhaust plumes of commercial jet airliners at cruise altitudes,” in Impact of Aircraft and Spacecraft Upon the Atmosphere, Proceedings of a DLR International Scientific Colloquium, U. Schumann, D. Wurzel, eds. (DLR, Köln–Porz, Germany, 1994), pp. 323–328.

Barbe, A.

Baughcum, S. L.

S. L. Baughcum, S. C. Henderson, P. S. Hertel, D. R. Maggiora, C. A. Oncina, “Stratospheric emissions effects database development,” (NASA, Hampton, Va., 1994).

R. S. Storlarski, S. L. Baughcum, W. H. Brune, A. R. Douglas, D. W. Fahey, R. R. Friedl, S. C. Liu, R. A. Plumb, L. R. Poole, H. L. Wesoky, D. R. Worsnop, “1995 Scientific assessment of the atmospheric effects of stratospheric aircraft,” , (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Baumann, R.

U. Schumann, J. Ström, R. Busen, R. Baumann, K. Gierens, M. Krautstrunk, F. P. Schröder, J. Stingl, “In situ observations of particles in jet aircraft exhausts and contrails for different sulfur containing fuels,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 6853–6869 (1996).

Bautzer, W.

R. Haus, K. Schäfer, W. Bautzer, J. Heland, H. Mosebach, H. Bittner, T. Eisenmann, “Mobile Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy monitoring of air pollution,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5682–5689 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Haus, K. Schäfer, J. I. Hughes, J. Heland, W. Bautzer, “FTIS remote sensing of smoke stack and test flare emissions,” in Air Pollution and Visibility Measurements, P. Fabian, V. Klein, M. Tacke, K. Weber, C. Werner, eds., Proc. SPIE2506, 45–54 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Becker, K. H.

P. Wiesen, J. Kleffmann, R. Kurtenbach, K. H. Becker, “Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from aero engines,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2027–2030 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Benner, C.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, C. Benner, D. V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bittner, H.

Boering, K. A.

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, K. A. Boering, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, S. Anthony, T. F. Hanisco, P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. J. Salawitch, N. Louisnard, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, S. G. Donnelly, R. C. Wamsley, L. A. Del Negro, S. Solomon, S. C. Wofsy, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, K. K. Kelly, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, “Emission measurements of the Concorde supersonic aircraft in the lower stratosphere,” Science 270, 70–74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brock, C. A.

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, K. A. Boering, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, S. Anthony, T. F. Hanisco, P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. J. Salawitch, N. Louisnard, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, S. G. Donnelly, R. C. Wamsley, L. A. Del Negro, S. Solomon, S. C. Wofsy, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, K. K. Kelly, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, “Emission measurements of the Concorde supersonic aircraft in the lower stratosphere,” Science 270, 70–74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, C. Benner, D. V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Barbe, N. Husson, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, “The hitran database: 1986 edition,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4058–4097 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, R. C.

R. C. Miake-Lye, R. C. Brown, M. R. Anderson, C. E. Kolb, “Calculations of condensation and chemistry in an aircraft contrail,” in Impact of Aircraft and Spacecraft Upon the Atmosphere, Proceedings of a DLR International Scientific Colloquium, U. Schumann, D. Wurzel, eds. (DLR, Köln-Porz, Germany, 1994) pp. 274–279.

Brune, W. H.

R. S. Storlarski, S. L. Baughcum, W. H. Brune, A. R. Douglas, D. W. Fahey, R. R. Friedl, S. C. Liu, R. A. Plumb, L. R. Poole, H. L. Wesoky, D. R. Worsnop, “1995 Scientific assessment of the atmospheric effects of stratospheric aircraft,” , (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Busen, R.

U. Schumann, J. Ström, R. Busen, R. Baumann, K. Gierens, M. Krautstrunk, F. P. Schröder, J. Stingl, “In situ observations of particles in jet aircraft exhausts and contrails for different sulfur containing fuels,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 6853–6869 (1996).

R. Busen, U. Schumann, “Visible contrail formation from fuels with different sulfur content,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1357–1360 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, C. Benner, D. V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Barbe, N. Husson, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, “The hitran database: 1986 edition,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4058–4097 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Rothman, R. B. Wattson, R. R. Gamache, D. Goorvitch, R. L. Hawkins, J. E. A. Selby, C. Camy-Peyret, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, “hitemp, the high-temperature molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1997), to be published.

Chan, K. R.

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, K. A. Boering, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, S. Anthony, T. F. Hanisco, P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. J. Salawitch, N. Louisnard, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, S. G. Donnelly, R. C. Wamsley, L. A. Del Negro, S. Solomon, S. C. Wofsy, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, K. K. Kelly, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, “Emission measurements of the Concorde supersonic aircraft in the lower stratosphere,” Science 270, 70–74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chase, J. O.

J. O. Chase, R. W. Hurn, “Measuring gaseous emissions from an aircraft turbine engine,” in Vehicle Emissions—Part 3 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, N.Y., 1971), pp. 184–190.

Dash, S. M.

S. M. Dash, H. S. Pergament, “Acomputational model for the prediction of jet entrainment in the vicinity of nozzle boat-tails (the BOAT code),” (Aeronautical Research Associates of Princeton, Inc., Princeton, N.J., 1978).

Deidewig, F.

F. Deidewig, “Schadstoffemissionen ziviler Flugtriebwerke am Beispiel des CFM56-3 und CF6-8C2,” (DLR, Köln–Porz, Germany, 1992).

Del Negro, L. A.

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, K. A. Boering, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, S. Anthony, T. F. Hanisco, P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. J. Salawitch, N. Louisnard, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, S. G. Donnelly, R. C. Wamsley, L. A. Del Negro, S. Solomon, S. C. Wofsy, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, K. K. Kelly, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, “Emission measurements of the Concorde supersonic aircraft in the lower stratosphere,” Science 270, 70–74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Depta, G.

K. Schäfer, J. Heland, R. Sussmann, R. Haus, H. Mosebach, T. Eisenmann, A. Gronauer, G. Depta, C. Werner, “FTIR-Spektroskopie zur Bestimmung der Emissionsquellen von atmosphärischen Spurengasen: Beispiele von Messungen an Schornsteinen und Flugzeugturbinen, bei der Gülleausbringung., an Ställen und Kompostanlagen,” VDI Ber. (Ver. Dtsch. Ing.) 1257257–289 (1996).

Dietl, H.

Döhler, W.

W. Döhler, “Vergleiche theoretisch berechneter und experimenteller Transmissionsfunktionen von Kohlendioxid im Bereich der 15-µm-Bande bei homogenen Bedingungen,” Abh. Meteorol. Dienstes Dtsch. Demok. Repub. 120, 6–7 (1978).

Donnelly, S. G.

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, K. A. Boering, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, S. Anthony, T. F. Hanisco, P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. J. Salawitch, N. Louisnard, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, S. G. Donnelly, R. C. Wamsley, L. A. Del Negro, S. Solomon, S. C. Wofsy, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, K. K. Kelly, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, “Emission measurements of the Concorde supersonic aircraft in the lower stratosphere,” Science 270, 70–74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Douglas, A. R.

R. S. Storlarski, S. L. Baughcum, W. H. Brune, A. R. Douglas, D. W. Fahey, R. R. Friedl, S. C. Liu, R. A. Plumb, L. R. Poole, H. L. Wesoky, D. R. Worsnop, “1995 Scientific assessment of the atmospheric effects of stratospheric aircraft,” , (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Egli, R. A.

R. A. Egli, “Climatic effects of air traffic,” Environ. Conserv. 22, 196–198 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Eisenmann, T.

K. Schäfer, J. Heland, R. Sussmann, R. Haus, H. Mosebach, T. Eisenmann, A. Gronauer, G. Depta, C. Werner, “FTIR-Spektroskopie zur Bestimmung der Emissionsquellen von atmosphärischen Spurengasen: Beispiele von Messungen an Schornsteinen und Flugzeugturbinen, bei der Gülleausbringung., an Ställen und Kompostanlagen,” VDI Ber. (Ver. Dtsch. Ing.) 1257257–289 (1996).

R. Haus, K. Schäfer, W. Bautzer, J. Heland, H. Mosebach, H. Bittner, T. Eisenmann, “Mobile Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy monitoring of air pollution,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5682–5689 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fahey, D. W.

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, K. A. Boering, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, S. Anthony, T. F. Hanisco, P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. J. Salawitch, N. Louisnard, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, S. G. Donnelly, R. C. Wamsley, L. A. Del Negro, S. Solomon, S. C. Wofsy, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, K. K. Kelly, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, “Emission measurements of the Concorde supersonic aircraft in the lower stratosphere,” Science 270, 70–74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Storlarski, S. L. Baughcum, W. H. Brune, A. R. Douglas, D. W. Fahey, R. R. Friedl, S. C. Liu, R. A. Plumb, L. R. Poole, H. L. Wesoky, D. R. Worsnop, “1995 Scientific assessment of the atmospheric effects of stratospheric aircraft,” , (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Faulkner, H. B.

H. B. Faulkner, “An emission database for U.S. navy and air force aircraft engines,” presented at the ASME Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exposition, Amsterdam, June 1988.

Few, J. D.

J. D. Few, H. S. Lowry, “Reevaluation of nitric oxide concentration in exhaust of jet engines and combustors,” (Arnold Engineering Development Center, Arnold Air Force Station, Tenn., 1981).

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, C. Benner, D. V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Barbe, N. Husson, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, “The hitran database: 1986 edition,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4058–4097 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friedl, R. R.

R. S. Storlarski, S. L. Baughcum, W. H. Brune, A. R. Douglas, D. W. Fahey, R. R. Friedl, S. C. Liu, R. A. Plumb, L. R. Poole, H. L. Wesoky, D. R. Worsnop, “1995 Scientific assessment of the atmospheric effects of stratospheric aircraft,” , (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Gamache, R. R.

R. R. Gamache, J.-M. Hartmann, L. Rosenmann, “Collisional broadening of water vapor lines. I. A survey of experimental results,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 481–499 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, C. Benner, D. V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Gamache, R. L. Hawkins, L. S. Rothman, “Total internal partition sums in the temperature range 70–3000 K: atmospheric linear molecules,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 142, 205–219 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Barbe, N. Husson, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, “The hitran database: 1986 edition,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4058–4097 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Rothman, R. B. Wattson, R. R. Gamache, D. Goorvitch, R. L. Hawkins, J. E. A. Selby, C. Camy-Peyret, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, “hitemp, the high-temperature molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1997), to be published.

L. S. Rothman, R. B. Wattson, R. R. Gamache, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, “hitran hawks and hitemp high-temperature molecular database,” in Atmospheric Propagation and Remote Sensing IV, J. C. Dainty, ed., Proc SPIE2471, 105–111 (1995).

Gao, R. S.

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, K. A. Boering, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, S. Anthony, T. F. Hanisco, P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. J. Salawitch, N. Louisnard, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, S. G. Donnelly, R. C. Wamsley, L. A. Del Negro, S. Solomon, S. C. Wofsy, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, K. K. Kelly, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, “Emission measurements of the Concorde supersonic aircraft in the lower stratosphere,” Science 270, 70–74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gierens, K.

U. Schumann, J. Ström, R. Busen, R. Baumann, K. Gierens, M. Krautstrunk, F. P. Schröder, J. Stingl, “In situ observations of particles in jet aircraft exhausts and contrails for different sulfur containing fuels,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 6853–6869 (1996).

Goering, H.

R. Haus, H. Goering, Atmosphärenphysikalische Grundlagen der Infrarotspektroskopischen Luftanalyse (Heinrich–Hertz Institute, Academy of Sciences, Berlin, Germany, 1991).

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, C. Benner, D. V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Barbe, N. Husson, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, “The hitran database: 1986 edition,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4058–4097 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goody, R. M.

R. M. Goody, Y. L. Yung, Atmospheric Radiation (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1989).

Goorvitch, D.

L. S. Rothman, R. B. Wattson, R. R. Gamache, D. Goorvitch, R. L. Hawkins, J. E. A. Selby, C. Camy-Peyret, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, “hitemp, the high-temperature molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1997), to be published.

Griffith, P. R.

L. A. Gross, P. R. Griffith, “Spectroscopic temperature estimates by infrared emission spectrometry,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 39, 463–472 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gronauer, A.

K. Schäfer, J. Heland, R. Sussmann, R. Haus, H. Mosebach, T. Eisenmann, A. Gronauer, G. Depta, C. Werner, “FTIR-Spektroskopie zur Bestimmung der Emissionsquellen von atmosphärischen Spurengasen: Beispiele von Messungen an Schornsteinen und Flugzeugturbinen, bei der Gülleausbringung., an Ställen und Kompostanlagen,” VDI Ber. (Ver. Dtsch. Ing.) 1257257–289 (1996).

Gross, L. A.

L. A. Gross, P. R. Griffith, “Spectroscopic temperature estimates by infrared emission spectrometry,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 39, 463–472 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hanisco, T. F.

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, K. A. Boering, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, S. Anthony, T. F. Hanisco, P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. J. Salawitch, N. Louisnard, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, S. G. Donnelly, R. C. Wamsley, L. A. Del Negro, S. Solomon, S. C. Wofsy, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, K. K. Kelly, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, “Emission measurements of the Concorde supersonic aircraft in the lower stratosphere,” Science 270, 70–74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hanst, P. L.

P. L. Hanst, S. T. Hanst, Infrared Spectra for Quantitative Analysis of Gases, Vols. 1 and 2 (Infrared Analysis Inc., Potomac, Md., 1993).

Hanst, S. T.

P. L. Hanst, S. T. Hanst, Infrared Spectra for Quantitative Analysis of Gases, Vols. 1 and 2 (Infrared Analysis Inc., Potomac, Md., 1993).

Hartmann, J.-M.

R. R. Gamache, J.-M. Hartmann, L. Rosenmann, “Collisional broadening of water vapor lines. I. A survey of experimental results,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 481–499 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Hartmann, M. Y. Perrin, Q. Ma, R. H. Tipping, “The infrared continuum of pure water vapor: calculations and high-temperature measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 49, 675–691 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Haschberger, P.

Haus, R.

K. Schäfer, J. Heland, R. Sussmann, R. Haus, H. Mosebach, T. Eisenmann, A. Gronauer, G. Depta, C. Werner, “FTIR-Spektroskopie zur Bestimmung der Emissionsquellen von atmosphärischen Spurengasen: Beispiele von Messungen an Schornsteinen und Flugzeugturbinen, bei der Gülleausbringung., an Ställen und Kompostanlagen,” VDI Ber. (Ver. Dtsch. Ing.) 1257257–289 (1996).

C. Werner, R. Haus, F. Köpp, K. Schäfer, “Remote sensing of mass fluxes of trace gases in the boundary layer,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 249–251 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Haus, K. Schäfer, W. Bautzer, J. Heland, H. Mosebach, H. Bittner, T. Eisenmann, “Mobile Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy monitoring of air pollution,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5682–5689 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Schäfer, R. Haus, J. Heland, “Measurements of gaseous compounds from emission sources and in ambient air by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: method and results of FTIS–maps,” in Optical Sensing for Environmental Monitoring, Proceedings of an International Speciality Conference, (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 455–465.

K. Schäfer, R. Haus, J. Heland, “Measurements of compounds in the open atmosphere by Fourier-transform-infrared-spectroscopy: methods and results of FTIS–maps,” in Proceedings of the TNO/EURASAP Workshop on the Reliability of VOC Emission Data Bases (TNO Institute of Environmental Sciences, Delft, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 109–113.

K. Schäfer, R. Haus, J. Heland, “Inspection of non-CO2 greenhouse gases from emission sources and in ambient air by Fourier-transform-spectrometry: measurements with FTIS–MAPS,” in Non-CO2Greenhouse Gases, Proceedings of the International Symposium, J. van Ham, L. J. H. M. Jansen, R. J. Swart, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1994), pp. 191–196.

R. Haus, H. Goering, Atmosphärenphysikalische Grundlagen der Infrarotspektroskopischen Luftanalyse (Heinrich–Hertz Institute, Academy of Sciences, Berlin, Germany, 1991).

R. Haus, K. Schäfer, J. I. Hughes, J. Heland, W. Bautzer, “FTIS remote sensing of smoke stack and test flare emissions,” in Air Pollution and Visibility Measurements, P. Fabian, V. Klein, M. Tacke, K. Weber, C. Werner, eds., Proc. SPIE2506, 45–54 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hawkins, R. L.

R. R. Gamache, R. L. Hawkins, L. S. Rothman, “Total internal partition sums in the temperature range 70–3000 K: atmospheric linear molecules,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 142, 205–219 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, R. B. Wattson, R. R. Gamache, D. Goorvitch, R. L. Hawkins, J. E. A. Selby, C. Camy-Peyret, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, “hitemp, the high-temperature molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1997), to be published.

Heland, J.

K. Schäfer, J. Heland, R. Sussmann, R. Haus, H. Mosebach, T. Eisenmann, A. Gronauer, G. Depta, C. Werner, “FTIR-Spektroskopie zur Bestimmung der Emissionsquellen von atmosphärischen Spurengasen: Beispiele von Messungen an Schornsteinen und Flugzeugturbinen, bei der Gülleausbringung., an Ställen und Kompostanlagen,” VDI Ber. (Ver. Dtsch. Ing.) 1257257–289 (1996).

R. Haus, K. Schäfer, W. Bautzer, J. Heland, H. Mosebach, H. Bittner, T. Eisenmann, “Mobile Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy monitoring of air pollution,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5682–5689 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Schäfer, R. Haus, J. Heland, “Measurements of gaseous compounds from emission sources and in ambient air by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: method and results of FTIS–maps,” in Optical Sensing for Environmental Monitoring, Proceedings of an International Speciality Conference, (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 455–465.

K. Schäfer, R. Haus, J. Heland, “Inspection of non-CO2 greenhouse gases from emission sources and in ambient air by Fourier-transform-spectrometry: measurements with FTIS–MAPS,” in Non-CO2Greenhouse Gases, Proceedings of the International Symposium, J. van Ham, L. J. H. M. Jansen, R. J. Swart, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1994), pp. 191–196.

K. Schäfer, R. Haus, J. Heland, “Measurements of compounds in the open atmosphere by Fourier-transform-infrared-spectroscopy: methods and results of FTIS–maps,” in Proceedings of the TNO/EURASAP Workshop on the Reliability of VOC Emission Data Bases (TNO Institute of Environmental Sciences, Delft, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 109–113.

R. Haus, K. Schäfer, J. I. Hughes, J. Heland, W. Bautzer, “FTIS remote sensing of smoke stack and test flare emissions,” in Air Pollution and Visibility Measurements, P. Fabian, V. Klein, M. Tacke, K. Weber, C. Werner, eds., Proc. SPIE2506, 45–54 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Heland, FTIR-Emissionsspektroskopie an Flugzeugabgasen (Wissenschafts–Verlag, Dr. W. Maraun, Frankfurt/Main, Germany, 1996).

Henderson, S. C.

S. L. Baughcum, S. C. Henderson, P. S. Hertel, D. R. Maggiora, C. A. Oncina, “Stratospheric emissions effects database development,” (NASA, Hampton, Va., 1994).

Henshaw, J.

C. Johnson, J. Henshaw, G. McInnes, “The impact of aircraft NOx emissions on tropospheric ozone and global warming,” Nature, (London) 355, 69–71 (1992).

Hertel, P. S.

S. L. Baughcum, S. C. Henderson, P. S. Hertel, D. R. Maggiora, C. A. Oncina, “Stratospheric emissions effects database development,” (NASA, Hampton, Va., 1994).

Herzberg, G.

G. Herzberg, Molekülspektren und Molekülstruktur, I. Zweiatomige Moleküle (Verlag von Theodor Steinkopff, Dresden, Germany, 1939).

G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure, II. Infrared and Raman Spectra of Polyatomic Molecules (Van Nostrand, Princeton, N.J., 1956).

Holdren, M. W.

C. W. Spicer, M. W. Holdren, R. M. Riggin, T. F. Lyon, “Chemical composition and photochemical reactivity of exhaust from aircraft turbine engines,” Ann. Geophys. 12, 944–955 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Spicer, M. W. Holdren, D. L. Smith, D. P. Hughes, M. D. Smith, “Chemical composition of exhaust from aircraft turbine engines,” presented at the Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exposition, Brussels, Belgium, 11–14 June 1990.

Horman, S. R.

B. J. Vastag, S. R. Horman, “Calibration of a Michelson interferometer spectrometer,” in 1981 International Conference on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, S. C. Columbia, H. Sakai, eds., Proc SPIE289, 745–79 (1981).

Hughes, D. P.

C. W. Spicer, M. W. Holdren, D. L. Smith, D. P. Hughes, M. D. Smith, “Chemical composition of exhaust from aircraft turbine engines,” presented at the Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exposition, Brussels, Belgium, 11–14 June 1990.

Hughes, J. I.

R. Haus, K. Schäfer, J. I. Hughes, J. Heland, W. Bautzer, “FTIS remote sensing of smoke stack and test flare emissions,” in Air Pollution and Visibility Measurements, P. Fabian, V. Klein, M. Tacke, K. Weber, C. Werner, eds., Proc. SPIE2506, 45–54 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hurn, R. W.

J. O. Chase, R. W. Hurn, “Measuring gaseous emissions from an aircraft turbine engine,” in Vehicle Emissions—Part 3 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, N.Y., 1971), pp. 184–190.

Husson, N.

Jaacks, R. G.

Johnson, C.

C. Johnson, J. Henshaw, G. McInnes, “The impact of aircraft NOx emissions on tropospheric ozone and global warming,” Nature, (London) 355, 69–71 (1992).

Jonsson, H. H.

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, K. A. Boering, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, S. Anthony, T. F. Hanisco, P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. J. Salawitch, N. Louisnard, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, S. G. Donnelly, R. C. Wamsley, L. A. Del Negro, S. Solomon, S. C. Wofsy, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, K. K. Kelly, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, “Emission measurements of the Concorde supersonic aircraft in the lower stratosphere,” Science 270, 70–74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Keim, E. R.

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, K. A. Boering, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, S. Anthony, T. F. Hanisco, P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. J. Salawitch, N. Louisnard, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, S. G. Donnelly, R. C. Wamsley, L. A. Del Negro, S. Solomon, S. C. Wofsy, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, K. K. Kelly, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, “Emission measurements of the Concorde supersonic aircraft in the lower stratosphere,” Science 270, 70–74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, K. K.

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, K. A. Boering, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, S. Anthony, T. F. Hanisco, P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. J. Salawitch, N. Louisnard, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, S. G. Donnelly, R. C. Wamsley, L. A. Del Negro, S. Solomon, S. C. Wofsy, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, K. K. Kelly, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, “Emission measurements of the Concorde supersonic aircraft in the lower stratosphere,” Science 270, 70–74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kleffmann, J.

P. Wiesen, J. Kleffmann, R. Kurtenbach, K. H. Becker, “Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from aero engines,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2027–2030 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Klemm, M.

F. Arnold, J. Schneider, M. Klemm, J. Scheid, T. Stilp, H. Schlager, P. Schulte, M. E. Reinhardt, “Mass spectrometric measurements of SO2 and reactive nitrogen gases in the exhaust plumes of commercial jet airliners at cruise altitudes,” in Impact of Aircraft and Spacecraft Upon the Atmosphere, Proceedings of a DLR International Scientific Colloquium, U. Schumann, D. Wurzel, eds. (DLR, Köln–Porz, Germany, 1994), pp. 323–328.

Klim, A.

A. Klim, “A comparison of methods for the calculation of Voigt-profiles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 26, 527–545 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Koenig, G.

K. N. Liou, S. C. Ou, G. Koenig, “An investigation of the climatic effect of contrail cirrus,” in Air Traffic and the Environment: Background, Tendencies, and Potential Global Atmospheric Effects, Proceedings of a DLR International Scientific Colloquium, U. Schumann, ed. (Springer–Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 1990), pp. 154–169.

Kolb, C. E.

R. C. Miake-Lye, R. C. Brown, M. R. Anderson, C. E. Kolb, “Calculations of condensation and chemistry in an aircraft contrail,” in Impact of Aircraft and Spacecraft Upon the Atmosphere, Proceedings of a DLR International Scientific Colloquium, U. Schumann, D. Wurzel, eds. (DLR, Köln-Porz, Germany, 1994) pp. 274–279.

Köpp, F.

C. Werner, R. Haus, F. Köpp, K. Schäfer, “Remote sensing of mass fluxes of trace gases in the boundary layer,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 249–251 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Krautstrunk, M.

U. Schumann, J. Ström, R. Busen, R. Baumann, K. Gierens, M. Krautstrunk, F. P. Schröder, J. Stingl, “In situ observations of particles in jet aircraft exhausts and contrails for different sulfur containing fuels,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 6853–6869 (1996).

Kurtenbach, R.

P. Wiesen, J. Kleffmann, R. Kurtenbach, K. H. Becker, “Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from aero engines,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2027–2030 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Kurtenbach, P. Wiesen, University of Wuppertal, 42097 Wuppertal, Germany (personal communication).

Landau, Z. H.

Z. H. Landau, M. Metwally, R. Van Alstyne, C. A. Ward, “Jet aircraft engine exhaust emissions database development: Year 1990 and 2015 scenarios,” (NASA, Hampton, Va., 1994).

Lecht, M.

M. Lecht, P. Schimming, G. Winterfeld, “Ermittlung der Emissionen ziviler Triebwerkstypen im Teillastbereich,” (DLR, Köln–Porz, Germany, 1986).

Lindermeir, E.

E. Lindermeir, “Evaluation of infrared emission spectra of aircraft exhaust with the FitFas software,” Ann. Geophys. 12, 417–421 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Lindermeir, P. Haschberger, V. Tank, H. Dietl, “Calibration of a Fourier transform spectrometer using three blackbody sources,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4527–4533 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liou, K. N.

K. N. Liou, S. C. Ou, G. Koenig, “An investigation of the climatic effect of contrail cirrus,” in Air Traffic and the Environment: Background, Tendencies, and Potential Global Atmospheric Effects, Proceedings of a DLR International Scientific Colloquium, U. Schumann, ed. (Springer–Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 1990), pp. 154–169.

Liu, S. C.

R. S. Storlarski, S. L. Baughcum, W. H. Brune, A. R. Douglas, D. W. Fahey, R. R. Friedl, S. C. Liu, R. A. Plumb, L. R. Poole, H. L. Wesoky, D. R. Worsnop, “1995 Scientific assessment of the atmospheric effects of stratospheric aircraft,” , (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Loewenstein, M.

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, K. A. Boering, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, S. Anthony, T. F. Hanisco, P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. J. Salawitch, N. Louisnard, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, S. G. Donnelly, R. C. Wamsley, L. A. Del Negro, S. Solomon, S. C. Wofsy, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, K. K. Kelly, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, “Emission measurements of the Concorde supersonic aircraft in the lower stratosphere,” Science 270, 70–74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Louisnard, N.

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, K. A. Boering, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, S. Anthony, T. F. Hanisco, P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. J. Salawitch, N. Louisnard, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, S. G. Donnelly, R. C. Wamsley, L. A. Del Negro, S. Solomon, S. C. Wofsy, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, K. K. Kelly, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, “Emission measurements of the Concorde supersonic aircraft in the lower stratosphere,” Science 270, 70–74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lowry, H. S.

J. D. Few, H. S. Lowry, “Reevaluation of nitric oxide concentration in exhaust of jet engines and combustors,” (Arnold Engineering Development Center, Arnold Air Force Station, Tenn., 1981).

Lyon, T. F.

C. W. Spicer, M. W. Holdren, R. M. Riggin, T. F. Lyon, “Chemical composition and photochemical reactivity of exhaust from aircraft turbine engines,” Ann. Geophys. 12, 944–955 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Q.

J.-M. Hartmann, M. Y. Perrin, Q. Ma, R. H. Tipping, “The infrared continuum of pure water vapor: calculations and high-temperature measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 49, 675–691 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Maggiora, D. R.

S. L. Baughcum, S. C. Henderson, P. S. Hertel, D. R. Maggiora, C. A. Oncina, “Stratospheric emissions effects database development,” (NASA, Hampton, Va., 1994).

Malathy Devi, D. V.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, C. Benner, D. V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, C. Benner, D. V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Matveev, V. S.

V. S. Matveev, “Priblizhennye predstavlenija koefficienta pogloshchenija i ekvivalentnych shirin linij c Fojgtovskim konturom (Approximative descriptions of the absorption coefficient and the spectral linewidth with the Voigt profile),” Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 16, 228–233 (1972).

May, R. D.

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, K. A. Boering, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, S. Anthony, T. F. Hanisco, P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. J. Salawitch, N. Louisnard, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, S. G. Donnelly, R. C. Wamsley, L. A. Del Negro, S. Solomon, S. C. Wofsy, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, K. K. Kelly, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, “Emission measurements of the Concorde supersonic aircraft in the lower stratosphere,” Science 270, 70–74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McCann, A.

L. S. Rothman, R. B. Wattson, R. R. Gamache, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, “hitran hawks and hitemp high-temperature molecular database,” in Atmospheric Propagation and Remote Sensing IV, J. C. Dainty, ed., Proc SPIE2471, 105–111 (1995).

L. S. Rothman, R. B. Wattson, R. R. Gamache, D. Goorvitch, R. L. Hawkins, J. E. A. Selby, C. Camy-Peyret, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, “hitemp, the high-temperature molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1997), to be published.

McInnes, G.

C. Johnson, J. Henshaw, G. McInnes, “The impact of aircraft NOx emissions on tropospheric ozone and global warming,” Nature, (London) 355, 69–71 (1992).

Metwally, M.

Z. H. Landau, M. Metwally, R. Van Alstyne, C. A. Ward, “Jet aircraft engine exhaust emissions database development: Year 1990 and 2015 scenarios,” (NASA, Hampton, Va., 1994).

Miake-Lye, R. C.

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, K. A. Boering, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, S. Anthony, T. F. Hanisco, P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. J. Salawitch, N. Louisnard, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, S. G. Donnelly, R. C. Wamsley, L. A. Del Negro, S. Solomon, S. C. Wofsy, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, K. K. Kelly, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, “Emission measurements of the Concorde supersonic aircraft in the lower stratosphere,” Science 270, 70–74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Miake-Lye, R. C. Brown, M. R. Anderson, C. E. Kolb, “Calculations of condensation and chemistry in an aircraft contrail,” in Impact of Aircraft and Spacecraft Upon the Atmosphere, Proceedings of a DLR International Scientific Colloquium, U. Schumann, D. Wurzel, eds. (DLR, Köln-Porz, Germany, 1994) pp. 274–279.

Mosebach, H.

K. Schäfer, J. Heland, R. Sussmann, R. Haus, H. Mosebach, T. Eisenmann, A. Gronauer, G. Depta, C. Werner, “FTIR-Spektroskopie zur Bestimmung der Emissionsquellen von atmosphärischen Spurengasen: Beispiele von Messungen an Schornsteinen und Flugzeugturbinen, bei der Gülleausbringung., an Ställen und Kompostanlagen,” VDI Ber. (Ver. Dtsch. Ing.) 1257257–289 (1996).

R. Haus, K. Schäfer, W. Bautzer, J. Heland, H. Mosebach, H. Bittner, T. Eisenmann, “Mobile Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy monitoring of air pollution,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5682–5689 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norton, R. H.

Oncina, C. A.

S. L. Baughcum, S. C. Henderson, P. S. Hertel, D. R. Maggiora, C. A. Oncina, “Stratospheric emissions effects database development,” (NASA, Hampton, Va., 1994).

Ou, S. C.

K. N. Liou, S. C. Ou, G. Koenig, “An investigation of the climatic effect of contrail cirrus,” in Air Traffic and the Environment: Background, Tendencies, and Potential Global Atmospheric Effects, Proceedings of a DLR International Scientific Colloquium, U. Schumann, ed. (Springer–Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 1990), pp. 154–169.

Pergament, H. S.

S. M. Dash, H. S. Pergament, “Acomputational model for the prediction of jet entrainment in the vicinity of nozzle boat-tails (the BOAT code),” (Aeronautical Research Associates of Princeton, Inc., Princeton, N.J., 1978).

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, C. Benner, D. V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, M. Y.

J.-M. Hartmann, M. Y. Perrin, Q. Ma, R. H. Tipping, “The infrared continuum of pure water vapor: calculations and high-temperature measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 49, 675–691 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pickett, H. M.

Plumb, R. A.

R. S. Storlarski, S. L. Baughcum, W. H. Brune, A. R. Douglas, D. W. Fahey, R. R. Friedl, S. C. Liu, R. A. Plumb, L. R. Poole, H. L. Wesoky, D. R. Worsnop, “1995 Scientific assessment of the atmospheric effects of stratospheric aircraft,” , (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Podolske, J. R.

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, K. A. Boering, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, S. Anthony, T. F. Hanisco, P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. J. Salawitch, N. Louisnard, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, S. G. Donnelly, R. C. Wamsley, L. A. Del Negro, S. Solomon, S. C. Wofsy, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, K. K. Kelly, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, “Emission measurements of the Concorde supersonic aircraft in the lower stratosphere,” Science 270, 70–74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Poole, L. R.

R. S. Storlarski, S. L. Baughcum, W. H. Brune, A. R. Douglas, D. W. Fahey, R. R. Friedl, S. C. Liu, R. A. Plumb, L. R. Poole, H. L. Wesoky, D. R. Worsnop, “1995 Scientific assessment of the atmospheric effects of stratospheric aircraft,” , (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Poynter, R. L.

Reinhardt, M. E.

F. Arnold, J. Schneider, M. Klemm, J. Scheid, T. Stilp, H. Schlager, P. Schulte, M. E. Reinhardt, “Mass spectrometric measurements of SO2 and reactive nitrogen gases in the exhaust plumes of commercial jet airliners at cruise altitudes,” in Impact of Aircraft and Spacecraft Upon the Atmosphere, Proceedings of a DLR International Scientific Colloquium, U. Schumann, D. Wurzel, eds. (DLR, Köln–Porz, Germany, 1994), pp. 323–328.

Riggin, R. M.

C. W. Spicer, M. W. Holdren, R. M. Riggin, T. F. Lyon, “Chemical composition and photochemical reactivity of exhaust from aircraft turbine engines,” Ann. Geophys. 12, 944–955 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, C. Benner, D. V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Norton, C. P. Rinsland, “ATMOS data processing and science analysis methods,” Appl. Opt. 30, 389–400 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Barbe, N. Husson, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, “The hitran database: 1986 edition,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4058–4097 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rippel, H.

Rosenmann, L.

R. R. Gamache, J.-M. Hartmann, L. Rosenmann, “Collisional broadening of water vapor lines. I. A survey of experimental results,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 481–499 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, C. Benner, D. V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Gamache, R. L. Hawkins, L. S. Rothman, “Total internal partition sums in the temperature range 70–3000 K: atmospheric linear molecules,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 142, 205–219 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Barbe, N. Husson, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, “The hitran database: 1986 edition,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4058–4097 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Rothman, R. B. Wattson, R. R. Gamache, D. Goorvitch, R. L. Hawkins, J. E. A. Selby, C. Camy-Peyret, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, “hitemp, the high-temperature molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1997), to be published.

L. S. Rothman, R. B. Wattson, R. R. Gamache, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, “hitran hawks and hitemp high-temperature molecular database,” in Atmospheric Propagation and Remote Sensing IV, J. C. Dainty, ed., Proc SPIE2471, 105–111 (1995).

Salawitch, R. J.

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, K. A. Boering, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, S. Anthony, T. F. Hanisco, P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. J. Salawitch, N. Louisnard, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, S. G. Donnelly, R. C. Wamsley, L. A. Del Negro, S. Solomon, S. C. Wofsy, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, K. K. Kelly, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, “Emission measurements of the Concorde supersonic aircraft in the lower stratosphere,” Science 270, 70–74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schäfer, K.

K. Schäfer, J. Heland, R. Sussmann, R. Haus, H. Mosebach, T. Eisenmann, A. Gronauer, G. Depta, C. Werner, “FTIR-Spektroskopie zur Bestimmung der Emissionsquellen von atmosphärischen Spurengasen: Beispiele von Messungen an Schornsteinen und Flugzeugturbinen, bei der Gülleausbringung., an Ställen und Kompostanlagen,” VDI Ber. (Ver. Dtsch. Ing.) 1257257–289 (1996).

C. Werner, R. Haus, F. Köpp, K. Schäfer, “Remote sensing of mass fluxes of trace gases in the boundary layer,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 249–251 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Haus, K. Schäfer, W. Bautzer, J. Heland, H. Mosebach, H. Bittner, T. Eisenmann, “Mobile Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy monitoring of air pollution,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5682–5689 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Schäfer, R. Haus, J. Heland, “Inspection of non-CO2 greenhouse gases from emission sources and in ambient air by Fourier-transform-spectrometry: measurements with FTIS–MAPS,” in Non-CO2Greenhouse Gases, Proceedings of the International Symposium, J. van Ham, L. J. H. M. Jansen, R. J. Swart, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1994), pp. 191–196.

K. Schäfer, R. Haus, J. Heland, “Measurements of gaseous compounds from emission sources and in ambient air by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: method and results of FTIS–maps,” in Optical Sensing for Environmental Monitoring, Proceedings of an International Speciality Conference, (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 455–465.

K. Schäfer, R. Haus, J. Heland, “Measurements of compounds in the open atmosphere by Fourier-transform-infrared-spectroscopy: methods and results of FTIS–maps,” in Proceedings of the TNO/EURASAP Workshop on the Reliability of VOC Emission Data Bases (TNO Institute of Environmental Sciences, Delft, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 109–113.

R. Haus, K. Schäfer, J. I. Hughes, J. Heland, W. Bautzer, “FTIS remote sensing of smoke stack and test flare emissions,” in Air Pollution and Visibility Measurements, P. Fabian, V. Klein, M. Tacke, K. Weber, C. Werner, eds., Proc. SPIE2506, 45–54 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Scheid, J.

F. Arnold, J. Schneider, M. Klemm, J. Scheid, T. Stilp, H. Schlager, P. Schulte, M. E. Reinhardt, “Mass spectrometric measurements of SO2 and reactive nitrogen gases in the exhaust plumes of commercial jet airliners at cruise altitudes,” in Impact of Aircraft and Spacecraft Upon the Atmosphere, Proceedings of a DLR International Scientific Colloquium, U. Schumann, D. Wurzel, eds. (DLR, Köln–Porz, Germany, 1994), pp. 323–328.

Schimming, P.

M. Lecht, P. Schimming, G. Winterfeld, “Ermittlung der Emissionen ziviler Triebwerkstypen im Teillastbereich,” (DLR, Köln–Porz, Germany, 1986).

Schlager, H.

P. Schulte, H. Schlager, “Inferred NOx emission indices of jet engines at cruise altitude from in situ NO and CO2 measurements within aircraft plumes,” in Impact of Aircraft and Spacecraft Upon the Atmosphere, Proceedings of a DLR International Scientific Colloquium, U. Schumann, D. Wurzel, eds. (DLR, Köln–Porz, Germany, 1994), pp. 113–118.

F. Arnold, J. Schneider, M. Klemm, J. Scheid, T. Stilp, H. Schlager, P. Schulte, M. E. Reinhardt, “Mass spectrometric measurements of SO2 and reactive nitrogen gases in the exhaust plumes of commercial jet airliners at cruise altitudes,” in Impact of Aircraft and Spacecraft Upon the Atmosphere, Proceedings of a DLR International Scientific Colloquium, U. Schumann, D. Wurzel, eds. (DLR, Köln–Porz, Germany, 1994), pp. 323–328.

Schmitt, A. J.

A. J. Schmitt, “Global inventories of aircraft emissions,” in Impact of Aircraft and Spacecraft Upon the Atmosphere, Proceedings of a DLR International Scientific Colloquium, U. Schumann, D. Wurzel, eds. (DLR, Köln–Porz, Germany, 1994), pp. 65–70.

Schneider, J.

F. Arnold, J. Schneider, M. Klemm, J. Scheid, T. Stilp, H. Schlager, P. Schulte, M. E. Reinhardt, “Mass spectrometric measurements of SO2 and reactive nitrogen gases in the exhaust plumes of commercial jet airliners at cruise altitudes,” in Impact of Aircraft and Spacecraft Upon the Atmosphere, Proceedings of a DLR International Scientific Colloquium, U. Schumann, D. Wurzel, eds. (DLR, Köln–Porz, Germany, 1994), pp. 323–328.

Schröder, F. P.

U. Schumann, J. Ström, R. Busen, R. Baumann, K. Gierens, M. Krautstrunk, F. P. Schröder, J. Stingl, “In situ observations of particles in jet aircraft exhausts and contrails for different sulfur containing fuels,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 6853–6869 (1996).

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, R. B. Wattson, R. R. Gamache, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, “hitran hawks and hitemp high-temperature molecular database,” in Atmospheric Propagation and Remote Sensing IV, J. C. Dainty, ed., Proc SPIE2471, 105–111 (1995).

L. S. Rothman, R. B. Wattson, R. R. Gamache, D. Goorvitch, R. L. Hawkins, J. E. A. Selby, C. Camy-Peyret, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, “hitemp, the high-temperature molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1997), to be published.

Schulte, P.

P. Schulte, H. Schlager, “Inferred NOx emission indices of jet engines at cruise altitude from in situ NO and CO2 measurements within aircraft plumes,” in Impact of Aircraft and Spacecraft Upon the Atmosphere, Proceedings of a DLR International Scientific Colloquium, U. Schumann, D. Wurzel, eds. (DLR, Köln–Porz, Germany, 1994), pp. 113–118.

F. Arnold, J. Schneider, M. Klemm, J. Scheid, T. Stilp, H. Schlager, P. Schulte, M. E. Reinhardt, “Mass spectrometric measurements of SO2 and reactive nitrogen gases in the exhaust plumes of commercial jet airliners at cruise altitudes,” in Impact of Aircraft and Spacecraft Upon the Atmosphere, Proceedings of a DLR International Scientific Colloquium, U. Schumann, D. Wurzel, eds. (DLR, Köln–Porz, Germany, 1994), pp. 323–328.

Schumann, U.

U. Schumann, J. Ström, R. Busen, R. Baumann, K. Gierens, M. Krautstrunk, F. P. Schröder, J. Stingl, “In situ observations of particles in jet aircraft exhausts and contrails for different sulfur containing fuels,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 6853–6869 (1996).

R. Busen, U. Schumann, “Visible contrail formation from fuels with different sulfur content,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1357–1360 (1995).
[CrossRef]

U. Schumann, “On the effect of emissions from aircraft engines on the state of the atmosphere,” Ann. Geophys. 12, 365–384 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Seinfeld, J. H.

J. H. Seinfeld, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics of Air Pollution (Wiley, New York, 1986).

Selby, J. E. A.

L. S. Rothman, R. B. Wattson, R. R. Gamache, D. Goorvitch, R. L. Hawkins, J. E. A. Selby, C. Camy-Peyret, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, “hitemp, the high-temperature molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1997), to be published.

Smith, D. L.

C. W. Spicer, M. W. Holdren, D. L. Smith, D. P. Hughes, M. D. Smith, “Chemical composition of exhaust from aircraft turbine engines,” presented at the Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exposition, Brussels, Belgium, 11–14 June 1990.

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, C. Benner, D. V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Barbe, N. Husson, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, “The hitran database: 1986 edition,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4058–4097 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, M. D.

C. W. Spicer, M. W. Holdren, D. L. Smith, D. P. Hughes, M. D. Smith, “Chemical composition of exhaust from aircraft turbine engines,” presented at the Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exposition, Brussels, Belgium, 11–14 June 1990.

Solomon, S.

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, K. A. Boering, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, S. Anthony, T. F. Hanisco, P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. J. Salawitch, N. Louisnard, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, S. G. Donnelly, R. C. Wamsley, L. A. Del Negro, S. Solomon, S. C. Wofsy, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, K. K. Kelly, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, “Emission measurements of the Concorde supersonic aircraft in the lower stratosphere,” Science 270, 70–74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Spicer, C. W.

C. W. Spicer, M. W. Holdren, R. M. Riggin, T. F. Lyon, “Chemical composition and photochemical reactivity of exhaust from aircraft turbine engines,” Ann. Geophys. 12, 944–955 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Spicer, M. W. Holdren, D. L. Smith, D. P. Hughes, M. D. Smith, “Chemical composition of exhaust from aircraft turbine engines,” presented at the Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exposition, Brussels, Belgium, 11–14 June 1990.

Stilp, T.

F. Arnold, J. Schneider, M. Klemm, J. Scheid, T. Stilp, H. Schlager, P. Schulte, M. E. Reinhardt, “Mass spectrometric measurements of SO2 and reactive nitrogen gases in the exhaust plumes of commercial jet airliners at cruise altitudes,” in Impact of Aircraft and Spacecraft Upon the Atmosphere, Proceedings of a DLR International Scientific Colloquium, U. Schumann, D. Wurzel, eds. (DLR, Köln–Porz, Germany, 1994), pp. 323–328.

Stingl, J.

U. Schumann, J. Ström, R. Busen, R. Baumann, K. Gierens, M. Krautstrunk, F. P. Schröder, J. Stingl, “In situ observations of particles in jet aircraft exhausts and contrails for different sulfur containing fuels,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 6853–6869 (1996).

Storlarski, R. S.

R. S. Storlarski, S. L. Baughcum, W. H. Brune, A. R. Douglas, D. W. Fahey, R. R. Friedl, S. C. Liu, R. A. Plumb, L. R. Poole, H. L. Wesoky, D. R. Worsnop, “1995 Scientific assessment of the atmospheric effects of stratospheric aircraft,” , (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Ström, J.

U. Schumann, J. Ström, R. Busen, R. Baumann, K. Gierens, M. Krautstrunk, F. P. Schröder, J. Stingl, “In situ observations of particles in jet aircraft exhausts and contrails for different sulfur containing fuels,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 6853–6869 (1996).

Sussmann, R.

K. Schäfer, J. Heland, R. Sussmann, R. Haus, H. Mosebach, T. Eisenmann, A. Gronauer, G. Depta, C. Werner, “FTIR-Spektroskopie zur Bestimmung der Emissionsquellen von atmosphärischen Spurengasen: Beispiele von Messungen an Schornsteinen und Flugzeugturbinen, bei der Gülleausbringung., an Ställen und Kompostanlagen,” VDI Ber. (Ver. Dtsch. Ing.) 1257257–289 (1996).

Tank, V.

Tipping, R. H.

J.-M. Hartmann, M. Y. Perrin, Q. Ma, R. H. Tipping, “The infrared continuum of pure water vapor: calculations and high-temperature measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 49, 675–691 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, C. Benner, D. V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, C. Benner, D. V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, H. M. Pickett, R. L. Poynter, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Barbe, N. Husson, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, “The hitran database: 1986 edition,” Appl. Opt. 26, 4058–4097 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Alstyne, R.

Z. H. Landau, M. Metwally, R. Van Alstyne, C. A. Ward, “Jet aircraft engine exhaust emissions database development: Year 1990 and 2015 scenarios,” (NASA, Hampton, Va., 1994).

Vastag, B. J.

B. J. Vastag, S. R. Horman, “Calibration of a Michelson interferometer spectrometer,” in 1981 International Conference on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, S. C. Columbia, H. Sakai, eds., Proc SPIE289, 745–79 (1981).

Wamsley, R. C.

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, K. A. Boering, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, S. Anthony, T. F. Hanisco, P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. J. Salawitch, N. Louisnard, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, S. G. Donnelly, R. C. Wamsley, L. A. Del Negro, S. Solomon, S. C. Wofsy, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, K. K. Kelly, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, “Emission measurements of the Concorde supersonic aircraft in the lower stratosphere,” Science 270, 70–74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ward, C. A.

Z. H. Landau, M. Metwally, R. Van Alstyne, C. A. Ward, “Jet aircraft engine exhaust emissions database development: Year 1990 and 2015 scenarios,” (NASA, Hampton, Va., 1994).

Wattson, R. B.

L. S. Rothman, R. B. Wattson, R. R. Gamache, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, “hitran hawks and hitemp high-temperature molecular database,” in Atmospheric Propagation and Remote Sensing IV, J. C. Dainty, ed., Proc SPIE2471, 105–111 (1995).

L. S. Rothman, R. B. Wattson, R. R. Gamache, D. Goorvitch, R. L. Hawkins, J. E. A. Selby, C. Camy-Peyret, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, “hitemp, the high-temperature molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1997), to be published.

Webster, C. R.

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, K. A. Boering, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, S. Anthony, T. F. Hanisco, P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. J. Salawitch, N. Louisnard, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, S. G. Donnelly, R. C. Wamsley, L. A. Del Negro, S. Solomon, S. C. Wofsy, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, K. K. Kelly, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, “Emission measurements of the Concorde supersonic aircraft in the lower stratosphere,” Science 270, 70–74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wennberg, P. O.

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, K. A. Boering, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, S. Anthony, T. F. Hanisco, P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. J. Salawitch, N. Louisnard, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, S. G. Donnelly, R. C. Wamsley, L. A. Del Negro, S. Solomon, S. C. Wofsy, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, K. K. Kelly, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, “Emission measurements of the Concorde supersonic aircraft in the lower stratosphere,” Science 270, 70–74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Werner, C.

K. Schäfer, J. Heland, R. Sussmann, R. Haus, H. Mosebach, T. Eisenmann, A. Gronauer, G. Depta, C. Werner, “FTIR-Spektroskopie zur Bestimmung der Emissionsquellen von atmosphärischen Spurengasen: Beispiele von Messungen an Schornsteinen und Flugzeugturbinen, bei der Gülleausbringung., an Ställen und Kompostanlagen,” VDI Ber. (Ver. Dtsch. Ing.) 1257257–289 (1996).

C. Werner, R. Haus, F. Köpp, K. Schäfer, “Remote sensing of mass fluxes of trace gases in the boundary layer,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 249–251 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wesoky, H. L.

R. S. Storlarski, S. L. Baughcum, W. H. Brune, A. R. Douglas, D. W. Fahey, R. R. Friedl, S. C. Liu, R. A. Plumb, L. R. Poole, H. L. Wesoky, D. R. Worsnop, “1995 Scientific assessment of the atmospheric effects of stratospheric aircraft,” , (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Wiesen, P.

P. Wiesen, J. Kleffmann, R. Kurtenbach, K. H. Becker, “Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from aero engines,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2027–2030 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Kurtenbach, P. Wiesen, University of Wuppertal, 42097 Wuppertal, Germany (personal communication).

Wilson, J. C.

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, K. A. Boering, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, S. Anthony, T. F. Hanisco, P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. J. Salawitch, N. Louisnard, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, S. G. Donnelly, R. C. Wamsley, L. A. Del Negro, S. Solomon, S. C. Wofsy, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, K. K. Kelly, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, “Emission measurements of the Concorde supersonic aircraft in the lower stratosphere,” Science 270, 70–74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Winterfeld, G.

M. Lecht, P. Schimming, G. Winterfeld, “Ermittlung der Emissionen ziviler Triebwerkstypen im Teillastbereich,” (DLR, Köln–Porz, Germany, 1986).

Wofsy, S. C.

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, K. A. Boering, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, S. Anthony, T. F. Hanisco, P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. J. Salawitch, N. Louisnard, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, S. G. Donnelly, R. C. Wamsley, L. A. Del Negro, S. Solomon, S. C. Wofsy, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, K. K. Kelly, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, “Emission measurements of the Concorde supersonic aircraft in the lower stratosphere,” Science 270, 70–74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Woodbridge, E. L.

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, K. A. Boering, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, S. Anthony, T. F. Hanisco, P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. J. Salawitch, N. Louisnard, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, S. G. Donnelly, R. C. Wamsley, L. A. Del Negro, S. Solomon, S. C. Wofsy, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, K. K. Kelly, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, “Emission measurements of the Concorde supersonic aircraft in the lower stratosphere,” Science 270, 70–74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Worsnop, D. R.

R. S. Storlarski, S. L. Baughcum, W. H. Brune, A. R. Douglas, D. W. Fahey, R. R. Friedl, S. C. Liu, R. A. Plumb, L. R. Poole, H. L. Wesoky, D. R. Worsnop, “1995 Scientific assessment of the atmospheric effects of stratospheric aircraft,” , (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Yung, Y. L.

R. M. Goody, Y. L. Yung, Atmospheric Radiation (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1989).

Abh. Meteorol. Dienstes Dtsch. Demok. Repub.

W. Döhler, “Vergleiche theoretisch berechneter und experimenteller Transmissionsfunktionen von Kohlendioxid im Bereich der 15-µm-Bande bei homogenen Bedingungen,” Abh. Meteorol. Dienstes Dtsch. Demok. Repub. 120, 6–7 (1978).

Ann. Geophys.

U. Schumann, “On the effect of emissions from aircraft engines on the state of the atmosphere,” Ann. Geophys. 12, 365–384 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Spicer, M. W. Holdren, R. M. Riggin, T. F. Lyon, “Chemical composition and photochemical reactivity of exhaust from aircraft turbine engines,” Ann. Geophys. 12, 944–955 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Lindermeir, “Evaluation of infrared emission spectra of aircraft exhaust with the FitFas software,” Ann. Geophys. 12, 417–421 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

C. Werner, R. Haus, F. Köpp, K. Schäfer, “Remote sensing of mass fluxes of trace gases in the boundary layer,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 249–251 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Environ. Conserv.

R. A. Egli, “Climatic effects of air traffic,” Environ. Conserv. 22, 196–198 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

R. Busen, U. Schumann, “Visible contrail formation from fuels with different sulfur content,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1357–1360 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Wiesen, J. Kleffmann, R. Kurtenbach, K. H. Becker, “Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from aero engines,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2027–2030 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

U. Schumann, J. Ström, R. Busen, R. Baumann, K. Gierens, M. Krautstrunk, F. P. Schröder, J. Stingl, “In situ observations of particles in jet aircraft exhausts and contrails for different sulfur containing fuels,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 6853–6869 (1996).

J. Mol. Spectrosc.

R. R. Gamache, R. L. Hawkins, L. S. Rothman, “Total internal partition sums in the temperature range 70–3000 K: atmospheric linear molecules,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 142, 205–219 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

A. Klim, “A comparison of methods for the calculation of Voigt-profiles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 26, 527–545 (1981).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, R. R. Gamache, R. H. Tipping, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, C. Benner, D. V. Malathy Devi, J.-M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, A. Perrin, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, L. R. Brown, R. A. Toth, “The hitran molecular database: editions of 1991 and 1992,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 48, 469–508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Hartmann, M. Y. Perrin, Q. Ma, R. H. Tipping, “The infrared continuum of pure water vapor: calculations and high-temperature measurements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 49, 675–691 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Gamache, J.-M. Hartmann, L. Rosenmann, “Collisional broadening of water vapor lines. I. A survey of experimental results,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 481–499 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Gross, P. R. Griffith, “Spectroscopic temperature estimates by infrared emission spectrometry,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 39, 463–472 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nature, (London)

C. Johnson, J. Henshaw, G. McInnes, “The impact of aircraft NOx emissions on tropospheric ozone and global warming,” Nature, (London) 355, 69–71 (1992).

Science

D. W. Fahey, E. R. Keim, K. A. Boering, C. A. Brock, J. C. Wilson, H. H. Jonsson, S. Anthony, T. F. Hanisco, P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Miake-Lye, R. J. Salawitch, N. Louisnard, E. L. Woodbridge, R. S. Gao, S. G. Donnelly, R. C. Wamsley, L. A. Del Negro, S. Solomon, S. C. Wofsy, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, K. K. Kelly, M. Loewenstein, J. R. Podolske, K. R. Chan, “Emission measurements of the Concorde supersonic aircraft in the lower stratosphere,” Science 270, 70–74 (1995).
[CrossRef]

VDI Ber. (Ver. Dtsch. Ing.)

K. Schäfer, J. Heland, R. Sussmann, R. Haus, H. Mosebach, T. Eisenmann, A. Gronauer, G. Depta, C. Werner, “FTIR-Spektroskopie zur Bestimmung der Emissionsquellen von atmosphärischen Spurengasen: Beispiele von Messungen an Schornsteinen und Flugzeugturbinen, bei der Gülleausbringung., an Ställen und Kompostanlagen,” VDI Ber. (Ver. Dtsch. Ing.) 1257257–289 (1996).

Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk.

V. S. Matveev, “Priblizhennye predstavlenija koefficienta pogloshchenija i ekvivalentnych shirin linij c Fojgtovskim konturom (Approximative descriptions of the absorption coefficient and the spectral linewidth with the Voigt profile),” Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 16, 228–233 (1972).

Other

L. S. Rothman, R. B. Wattson, R. R. Gamache, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, “hitran hawks and hitemp high-temperature molecular database,” in Atmospheric Propagation and Remote Sensing IV, J. C. Dainty, ed., Proc SPIE2471, 105–111 (1995).

L. S. Rothman, R. B. Wattson, R. R. Gamache, D. Goorvitch, R. L. Hawkins, J. E. A. Selby, C. Camy-Peyret, J. Schroeder, A. McCann, “hitemp, the high-temperature molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1997), to be published.

F. Arnold, J. Schneider, M. Klemm, J. Scheid, T. Stilp, H. Schlager, P. Schulte, M. E. Reinhardt, “Mass spectrometric measurements of SO2 and reactive nitrogen gases in the exhaust plumes of commercial jet airliners at cruise altitudes,” in Impact of Aircraft and Spacecraft Upon the Atmosphere, Proceedings of a DLR International Scientific Colloquium, U. Schumann, D. Wurzel, eds. (DLR, Köln–Porz, Germany, 1994), pp. 323–328.

P. L. Hanst, S. T. Hanst, Infrared Spectra for Quantitative Analysis of Gases, Vols. 1 and 2 (Infrared Analysis Inc., Potomac, Md., 1993).

R. Kurtenbach, P. Wiesen, University of Wuppertal, 42097 Wuppertal, Germany (personal communication).

R. C. Miake-Lye, R. C. Brown, M. R. Anderson, C. E. Kolb, “Calculations of condensation and chemistry in an aircraft contrail,” in Impact of Aircraft and Spacecraft Upon the Atmosphere, Proceedings of a DLR International Scientific Colloquium, U. Schumann, D. Wurzel, eds. (DLR, Köln-Porz, Germany, 1994) pp. 274–279.

J. O. Chase, R. W. Hurn, “Measuring gaseous emissions from an aircraft turbine engine,” in Vehicle Emissions—Part 3 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, N.Y., 1971), pp. 184–190.

C. W. Spicer, M. W. Holdren, D. L. Smith, D. P. Hughes, M. D. Smith, “Chemical composition of exhaust from aircraft turbine engines,” presented at the Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exposition, Brussels, Belgium, 11–14 June 1990.

J. D. Few, H. S. Lowry, “Reevaluation of nitric oxide concentration in exhaust of jet engines and combustors,” (Arnold Engineering Development Center, Arnold Air Force Station, Tenn., 1981).

J. H. Seinfeld, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics of Air Pollution (Wiley, New York, 1986).

H. B. Faulkner, “An emission database for U.S. navy and air force aircraft engines,” presented at the ASME Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exposition, Amsterdam, June 1988.

International Civil Aviation Organization, “Engine exhaust emissions databank,” ICAO Doc. 9646, 1st ed., (ICAO Document Sales Unit, 1000 Sherbrooke Street West, Suite 400, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2R2, Canada, 1995).

S. M. Dash, H. S. Pergament, “Acomputational model for the prediction of jet entrainment in the vicinity of nozzle boat-tails (the BOAT code),” (Aeronautical Research Associates of Princeton, Inc., Princeton, N.J., 1978).

R. Haus, K. Schäfer, J. I. Hughes, J. Heland, W. Bautzer, “FTIS remote sensing of smoke stack and test flare emissions,” in Air Pollution and Visibility Measurements, P. Fabian, V. Klein, M. Tacke, K. Weber, C. Werner, eds., Proc. SPIE2506, 45–54 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kayser–Threde GmbH, White Cell Produktbeschreibung, (Kayser–Threde GmbH, München, Germany, 1993).

R. M. Goody, Y. L. Yung, Atmospheric Radiation (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1989).

R. Haus, H. Goering, Atmosphärenphysikalische Grundlagen der Infrarotspektroskopischen Luftanalyse (Heinrich–Hertz Institute, Academy of Sciences, Berlin, Germany, 1991).

J. Heland, FTIR-Emissionsspektroskopie an Flugzeugabgasen (Wissenschafts–Verlag, Dr. W. Maraun, Frankfurt/Main, Germany, 1996).

G. Herzberg, Molekülspektren und Molekülstruktur, I. Zweiatomige Moleküle (Verlag von Theodor Steinkopff, Dresden, Germany, 1939).

G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure, II. Infrared and Raman Spectra of Polyatomic Molecules (Van Nostrand, Princeton, N.J., 1956).

B. J. Vastag, S. R. Horman, “Calibration of a Michelson interferometer spectrometer,” in 1981 International Conference on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, S. C. Columbia, H. Sakai, eds., Proc SPIE289, 745–79 (1981).

R. S. Storlarski, S. L. Baughcum, W. H. Brune, A. R. Douglas, D. W. Fahey, R. R. Friedl, S. C. Liu, R. A. Plumb, L. R. Poole, H. L. Wesoky, D. R. Worsnop, “1995 Scientific assessment of the atmospheric effects of stratospheric aircraft,” , (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1995).

K. Schäfer, R. Haus, J. Heland, “Measurements of compounds in the open atmosphere by Fourier-transform-infrared-spectroscopy: methods and results of FTIS–maps,” in Proceedings of the TNO/EURASAP Workshop on the Reliability of VOC Emission Data Bases (TNO Institute of Environmental Sciences, Delft, The Netherlands, 1993), pp. 109–113.

K. Schäfer, R. Haus, J. Heland, “Inspection of non-CO2 greenhouse gases from emission sources and in ambient air by Fourier-transform-spectrometry: measurements with FTIS–MAPS,” in Non-CO2Greenhouse Gases, Proceedings of the International Symposium, J. van Ham, L. J. H. M. Jansen, R. J. Swart, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1994), pp. 191–196.

K. Schäfer, R. Haus, J. Heland, “Measurements of gaseous compounds from emission sources and in ambient air by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: method and results of FTIS–maps,” in Optical Sensing for Environmental Monitoring, Proceedings of an International Speciality Conference, (Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 455–465.

Kayser–Threde GmbH, K300 Handbuch, (Kayser–Threde GmbH, München, Germany, 1994).

K. N. Liou, S. C. Ou, G. Koenig, “An investigation of the climatic effect of contrail cirrus,” in Air Traffic and the Environment: Background, Tendencies, and Potential Global Atmospheric Effects, Proceedings of a DLR International Scientific Colloquium, U. Schumann, ed. (Springer–Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 1990), pp. 154–169.

A. J. Schmitt, “Global inventories of aircraft emissions,” in Impact of Aircraft and Spacecraft Upon the Atmosphere, Proceedings of a DLR International Scientific Colloquium, U. Schumann, D. Wurzel, eds. (DLR, Köln–Porz, Germany, 1994), pp. 65–70.

S. L. Baughcum, S. C. Henderson, P. S. Hertel, D. R. Maggiora, C. A. Oncina, “Stratospheric emissions effects database development,” (NASA, Hampton, Va., 1994).

Z. H. Landau, M. Metwally, R. Van Alstyne, C. A. Ward, “Jet aircraft engine exhaust emissions database development: Year 1990 and 2015 scenarios,” (NASA, Hampton, Va., 1994).

M. Lecht, P. Schimming, G. Winterfeld, “Ermittlung der Emissionen ziviler Triebwerkstypen im Teillastbereich,” (DLR, Köln–Porz, Germany, 1986).

F. Deidewig, “Schadstoffemissionen ziviler Flugtriebwerke am Beispiel des CFM56-3 und CF6-8C2,” (DLR, Köln–Porz, Germany, 1992).

U. Schumann, ed., “AERONOX, the impact of NOx emissions from aircraft upon the atmosphere at flight altitudes 8–15 km,” , (EC–DLR, Brussels, Belgium, 1995).

P. Schulte, H. Schlager, “Inferred NOx emission indices of jet engines at cruise altitude from in situ NO and CO2 measurements within aircraft plumes,” in Impact of Aircraft and Spacecraft Upon the Atmosphere, Proceedings of a DLR International Scientific Colloquium, U. Schumann, D. Wurzel, eds. (DLR, Köln–Porz, Germany, 1994), pp. 113–118.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Basic experimental setup for the FTIR emission measurements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

CO emission spectra of a CFM56-3B engine at different power settings. Both spectra were shifted on the y axis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of CO2 lines at approximately 2400 cm-1 on the temperature with a given number of molecules in the FOV of the instrument.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of CO2 lines on the molecule numbers Z i in the FOV of the telescope at T = 400 °C.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relative temperature dependence of some CO2 transitions in the wave-number range 2387–2397 cm-1 marked by quantum numbers.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Detection limits for NO at different exhaust gas temperatures (plume diameter ϕ = 50 cm).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

CO emission indices for two engine thrusts (65% and 90%) at several downstream positions behind the M701-TZ engine with different plume models.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

CO emission indices at idle power of a CFM56-3B engine obtained with different plume models compared with those of other authors.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Possible Gas Compounds, Spectral Regions, Interferences, Expected Mixing Ratios, and Detection Limits for the Analysis of the FTIR Emission Spectraa

Tables Icon

Table 2 List of Engines Used for the FTIR Spectroscopic Analyses

Tables Icon

Table 3 Comparison of the Gas Temperatures and Emission Indices for the GE CF700-2D-2 Engine of This Paper and Those Given in Ref. 52

Tables Icon

Table 4 Emission Indices and Mixing Ratios for Different Compounds in an Exhaust Gas Sample as determined by FTIR Absorption Spectroscopy (This Paper) and Conventional Techniques (Ref. 57)a

Tables Icon

Table 5 Comparison of the Results of the Demonstration Measurementsa

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dIσ/ds=-β×Iσ+β×Bσ,
Iσ=τIσ,0+τ1Bσ dτ,
Iσ,m=τmIσ,m-1+1-τmBσTm.
τi=exp-kiZi/A,
kiσ, T, p=j SijT×fijσ-σj0, σj0, T, p.
Mσσ, Tsource, Tinstr=Eσ, Tinstr×Gσσ, Tinstr+Iσσ, Tsource,
E=1εMσ,1-Mσ,2Bσ,1-Bσ,2, Gσ=ε2χ-1Bσ,1-χ+1Bσ,2,
Iσσn=Mσσn/E¯-G¯σ.
Iσσ, Tsource=ε Bσσ, TrefMσσ, TsourceMσσ, Tref- Gσσ, Tinstr
dIσIσ=-T×dτ1-τ×dT+C2×σ×1T×dTT=τ×lnτ1-τ×dnn,
dIσIσ6×dTT0.4×dnn.
QXk=QCO2kQCO21 QX1,
Iσ,measσ*=τcontIσ,0+1-τcontBσTeff,
τcont=exp-κZtotA=Iσ,meas-BσTeffIσ,0-BσTeff.

Metrics