Abstract

The results of a successful demonstration of the selection module of an optoelectronic parallel-processing database filter is presented. The module utilizes 4 × 4 arrays of and and xor logic gates that respectively perform the functions of reducing the data fields and determining a match between the input data and a selection argument. The logic arrays were fabricated with InGaP/GaAs heterojunction phototransistors that drive vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL’s). The VCSEL’s provide the free-space optical interconnection between stages. The design of the system and the optical power budget are discussed.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. A. Mitkas, L. J. Irakliotis, “Three-dimensional storage for database processing,” J. Opt. Memories Neural Networks 3, 217–229 (1994).
  2. P. B. Berra, A. Ghafoor, P. A. Mitkas, S. J. Marcinkowski, M. Guizani, “The impact of optics on data and knowledge base systems,” IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng. 1, 111–132 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. A. Mitkas, L. J. Irakliotis, F. R. Beyette, S. A. Feld, C. W. Wilmsen, “Optoelectronic data filter for selection and projection,” Appl. Opt.1345–1353 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. R. Beyette, K. M. Geib, C. M. St. Clair, S. A. Feld, C. W. Wilmsen, “Optoelectronic exclusive-OR using hybrid integration of phototransistors and vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1322–1324 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. D. Snyder, “Design and implementation of VCSEL/HPT smart pixel based optoelectronic modules for use in a database filter,” M. S. Thesis (Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colo., 1996).
  6. R. P. Bryan, G. R. Olbright, J. Cheng, “Cascadable surface emitting laser logic: demonstration of Boolean logic,” Electron. Lett. 27, 893–894 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. D. Choquette, G. Hasnain, J. P. Mannaerts, J. D. Wynn, R. C. Wetzel, M. Hong, R. S. Freund, R. E. Leibenguth, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers fabricated by vacuum integrated processing,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 951–954 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. W. Derstine, S. Wakelin, F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, “A gentle introduction to optomechanics for free space systems,” a guide available by anonymous FTP from the /F-seed directory on sipi.usc.edu as optomech, optomech-a, and optomech-b (1994).
  9. F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Wakelin, M. W. Derstine, K. K. Chau, “A custom optoelectronic smart pixel test station,” in Vol. 10 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper OTu 14.
  11. B. Lu, Y. C. Lu, J. Cheng, M. J. Hafich, J. Klem, J. C. Zolper,, “High-speed, cascaded optical logic operations using programmable optical logic gate arrays,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 166–168 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (1)

B. Lu, Y. C. Lu, J. Cheng, M. J. Hafich, J. Klem, J. C. Zolper,, “High-speed, cascaded optical logic operations using programmable optical logic gate arrays,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 166–168 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Mitkas, L. J. Irakliotis, “Three-dimensional storage for database processing,” J. Opt. Memories Neural Networks 3, 217–229 (1994).

P. A. Mitkas, L. J. Irakliotis, F. R. Beyette, S. A. Feld, C. W. Wilmsen, “Optoelectronic data filter for selection and projection,” Appl. Opt.1345–1353 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

F. R. Beyette, K. M. Geib, C. M. St. Clair, S. A. Feld, C. W. Wilmsen, “Optoelectronic exclusive-OR using hybrid integration of phototransistors and vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1322–1324 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

K. D. Choquette, G. Hasnain, J. P. Mannaerts, J. D. Wynn, R. C. Wetzel, M. Hong, R. S. Freund, R. E. Leibenguth, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers fabricated by vacuum integrated processing,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 951–954 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. P. Bryan, G. R. Olbright, J. Cheng, “Cascadable surface emitting laser logic: demonstration of Boolean logic,” Electron. Lett. 27, 893–894 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

P. B. Berra, A. Ghafoor, P. A. Mitkas, S. J. Marcinkowski, M. Guizani, “The impact of optics on data and knowledge base systems,” IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng. 1, 111–132 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Beckman, M. G.

Berra, P. B.

P. B. Berra, A. Ghafoor, P. A. Mitkas, S. J. Marcinkowski, M. Guizani, “The impact of optics on data and knowledge base systems,” IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng. 1, 111–132 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Beyette, F. R.

P. A. Mitkas, L. J. Irakliotis, F. R. Beyette, S. A. Feld, C. W. Wilmsen, “Optoelectronic data filter for selection and projection,” Appl. Opt.1345–1353 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. R. Beyette, K. M. Geib, C. M. St. Clair, S. A. Feld, C. W. Wilmsen, “Optoelectronic exclusive-OR using hybrid integration of phototransistors and vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1322–1324 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bryan, R. P.

R. P. Bryan, G. R. Olbright, J. Cheng, “Cascadable surface emitting laser logic: demonstration of Boolean logic,” Electron. Lett. 27, 893–894 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chau, K. K.

S. Wakelin, M. W. Derstine, K. K. Chau, “A custom optoelectronic smart pixel test station,” in Vol. 10 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper OTu 14.

Cheng, J.

B. Lu, Y. C. Lu, J. Cheng, M. J. Hafich, J. Klem, J. C. Zolper,, “High-speed, cascaded optical logic operations using programmable optical logic gate arrays,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 166–168 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Bryan, G. R. Olbright, J. Cheng, “Cascadable surface emitting laser logic: demonstration of Boolean logic,” Electron. Lett. 27, 893–894 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Choquette, K. D.

K. D. Choquette, G. Hasnain, J. P. Mannaerts, J. D. Wynn, R. C. Wetzel, M. Hong, R. S. Freund, R. E. Leibenguth, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers fabricated by vacuum integrated processing,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 951–954 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Clair, C. M. St.

F. R. Beyette, K. M. Geib, C. M. St. Clair, S. A. Feld, C. W. Wilmsen, “Optoelectronic exclusive-OR using hybrid integration of phototransistors and vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1322–1324 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cloonan, T. J.

Crisci, R. J.

Derstine, M. W.

S. Wakelin, M. W. Derstine, K. K. Chau, “A custom optoelectronic smart pixel test station,” in Vol. 10 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper OTu 14.

Feld, S. A.

P. A. Mitkas, L. J. Irakliotis, F. R. Beyette, S. A. Feld, C. W. Wilmsen, “Optoelectronic data filter for selection and projection,” Appl. Opt.1345–1353 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. R. Beyette, K. M. Geib, C. M. St. Clair, S. A. Feld, C. W. Wilmsen, “Optoelectronic exclusive-OR using hybrid integration of phototransistors and vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1322–1324 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Freund, R. S.

K. D. Choquette, G. Hasnain, J. P. Mannaerts, J. D. Wynn, R. C. Wetzel, M. Hong, R. S. Freund, R. E. Leibenguth, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers fabricated by vacuum integrated processing,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 951–954 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Geib, K. M.

F. R. Beyette, K. M. Geib, C. M. St. Clair, S. A. Feld, C. W. Wilmsen, “Optoelectronic exclusive-OR using hybrid integration of phototransistors and vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1322–1324 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ghafoor, A.

P. B. Berra, A. Ghafoor, P. A. Mitkas, S. J. Marcinkowski, M. Guizani, “The impact of optics on data and knowledge base systems,” IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng. 1, 111–132 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Guizani, M.

P. B. Berra, A. Ghafoor, P. A. Mitkas, S. J. Marcinkowski, M. Guizani, “The impact of optics on data and knowledge base systems,” IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng. 1, 111–132 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hafich, M. J.

B. Lu, Y. C. Lu, J. Cheng, M. J. Hafich, J. Klem, J. C. Zolper,, “High-speed, cascaded optical logic operations using programmable optical logic gate arrays,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 166–168 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hasnain, G.

K. D. Choquette, G. Hasnain, J. P. Mannaerts, J. D. Wynn, R. C. Wetzel, M. Hong, R. S. Freund, R. E. Leibenguth, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers fabricated by vacuum integrated processing,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 951–954 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hinterlong, S. J.

Hinton, H. S.

Hong, M.

K. D. Choquette, G. Hasnain, J. P. Mannaerts, J. D. Wynn, R. C. Wetzel, M. Hong, R. S. Freund, R. E. Leibenguth, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers fabricated by vacuum integrated processing,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 951–954 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Irakliotis, L. J.

P. A. Mitkas, L. J. Irakliotis, F. R. Beyette, S. A. Feld, C. W. Wilmsen, “Optoelectronic data filter for selection and projection,” Appl. Opt.1345–1353 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Mitkas, L. J. Irakliotis, “Three-dimensional storage for database processing,” J. Opt. Memories Neural Networks 3, 217–229 (1994).

Klem, J.

B. Lu, Y. C. Lu, J. Cheng, M. J. Hafich, J. Klem, J. C. Zolper,, “High-speed, cascaded optical logic operations using programmable optical logic gate arrays,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 166–168 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Leibenguth, R. E.

K. D. Choquette, G. Hasnain, J. P. Mannaerts, J. D. Wynn, R. C. Wetzel, M. Hong, R. S. Freund, R. E. Leibenguth, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers fabricated by vacuum integrated processing,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 951–954 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lentine, A. L.

Lu, B.

B. Lu, Y. C. Lu, J. Cheng, M. J. Hafich, J. Klem, J. C. Zolper,, “High-speed, cascaded optical logic operations using programmable optical logic gate arrays,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 166–168 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. C.

B. Lu, Y. C. Lu, J. Cheng, M. J. Hafich, J. Klem, J. C. Zolper,, “High-speed, cascaded optical logic operations using programmable optical logic gate arrays,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 166–168 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mannaerts, J. P.

K. D. Choquette, G. Hasnain, J. P. Mannaerts, J. D. Wynn, R. C. Wetzel, M. Hong, R. S. Freund, R. E. Leibenguth, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers fabricated by vacuum integrated processing,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 951–954 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Marcinkowski, S. J.

P. B. Berra, A. Ghafoor, P. A. Mitkas, S. J. Marcinkowski, M. Guizani, “The impact of optics on data and knowledge base systems,” IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng. 1, 111–132 (1989).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, F. B.

Mitkas, P. A.

P. A. Mitkas, L. J. Irakliotis, F. R. Beyette, S. A. Feld, C. W. Wilmsen, “Optoelectronic data filter for selection and projection,” Appl. Opt.1345–1353 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Mitkas, L. J. Irakliotis, “Three-dimensional storage for database processing,” J. Opt. Memories Neural Networks 3, 217–229 (1994).

P. B. Berra, A. Ghafoor, P. A. Mitkas, S. J. Marcinkowski, M. Guizani, “The impact of optics on data and knowledge base systems,” IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng. 1, 111–132 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, R. L.

Novotny, R. A.

Olbright, G. R.

R. P. Bryan, G. R. Olbright, J. Cheng, “Cascadable surface emitting laser logic: demonstration of Boolean logic,” Electron. Lett. 27, 893–894 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sasian, J. M.

Snyder, R. D.

R. D. Snyder, “Design and implementation of VCSEL/HPT smart pixel based optoelectronic modules for use in a database filter,” M. S. Thesis (Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colo., 1996).

Wakelin, S.

S. Wakelin, M. W. Derstine, K. K. Chau, “A custom optoelectronic smart pixel test station,” in Vol. 10 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper OTu 14.

Walker, S. L.

Wetzel, R. C.

K. D. Choquette, G. Hasnain, J. P. Mannaerts, J. D. Wynn, R. C. Wetzel, M. Hong, R. S. Freund, R. E. Leibenguth, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers fabricated by vacuum integrated processing,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 951–954 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wilmsen, C. W.

P. A. Mitkas, L. J. Irakliotis, F. R. Beyette, S. A. Feld, C. W. Wilmsen, “Optoelectronic data filter for selection and projection,” Appl. Opt.1345–1353 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. R. Beyette, K. M. Geib, C. M. St. Clair, S. A. Feld, C. W. Wilmsen, “Optoelectronic exclusive-OR using hybrid integration of phototransistors and vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1322–1324 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wojcik, M. J.

Wynn, J. D.

K. D. Choquette, G. Hasnain, J. P. Mannaerts, J. D. Wynn, R. C. Wetzel, M. Hong, R. S. Freund, R. E. Leibenguth, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers fabricated by vacuum integrated processing,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 951–954 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zolper, J. C.

B. Lu, Y. C. Lu, J. Cheng, M. J. Hafich, J. Klem, J. C. Zolper,, “High-speed, cascaded optical logic operations using programmable optical logic gate arrays,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 166–168 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. P. Bryan, G. R. Olbright, J. Cheng, “Cascadable surface emitting laser logic: demonstration of Boolean logic,” Electron. Lett. 27, 893–894 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng. (1)

P. B. Berra, A. Ghafoor, P. A. Mitkas, S. J. Marcinkowski, M. Guizani, “The impact of optics on data and knowledge base systems,” IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng. 1, 111–132 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Memories Neural Networks (1)

P. A. Mitkas, L. J. Irakliotis, “Three-dimensional storage for database processing,” J. Opt. Memories Neural Networks 3, 217–229 (1994).

Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

F. R. Beyette, K. M. Geib, C. M. St. Clair, S. A. Feld, C. W. Wilmsen, “Optoelectronic exclusive-OR using hybrid integration of phototransistors and vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1322–1324 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Choquette, G. Hasnain, J. P. Mannaerts, J. D. Wynn, R. C. Wetzel, M. Hong, R. S. Freund, R. E. Leibenguth, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers fabricated by vacuum integrated processing,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 951–954 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. Lu, Y. C. Lu, J. Cheng, M. J. Hafich, J. Klem, J. C. Zolper,, “High-speed, cascaded optical logic operations using programmable optical logic gate arrays,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 166–168 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

M. W. Derstine, S. Wakelin, F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, “A gentle introduction to optomechanics for free space systems,” a guide available by anonymous FTP from the /F-seed directory on sipi.usc.edu as optomech, optomech-a, and optomech-b (1994).

S. Wakelin, M. W. Derstine, K. K. Chau, “A custom optoelectronic smart pixel test station,” in Vol. 10 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper OTu 14.

R. D. Snyder, “Design and implementation of VCSEL/HPT smart pixel based optoelectronic modules for use in a database filter,” M. S. Thesis (Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colo., 1996).

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optoelectronic database-filter operational flow diagram. OE, optoelectronic; Arg., argument.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic for logic gates (a) and and (b) xor.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Composite layout of the window-limited 4 × 4 HPT xor logic-gate array and (b) scanning electron microscope micrograph of one XOR HPT smart pixel.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Example of a shadow mask with data and selection mask patterns and physical layout of an and logic gate. (b) Photograph of an and hybrid smart-pixel array on the mounting slug.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical free-space 4f interconnect design indicating the VCSEL beam diameter along the optical path. The distance between the second lens and the HPT array is adjusted to 48.8 mm so that the beam has a diameter of 160 µm, which covers both of the HPT’s of the logic gates.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic diagram of a optoelectronic circuit for one path.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calculated power budget. Tx, transmission.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Database filter designed on a slotted-baseplate optomechanical platform.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Photograph of the selection module on a slotted baseplate.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Representative HPT I–V characteristic.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

L–I and I–V curves for a 15-µm VCSEL.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) Input A pattern imaged onto the HPT’s of the xor array. (b) Output from the xor VCSEL’s.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(a) Photograph of xor output with input B imaged onto a XOR HPT array. (b) Output from the xor VCSEL’s.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(a) Photograph of inputs A and B imaged onto a xor HPT array. (b) Selection-module output from a xor array.

Equations (2)

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Top=Tbs*0.99y*1-RdetTmaskTBPG,
Pin=Ic/Gop*Top,

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