Abstract

Projection systems based on liquid-crystal displays (LCD’s) offer new opportunities to display high-definition and large-size TV images. There are two types of LCD projector architectures: the 3-LCD architecture uses one LCD for each primary color, red, green, and blue, whereas a single-LCD configuration employs only one LCD paved with color filters. The single-LCD projector is simple and compact but suffers from a poor luminous efficiency because of losses in the color filters: each filter transmits only ∼1/3 of the flux emitted by the lamp. To increase this optical efficiency, we propose to introduce volume holographic elements in the architecture of a single-LCD projector. Innovative systems are presented in which volume holographic elements realize the spatiochromatic illumination of the LCD. This illumination consists of selectively directing all the light that corresponds to a primary color, red, green, or blue, in the pixel addressed with the corresponding video composite signal and exploits the spectral selectivity and dispersion properties of volume holographic gratings and lenses. The two main advantages of such illumination are the suppression of the color filters and the recovery of the light lost in a classical architecture by absorption of the color filters. A complete luminous efficiency analysis of spatiochromatic illumination with volume holographic elements is presented. The achieved performances are compared with classical single-LCD projectors.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Nicolas, B. Loiseaux, J. P. Huignard, A. Dupont, “Efficient optical configuration for polarized white light illumination of 16/9 LCDs in projection display,” in Japan Display ’92, Proceedings of the Twelfth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1992), pp. 121–124.
  2. M. V. C. Stroomer, “LC projection,” in Eurodisplay ’93, Proceedings of the International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1993), pp. 243–246.
  3. E. Schnedler, H. V. Wijngaarde, “Ultra high intensity short arc long life lamp system,” in Society of Information Display ’95, Proceedings of the International Symposium (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1995), Vol. XXVI, pp. 131–134.
  4. S. Shikawa, E. Toide, “A polarization transforming optic for high luminance LCD projector,” in Eurodisplay ’90, Proceedings of the Tenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1990), pp. 64–67.
  5. M. Imai, M. Sakamoto, N. Nishida, “A polarization converter for high brightness liquid crystal light valve projector,” in Japan Display ’92, Proceedings of the Twelfth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1992), pp. 235–238.
  6. A. J. S. M. De Vaan, A. H. J. Van de Brandt, R. A. M. Karsmakers, M. V. C. Stroomer, W. A. G. Timmers, “Polarization conversion system for LCD projection,” in Eurodisplay ’93, Proceedings of the International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1993), pp. 253–256.
  7. A. H. J. Van den Brandt, H. J. Blankers, S. Jinsi, P. J. M. Van Os, M. V. C. Stroomer, W. A. G. Timmers, W. G. C. Verbeek, N. A. de Werdt, “New plusfactors in a LCD projector,” in Proceedings of the International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1991), pp. 151–154.
  8. H. Hamada, F. Funada, M. Hijikigawa, K. Awane, “Brightness enhancement of a LCD projector by a planar microlens array,” in Society of Information Display ’92, Proceedings of the International Symposium (Society for International Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1991), pp. 269–272.
  9. P. Jansen, “A novel single light valve high brightness HD color projector,” in Eurodisplay ’93, Proceedings of the International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1993), pp. 249–252.
  10. H. Hamada, H. Nakarishi, F. Funada, K. Awane, “A new bright single panel LC projector system without a mosaic color filter,” in Proceedings of the International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1994), pp. 422–423.
  11. A. M. Weber, W. K. Smothers, T. J. Trout, D. J. Mickish, “Hologram recording in DuPont’s new photopolymer materials,” in Practical Holography IV, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE1212, 30–39 (1990).
  12. W. J. Gambogi, W. A. Gerstadt, S. R. Mackara, A. M. Weber, “Holographic transmission elements using improved photopolymer films,” in Computer and Optically Generated Holographic Optics, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE1555, 808–811 (1991).
  13. C. Joubert, A. Delboulbé, B. Loiseaux, J. P. Huignard, “Holographic elements for LCD projectors,” in Practical Holography IX, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE2406, 248–258 (1995).
  14. B. Loiseaux, C. Joubert, A. Delboulbé, J. P. Huignard, D. Battarel, “Compact spatiochromatic single-LCD projection architecture,” in Asia Display ’95, Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1995), pp. 87–89.
  15. H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram grating,” Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Joubert, B. Loiseaux, A. Delboulbé, J. P. Huignard, “Dispersive holographic microlens matrix for single LCD projection,” in Projection Displays II, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE2650, 243–252 (1996).
  17. N. Ichikawa, “Holographic optical element for liquid crystal projector,” in Asia Display ’95, Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1995), pp. 727–729.
  18. M. S. Brennesholtz, “Light collection efficiency for light valve projection systems,” in Projection Displays II, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE2650, 71–79 (1996).

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram grating,” Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Awane, K.

H. Hamada, F. Funada, M. Hijikigawa, K. Awane, “Brightness enhancement of a LCD projector by a planar microlens array,” in Society of Information Display ’92, Proceedings of the International Symposium (Society for International Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1991), pp. 269–272.

H. Hamada, H. Nakarishi, F. Funada, K. Awane, “A new bright single panel LC projector system without a mosaic color filter,” in Proceedings of the International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1994), pp. 422–423.

Battarel, D.

B. Loiseaux, C. Joubert, A. Delboulbé, J. P. Huignard, D. Battarel, “Compact spatiochromatic single-LCD projection architecture,” in Asia Display ’95, Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1995), pp. 87–89.

Blankers, H. J.

A. H. J. Van den Brandt, H. J. Blankers, S. Jinsi, P. J. M. Van Os, M. V. C. Stroomer, W. A. G. Timmers, W. G. C. Verbeek, N. A. de Werdt, “New plusfactors in a LCD projector,” in Proceedings of the International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1991), pp. 151–154.

Brennesholtz, M. S.

M. S. Brennesholtz, “Light collection efficiency for light valve projection systems,” in Projection Displays II, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE2650, 71–79 (1996).

De Vaan, A. J. S. M.

A. J. S. M. De Vaan, A. H. J. Van de Brandt, R. A. M. Karsmakers, M. V. C. Stroomer, W. A. G. Timmers, “Polarization conversion system for LCD projection,” in Eurodisplay ’93, Proceedings of the International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1993), pp. 253–256.

de Werdt, N. A.

A. H. J. Van den Brandt, H. J. Blankers, S. Jinsi, P. J. M. Van Os, M. V. C. Stroomer, W. A. G. Timmers, W. G. C. Verbeek, N. A. de Werdt, “New plusfactors in a LCD projector,” in Proceedings of the International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1991), pp. 151–154.

Delboulbé, A.

C. Joubert, B. Loiseaux, A. Delboulbé, J. P. Huignard, “Dispersive holographic microlens matrix for single LCD projection,” in Projection Displays II, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE2650, 243–252 (1996).

C. Joubert, A. Delboulbé, B. Loiseaux, J. P. Huignard, “Holographic elements for LCD projectors,” in Practical Holography IX, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE2406, 248–258 (1995).

B. Loiseaux, C. Joubert, A. Delboulbé, J. P. Huignard, D. Battarel, “Compact spatiochromatic single-LCD projection architecture,” in Asia Display ’95, Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1995), pp. 87–89.

Dupont, A.

C. Nicolas, B. Loiseaux, J. P. Huignard, A. Dupont, “Efficient optical configuration for polarized white light illumination of 16/9 LCDs in projection display,” in Japan Display ’92, Proceedings of the Twelfth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1992), pp. 121–124.

Funada, F.

H. Hamada, F. Funada, M. Hijikigawa, K. Awane, “Brightness enhancement of a LCD projector by a planar microlens array,” in Society of Information Display ’92, Proceedings of the International Symposium (Society for International Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1991), pp. 269–272.

H. Hamada, H. Nakarishi, F. Funada, K. Awane, “A new bright single panel LC projector system without a mosaic color filter,” in Proceedings of the International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1994), pp. 422–423.

Gambogi, W. J.

W. J. Gambogi, W. A. Gerstadt, S. R. Mackara, A. M. Weber, “Holographic transmission elements using improved photopolymer films,” in Computer and Optically Generated Holographic Optics, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE1555, 808–811 (1991).

Gerstadt, W. A.

W. J. Gambogi, W. A. Gerstadt, S. R. Mackara, A. M. Weber, “Holographic transmission elements using improved photopolymer films,” in Computer and Optically Generated Holographic Optics, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE1555, 808–811 (1991).

Hamada, H.

H. Hamada, H. Nakarishi, F. Funada, K. Awane, “A new bright single panel LC projector system without a mosaic color filter,” in Proceedings of the International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1994), pp. 422–423.

H. Hamada, F. Funada, M. Hijikigawa, K. Awane, “Brightness enhancement of a LCD projector by a planar microlens array,” in Society of Information Display ’92, Proceedings of the International Symposium (Society for International Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1991), pp. 269–272.

Hijikigawa, M.

H. Hamada, F. Funada, M. Hijikigawa, K. Awane, “Brightness enhancement of a LCD projector by a planar microlens array,” in Society of Information Display ’92, Proceedings of the International Symposium (Society for International Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1991), pp. 269–272.

Huignard, J. P.

C. Nicolas, B. Loiseaux, J. P. Huignard, A. Dupont, “Efficient optical configuration for polarized white light illumination of 16/9 LCDs in projection display,” in Japan Display ’92, Proceedings of the Twelfth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1992), pp. 121–124.

B. Loiseaux, C. Joubert, A. Delboulbé, J. P. Huignard, D. Battarel, “Compact spatiochromatic single-LCD projection architecture,” in Asia Display ’95, Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1995), pp. 87–89.

C. Joubert, A. Delboulbé, B. Loiseaux, J. P. Huignard, “Holographic elements for LCD projectors,” in Practical Holography IX, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE2406, 248–258 (1995).

C. Joubert, B. Loiseaux, A. Delboulbé, J. P. Huignard, “Dispersive holographic microlens matrix for single LCD projection,” in Projection Displays II, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE2650, 243–252 (1996).

Ichikawa, N.

N. Ichikawa, “Holographic optical element for liquid crystal projector,” in Asia Display ’95, Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1995), pp. 727–729.

Imai, M.

M. Imai, M. Sakamoto, N. Nishida, “A polarization converter for high brightness liquid crystal light valve projector,” in Japan Display ’92, Proceedings of the Twelfth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1992), pp. 235–238.

Jansen, P.

P. Jansen, “A novel single light valve high brightness HD color projector,” in Eurodisplay ’93, Proceedings of the International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1993), pp. 249–252.

Jinsi, S.

A. H. J. Van den Brandt, H. J. Blankers, S. Jinsi, P. J. M. Van Os, M. V. C. Stroomer, W. A. G. Timmers, W. G. C. Verbeek, N. A. de Werdt, “New plusfactors in a LCD projector,” in Proceedings of the International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1991), pp. 151–154.

Joubert, C.

C. Joubert, B. Loiseaux, A. Delboulbé, J. P. Huignard, “Dispersive holographic microlens matrix for single LCD projection,” in Projection Displays II, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE2650, 243–252 (1996).

C. Joubert, A. Delboulbé, B. Loiseaux, J. P. Huignard, “Holographic elements for LCD projectors,” in Practical Holography IX, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE2406, 248–258 (1995).

B. Loiseaux, C. Joubert, A. Delboulbé, J. P. Huignard, D. Battarel, “Compact spatiochromatic single-LCD projection architecture,” in Asia Display ’95, Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1995), pp. 87–89.

Karsmakers, R. A. M.

A. J. S. M. De Vaan, A. H. J. Van de Brandt, R. A. M. Karsmakers, M. V. C. Stroomer, W. A. G. Timmers, “Polarization conversion system for LCD projection,” in Eurodisplay ’93, Proceedings of the International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1993), pp. 253–256.

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram grating,” Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Loiseaux, B.

C. Joubert, B. Loiseaux, A. Delboulbé, J. P. Huignard, “Dispersive holographic microlens matrix for single LCD projection,” in Projection Displays II, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE2650, 243–252 (1996).

B. Loiseaux, C. Joubert, A. Delboulbé, J. P. Huignard, D. Battarel, “Compact spatiochromatic single-LCD projection architecture,” in Asia Display ’95, Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1995), pp. 87–89.

C. Joubert, A. Delboulbé, B. Loiseaux, J. P. Huignard, “Holographic elements for LCD projectors,” in Practical Holography IX, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE2406, 248–258 (1995).

C. Nicolas, B. Loiseaux, J. P. Huignard, A. Dupont, “Efficient optical configuration for polarized white light illumination of 16/9 LCDs in projection display,” in Japan Display ’92, Proceedings of the Twelfth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1992), pp. 121–124.

Mackara, S. R.

W. J. Gambogi, W. A. Gerstadt, S. R. Mackara, A. M. Weber, “Holographic transmission elements using improved photopolymer films,” in Computer and Optically Generated Holographic Optics, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE1555, 808–811 (1991).

Mickish, D. J.

A. M. Weber, W. K. Smothers, T. J. Trout, D. J. Mickish, “Hologram recording in DuPont’s new photopolymer materials,” in Practical Holography IV, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE1212, 30–39 (1990).

Nakarishi, H.

H. Hamada, H. Nakarishi, F. Funada, K. Awane, “A new bright single panel LC projector system without a mosaic color filter,” in Proceedings of the International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1994), pp. 422–423.

Nicolas, C.

C. Nicolas, B. Loiseaux, J. P. Huignard, A. Dupont, “Efficient optical configuration for polarized white light illumination of 16/9 LCDs in projection display,” in Japan Display ’92, Proceedings of the Twelfth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1992), pp. 121–124.

Nishida, N.

M. Imai, M. Sakamoto, N. Nishida, “A polarization converter for high brightness liquid crystal light valve projector,” in Japan Display ’92, Proceedings of the Twelfth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1992), pp. 235–238.

Sakamoto, M.

M. Imai, M. Sakamoto, N. Nishida, “A polarization converter for high brightness liquid crystal light valve projector,” in Japan Display ’92, Proceedings of the Twelfth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1992), pp. 235–238.

Schnedler, E.

E. Schnedler, H. V. Wijngaarde, “Ultra high intensity short arc long life lamp system,” in Society of Information Display ’95, Proceedings of the International Symposium (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1995), Vol. XXVI, pp. 131–134.

Shikawa, S.

S. Shikawa, E. Toide, “A polarization transforming optic for high luminance LCD projector,” in Eurodisplay ’90, Proceedings of the Tenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1990), pp. 64–67.

Smothers, W. K.

A. M. Weber, W. K. Smothers, T. J. Trout, D. J. Mickish, “Hologram recording in DuPont’s new photopolymer materials,” in Practical Holography IV, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE1212, 30–39 (1990).

Stroomer, M. V. C.

M. V. C. Stroomer, “LC projection,” in Eurodisplay ’93, Proceedings of the International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1993), pp. 243–246.

A. J. S. M. De Vaan, A. H. J. Van de Brandt, R. A. M. Karsmakers, M. V. C. Stroomer, W. A. G. Timmers, “Polarization conversion system for LCD projection,” in Eurodisplay ’93, Proceedings of the International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1993), pp. 253–256.

A. H. J. Van den Brandt, H. J. Blankers, S. Jinsi, P. J. M. Van Os, M. V. C. Stroomer, W. A. G. Timmers, W. G. C. Verbeek, N. A. de Werdt, “New plusfactors in a LCD projector,” in Proceedings of the International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1991), pp. 151–154.

Timmers, W. A. G.

A. H. J. Van den Brandt, H. J. Blankers, S. Jinsi, P. J. M. Van Os, M. V. C. Stroomer, W. A. G. Timmers, W. G. C. Verbeek, N. A. de Werdt, “New plusfactors in a LCD projector,” in Proceedings of the International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1991), pp. 151–154.

A. J. S. M. De Vaan, A. H. J. Van de Brandt, R. A. M. Karsmakers, M. V. C. Stroomer, W. A. G. Timmers, “Polarization conversion system for LCD projection,” in Eurodisplay ’93, Proceedings of the International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1993), pp. 253–256.

Toide, E.

S. Shikawa, E. Toide, “A polarization transforming optic for high luminance LCD projector,” in Eurodisplay ’90, Proceedings of the Tenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1990), pp. 64–67.

Trout, T. J.

A. M. Weber, W. K. Smothers, T. J. Trout, D. J. Mickish, “Hologram recording in DuPont’s new photopolymer materials,” in Practical Holography IV, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE1212, 30–39 (1990).

Van de Brandt, A. H. J.

A. J. S. M. De Vaan, A. H. J. Van de Brandt, R. A. M. Karsmakers, M. V. C. Stroomer, W. A. G. Timmers, “Polarization conversion system for LCD projection,” in Eurodisplay ’93, Proceedings of the International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1993), pp. 253–256.

Van den Brandt, A. H. J.

A. H. J. Van den Brandt, H. J. Blankers, S. Jinsi, P. J. M. Van Os, M. V. C. Stroomer, W. A. G. Timmers, W. G. C. Verbeek, N. A. de Werdt, “New plusfactors in a LCD projector,” in Proceedings of the International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1991), pp. 151–154.

Van Os, P. J. M.

A. H. J. Van den Brandt, H. J. Blankers, S. Jinsi, P. J. M. Van Os, M. V. C. Stroomer, W. A. G. Timmers, W. G. C. Verbeek, N. A. de Werdt, “New plusfactors in a LCD projector,” in Proceedings of the International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1991), pp. 151–154.

Verbeek, W. G. C.

A. H. J. Van den Brandt, H. J. Blankers, S. Jinsi, P. J. M. Van Os, M. V. C. Stroomer, W. A. G. Timmers, W. G. C. Verbeek, N. A. de Werdt, “New plusfactors in a LCD projector,” in Proceedings of the International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1991), pp. 151–154.

Weber, A. M.

A. M. Weber, W. K. Smothers, T. J. Trout, D. J. Mickish, “Hologram recording in DuPont’s new photopolymer materials,” in Practical Holography IV, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE1212, 30–39 (1990).

W. J. Gambogi, W. A. Gerstadt, S. R. Mackara, A. M. Weber, “Holographic transmission elements using improved photopolymer films,” in Computer and Optically Generated Holographic Optics, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE1555, 808–811 (1991).

Wijngaarde, H. V.

E. Schnedler, H. V. Wijngaarde, “Ultra high intensity short arc long life lamp system,” in Society of Information Display ’95, Proceedings of the International Symposium (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1995), Vol. XXVI, pp. 131–134.

Bell. Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled wave theory for thick hologram grating,” Bell. Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909–2947 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Other (17)

C. Joubert, B. Loiseaux, A. Delboulbé, J. P. Huignard, “Dispersive holographic microlens matrix for single LCD projection,” in Projection Displays II, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE2650, 243–252 (1996).

N. Ichikawa, “Holographic optical element for liquid crystal projector,” in Asia Display ’95, Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1995), pp. 727–729.

M. S. Brennesholtz, “Light collection efficiency for light valve projection systems,” in Projection Displays II, M. H. Wu, ed., Proc. SPIE2650, 71–79 (1996).

C. Nicolas, B. Loiseaux, J. P. Huignard, A. Dupont, “Efficient optical configuration for polarized white light illumination of 16/9 LCDs in projection display,” in Japan Display ’92, Proceedings of the Twelfth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1992), pp. 121–124.

M. V. C. Stroomer, “LC projection,” in Eurodisplay ’93, Proceedings of the International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1993), pp. 243–246.

E. Schnedler, H. V. Wijngaarde, “Ultra high intensity short arc long life lamp system,” in Society of Information Display ’95, Proceedings of the International Symposium (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1995), Vol. XXVI, pp. 131–134.

S. Shikawa, E. Toide, “A polarization transforming optic for high luminance LCD projector,” in Eurodisplay ’90, Proceedings of the Tenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1990), pp. 64–67.

M. Imai, M. Sakamoto, N. Nishida, “A polarization converter for high brightness liquid crystal light valve projector,” in Japan Display ’92, Proceedings of the Twelfth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1992), pp. 235–238.

A. J. S. M. De Vaan, A. H. J. Van de Brandt, R. A. M. Karsmakers, M. V. C. Stroomer, W. A. G. Timmers, “Polarization conversion system for LCD projection,” in Eurodisplay ’93, Proceedings of the International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1993), pp. 253–256.

A. H. J. Van den Brandt, H. J. Blankers, S. Jinsi, P. J. M. Van Os, M. V. C. Stroomer, W. A. G. Timmers, W. G. C. Verbeek, N. A. de Werdt, “New plusfactors in a LCD projector,” in Proceedings of the International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1991), pp. 151–154.

H. Hamada, F. Funada, M. Hijikigawa, K. Awane, “Brightness enhancement of a LCD projector by a planar microlens array,” in Society of Information Display ’92, Proceedings of the International Symposium (Society for International Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1991), pp. 269–272.

P. Jansen, “A novel single light valve high brightness HD color projector,” in Eurodisplay ’93, Proceedings of the International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1993), pp. 249–252.

H. Hamada, H. Nakarishi, F. Funada, K. Awane, “A new bright single panel LC projector system without a mosaic color filter,” in Proceedings of the International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1994), pp. 422–423.

A. M. Weber, W. K. Smothers, T. J. Trout, D. J. Mickish, “Hologram recording in DuPont’s new photopolymer materials,” in Practical Holography IV, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE1212, 30–39 (1990).

W. J. Gambogi, W. A. Gerstadt, S. R. Mackara, A. M. Weber, “Holographic transmission elements using improved photopolymer films,” in Computer and Optically Generated Holographic Optics, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE1555, 808–811 (1991).

C. Joubert, A. Delboulbé, B. Loiseaux, J. P. Huignard, “Holographic elements for LCD projectors,” in Practical Holography IX, S. A. Benton, ed., Proc. SPIE2406, 248–258 (1995).

B. Loiseaux, C. Joubert, A. Delboulbé, J. P. Huignard, D. Battarel, “Compact spatiochromatic single-LCD projection architecture,” in Asia Display ’95, Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Display Research Conference (Society for Information Display, Santa Ana, Calif., 1995), pp. 87–89.

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Figures (22)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Two different types of LCD projector: (a) front projector, (b) rear projector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

3-LCD projector architecture.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Single-LCD projector architecture.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Pixel arrangement in LCD’s: (a) stripe configuration usually used in laptop LCD’s, (b) delta configuration and dot addressing usually used in single-LCD projectors.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SCI of a LCD in a single-LCD projector with the color angular-separation method: The three beams corresponding to each primary color are angularly separated and focused in the corresponding pixel by a microlens array.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SCI of a LCD in a single-LCD projector by a diffractive-based method: The colors are angularly separated by a high efficiency grating that disperses the visible-light spectrum. Each primary color is focused in the corresponding pixel by a microlens array.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Example of the arrangement of the microlens array that illuminates a LCD by a spatiochromatic method, with a delta configuration of the pixels.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Diffraction efficiency versus wavelength of a volume holographic grating in its first order.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The focal plane of the microlens array looks like a rainbow when illuminated with dispersed light emerging from the phase volume grating. The LCD BM performs spectral filtering of the primary colors, RGB.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Spectral transmission through the LCD BM in the configuration described in Fig. 9.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

SCI of a LCD in a single-LCD projector by a holographic microlens array: The light is dispersed and focused in the pixels.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Spectrum locus of the light diffracted and focused by the holographic microlens array.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Holographic recording method of the imaged microlens array. The focal points of a classical microlens array are imaged by an afocal system with a magnification of 1 ×. The photosensitive material is placed near the image plane, which interferes with a plane wave that is incident at an angle θ.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Diffraction efficiency versus the wavelength of the holographic microlens.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Spectral transmission through the LCD BM when illuminated by a holographic microlens array.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Typical MH lamp spectrum used for LCD projector sources.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Colorimetric coordinates of the CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram of the three primary colors, RGB, obtained with SCI of a LCD with holographic components. Those points are compared with the TV standard and the classical color-filter configuration.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Experimental and theoretical diffraction efficiencies versus the wavelength of a holographic mirror used to reject the yellow peak of the MH lamp spectrum.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Spatiochromatic LCD illumination, with holographic components, of a single-LCD projector: RGB colorimetric coordinates of the CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram obtained with and without a yellow rejector.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Spatiochromatic LCD illumination of a single-LCD projector: speed of the projection lens versus microlens focal length. (LCD diagonal, 3.7 in.; pixel pitch, 85 µm).

Fig. 21
Fig. 21

Spatiochromatic LCD illumination with the holographic components of a single-LCD projector: spectral bandwidth of the holographic grating (diffraction efficiency ≥ 50%) versus the microlens focal length (LCD diagonal, 3.7 in.; pixel pitch, 85 µm).

Fig. 22
Fig. 22

Spatiochromatic LCD illumination of a single-LCD projector: Eu, useful étendue versus the microlens focal length (LCD diagonal, 3.7 in.; pixel pitch, 85 µm).

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Luminous Flux Efficiency Evaluation of a 3-LCD Projector

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Table 2 Optical Efficiency of the Optical Components of a Single-LCD Projector with SCI

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Φλ=KSλVλ,
Φi=Φλdλ.
ΦληλTexpRλxR, yRΦR,ΦληλTexpGλxG, yGΦG,ΦληλTexpBλxB, yBΦB,
E=ΦB+ΦG+ΦRΦi.
Eu=πD242π1-cos αu,
tan αu=Pu2f,

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