Abstract

Highly polarization-selective diffractive optical elements for use in optical interconnection and routing systems have been fabricated by the wet etching of pairs of calcite substrates and characterized experimentally. We show that when an index-matching polymer is used to fill the gap between the two substrates, substrate alignment problems are eliminated and efficiency is greatly increased. This has resulted in first-order diffraction efficiencies of 40.5% and polarization contrast ratios of 450:1 for several off-axis binary-phase elements, allowing these components to be used for practical applications.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. Nieuborg, C. Van de Poel, A. Kirk, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, “Highly polarization-selective diffractive and computer generated optical elements,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology II, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2404, 293–301 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Ford, F. Xu, K. Urquhart, Y. Fainman, “Polarization-selective computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Lett. 18, 456–458 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. Xu, J. Ford, Y. Fainman, “Polarization-selective computer-generated holograms: design, fabrication, and applications,” Appl. Opt. 34, 256–266 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. Xu, R. Tyan, Y. Fainman, “Single-substrate birefringent computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Lett. 21, 516–518 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. Xu, R. Tyan, P. Sun, Y. Fainman, C. Cheng, A. Scherer, “Form-birefringent computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1513–1515 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Hossfeld, D. Columbus, H. Sprave, T. Tschudi, W. Dultz, “Polarizing computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1835–1838 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals, Propagation and Control of Laser Radiation (Wiley, New York, 1984), p. 85.
  8. A. Kirk, N. Nieuborg, H. Thienpont, P. Heremans, M. Kuijk, R. Vounckx, I. Veretennicoff, “Anisotropic diffractive optical logic inverter for PnpN optical thyristors,” presented at the 1996 International Topical Meetings on Optical Computing (OC ’96) and Photonics in Switching (PS ’96), Sendai, Japan, 21–25 April 1996.

1996 (2)

1995 (1)

1993 (2)

J. Hossfeld, D. Columbus, H. Sprave, T. Tschudi, W. Dultz, “Polarizing computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1835–1838 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Ford, F. Xu, K. Urquhart, Y. Fainman, “Polarization-selective computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Lett. 18, 456–458 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, C.

Columbus, D.

J. Hossfeld, D. Columbus, H. Sprave, T. Tschudi, W. Dultz, “Polarizing computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1835–1838 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dultz, W.

J. Hossfeld, D. Columbus, H. Sprave, T. Tschudi, W. Dultz, “Polarizing computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1835–1838 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

Ford, J.

Heremans, P.

A. Kirk, N. Nieuborg, H. Thienpont, P. Heremans, M. Kuijk, R. Vounckx, I. Veretennicoff, “Anisotropic diffractive optical logic inverter for PnpN optical thyristors,” presented at the 1996 International Topical Meetings on Optical Computing (OC ’96) and Photonics in Switching (PS ’96), Sendai, Japan, 21–25 April 1996.

Hossfeld, J.

J. Hossfeld, D. Columbus, H. Sprave, T. Tschudi, W. Dultz, “Polarizing computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1835–1838 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kirk, A.

A. Kirk, N. Nieuborg, H. Thienpont, P. Heremans, M. Kuijk, R. Vounckx, I. Veretennicoff, “Anisotropic diffractive optical logic inverter for PnpN optical thyristors,” presented at the 1996 International Topical Meetings on Optical Computing (OC ’96) and Photonics in Switching (PS ’96), Sendai, Japan, 21–25 April 1996.

N. Nieuborg, C. Van de Poel, A. Kirk, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, “Highly polarization-selective diffractive and computer generated optical elements,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology II, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2404, 293–301 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kuijk, M.

A. Kirk, N. Nieuborg, H. Thienpont, P. Heremans, M. Kuijk, R. Vounckx, I. Veretennicoff, “Anisotropic diffractive optical logic inverter for PnpN optical thyristors,” presented at the 1996 International Topical Meetings on Optical Computing (OC ’96) and Photonics in Switching (PS ’96), Sendai, Japan, 21–25 April 1996.

Nieuborg, N.

A. Kirk, N. Nieuborg, H. Thienpont, P. Heremans, M. Kuijk, R. Vounckx, I. Veretennicoff, “Anisotropic diffractive optical logic inverter for PnpN optical thyristors,” presented at the 1996 International Topical Meetings on Optical Computing (OC ’96) and Photonics in Switching (PS ’96), Sendai, Japan, 21–25 April 1996.

N. Nieuborg, C. Van de Poel, A. Kirk, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, “Highly polarization-selective diffractive and computer generated optical elements,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology II, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2404, 293–301 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

Sprave, H.

J. Hossfeld, D. Columbus, H. Sprave, T. Tschudi, W. Dultz, “Polarizing computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1835–1838 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sun, P.

Thienpont, H.

A. Kirk, N. Nieuborg, H. Thienpont, P. Heremans, M. Kuijk, R. Vounckx, I. Veretennicoff, “Anisotropic diffractive optical logic inverter for PnpN optical thyristors,” presented at the 1996 International Topical Meetings on Optical Computing (OC ’96) and Photonics in Switching (PS ’96), Sendai, Japan, 21–25 April 1996.

N. Nieuborg, C. Van de Poel, A. Kirk, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, “Highly polarization-selective diffractive and computer generated optical elements,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology II, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2404, 293–301 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tschudi, T.

J. Hossfeld, D. Columbus, H. Sprave, T. Tschudi, W. Dultz, “Polarizing computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1835–1838 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tyan, R.

Urquhart, K.

Van de Poel, C.

N. Nieuborg, C. Van de Poel, A. Kirk, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, “Highly polarization-selective diffractive and computer generated optical elements,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology II, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2404, 293–301 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Veretennicoff, I.

N. Nieuborg, C. Van de Poel, A. Kirk, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, “Highly polarization-selective diffractive and computer generated optical elements,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology II, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2404, 293–301 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Kirk, N. Nieuborg, H. Thienpont, P. Heremans, M. Kuijk, R. Vounckx, I. Veretennicoff, “Anisotropic diffractive optical logic inverter for PnpN optical thyristors,” presented at the 1996 International Topical Meetings on Optical Computing (OC ’96) and Photonics in Switching (PS ’96), Sendai, Japan, 21–25 April 1996.

Vounckx, R.

A. Kirk, N. Nieuborg, H. Thienpont, P. Heremans, M. Kuijk, R. Vounckx, I. Veretennicoff, “Anisotropic diffractive optical logic inverter for PnpN optical thyristors,” presented at the 1996 International Topical Meetings on Optical Computing (OC ’96) and Photonics in Switching (PS ’96), Sendai, Japan, 21–25 April 1996.

Xu, F.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals, Propagation and Control of Laser Radiation (Wiley, New York, 1984), p. 85.

Yeh, P.

A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals, Propagation and Control of Laser Radiation (Wiley, New York, 1984), p. 85.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. Hossfeld, D. Columbus, H. Sprave, T. Tschudi, W. Dultz, “Polarizing computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1835–1838 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (3)

A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals, Propagation and Control of Laser Radiation (Wiley, New York, 1984), p. 85.

A. Kirk, N. Nieuborg, H. Thienpont, P. Heremans, M. Kuijk, R. Vounckx, I. Veretennicoff, “Anisotropic diffractive optical logic inverter for PnpN optical thyristors,” presented at the 1996 International Topical Meetings on Optical Computing (OC ’96) and Photonics in Switching (PS ’96), Sendai, Japan, 21–25 April 1996.

N. Nieuborg, C. Van de Poel, A. Kirk, H. Thienpont, I. Veretennicoff, “Highly polarization-selective diffractive and computer generated optical elements,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology II, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2404, 293–301 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the configuration of a polarization-selective DOE.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimentally obtained TE and TM images of a polarization-selective CGH.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Influence of substrate misalignment on the diffraction efficiency of a polarization-selective binary-phase grating.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Influence of underetching on the diffraction efficiency of a polarization-selective binary-phase grating.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Influence of etch-depth errors on the diffraction efficiency of a polarization-selective binary-phase grating.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Required Etch Depths for the Fabrication of Binary-Phase Calcite Polarization-Selective DOE’s with Air (n g = 1) and with an IMP (n g = n o) as Gap Materials (λ = 633 nm)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of the Results Published in this Paper with Previously Published Results for Binary-Phase Polarization-Selective DOE’s

Equations (4)

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d1=λ/2πno-ngϕTE-ne-ngϕTMne-ng2-no-ng2,
d2=λ/2πne-ngϕTE-no-ngϕTMno-ng2-ne-ng2.
d1=λ2πϕTMno-ne,
d2=λ2πϕTEno-ne.

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