Abstract

Continuous-relief diffractive optical elements have been replicated by use of conventional compact disc injection-molding techniques. Two continuous-relief microstructures, a blazed grating and a fan-out element, were chosen to evaluate the replication process. Original elements were fabricated by direct-write electron-beam lithography. Optical measurements and atomic force microscopy were used for investigating the replication fidelity.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. See, e.g., Diffractive Optics, Vol. 11 of the 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 1994) or Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics, Vol. 5 of the 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 1996).
  2. G. J. Swanson, “Binary optics technology: theoretical limits on the diffraction efficiency of multi-level diffractive optical elements,” (MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 1991).
  3. F. P. Shvartsman, “Replication of diffractive optics,” in Diffractive and Miniaturized Optics, S. H. Lee, ed., Vol. CR49 of SPIE Critical Reviews Series (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineering, Bellingham, Wash., 1993), pp. 165–186.
  4. M. T. Gale, “Replication,” in Micro-Optics: elements, systems and applications, H. P. Herzig, ed. (Taylor and Francis, Washington, D.C., 1997).
  5. M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, H. Schütz, P. Ehbets, H. P. Herzig, D. Prongué, “Continuous-relief diffractive optical elements for two-dimensional array generation,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2526–2533 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Tanigami, S. Ogata, S. Aoyama, T. Yamashita, K. Imanaka, “Low-wavefront aberration and high-temperature stability molded micro Fresnel lens,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 384–385 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Jahns, K.-H. Brenner, W. Däschner, C. Doubrava, T. Merklein, “Replication of diffractive microoptical elements using a PMMA molding technique,” Optik 89, 98–100 (1992).
  8. W. Moreshead, J.-L. Nogués, L. Howell, B. Zhu, “Replication of diffractive optics in silica glass,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology III, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2689, 142–152 (1996).
  9. D. Rogers, L. Galarneau, “High-fidelity replication of diffractive optics using radiation-curable liquid photopolymers,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2152, 294–302 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. G. Harvey, N. Carter, M. Cinderey, D. E. Laidler, T. G. Ryan, P. Summersgill, “Replication of free-space micro-optical elements on glass substrates by UV embossing,” in Free-Space Micro-Optical Systems, Vol. 9 of EOS Digest Series (European Optical Society, Orsay, France, 1996), pp. 20–21.
  11. R. D. Te Kolste, W. H. Welch, M. R. Feldman, “Injection molding for diffractive optics,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology II, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2404, 129–131 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H.-J. Rostalski, A. Mitreiter, J. Guhr, M. Schmidt, F. Wyrowski, H. Mischke, “Replication of diffractive optics by injection moulding,” in Proceedings of the Workshop on Diffractive Optics, Prague, Czech Republic, 21–23 August 1995, pp. 38–39.
  13. J. Nisper, “Injection-molded replication of binary optic structures,” in Design, Fabrication, and Applications of Precision Plastic Optics, X. Ning, R. T. Hebert, eds., Proc. SPIE2600, 56–64 (1995).
  14. P. Coops, “Mass production methods for computer-generated holograms for CD optical pickups,” Philips J. Res. 44, 481–500 (1990).
  15. R. Magnusson, T. K. Gaylord, “Diffraction efficiencies of thin phase gratings with arbitrary grating shape,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 806–809 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  16. F. Nikolajeff, J. Bengtsson, M. Larsson, M. Ekberg, S. Hård, “Measuring and modeling the proximity effect in direct-write electron-beam lithography kinoforms,” Appl. Opt. 34, 897–903 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. Bengtsson, “Direct inclusion of the proximity effect in the calculation of kinoforms,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4993–4996 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. R. Waldhäusl, P. Dannberg, E. B. Kley, A. Bräuer, W. Karthe, “Highly efficient blazed grating couplers in planar polymer waveguides,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 8, 529–536 (1993).
  19. K.-H. Brenner, M. Kufner, S. Kufner, J. Moisel, A. Müller, S. Sinzinger, M. Testorf, J. Göttert, J. Mohr, “Application of three-dimensional micro-optical components formed by lithography, electroforming, and plastic molding,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6464–6469 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. L. Baraldi, R. E. Kunz, J. Meissner, “High-precision molding of integrated optical structures,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics and Micromechanics, N. C. Gallagher, C. S. Roychoudhuri, eds., Proc. SPIE1992, 21–29 (1993).
    [CrossRef]

1995

1994

1993

1992

J. Jahns, K.-H. Brenner, W. Däschner, C. Doubrava, T. Merklein, “Replication of diffractive microoptical elements using a PMMA molding technique,” Optik 89, 98–100 (1992).

1990

P. Coops, “Mass production methods for computer-generated holograms for CD optical pickups,” Philips J. Res. 44, 481–500 (1990).

1989

M. Tanigami, S. Ogata, S. Aoyama, T. Yamashita, K. Imanaka, “Low-wavefront aberration and high-temperature stability molded micro Fresnel lens,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 384–385 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1978

Aoyama, S.

M. Tanigami, S. Ogata, S. Aoyama, T. Yamashita, K. Imanaka, “Low-wavefront aberration and high-temperature stability molded micro Fresnel lens,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 384–385 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Baraldi, L.

L. Baraldi, R. E. Kunz, J. Meissner, “High-precision molding of integrated optical structures,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics and Micromechanics, N. C. Gallagher, C. S. Roychoudhuri, eds., Proc. SPIE1992, 21–29 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bengtsson, J.

Bräuer, A.

R. Waldhäusl, P. Dannberg, E. B. Kley, A. Bräuer, W. Karthe, “Highly efficient blazed grating couplers in planar polymer waveguides,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 8, 529–536 (1993).

Brenner, K.-H.

Carter, N.

T. G. Harvey, N. Carter, M. Cinderey, D. E. Laidler, T. G. Ryan, P. Summersgill, “Replication of free-space micro-optical elements on glass substrates by UV embossing,” in Free-Space Micro-Optical Systems, Vol. 9 of EOS Digest Series (European Optical Society, Orsay, France, 1996), pp. 20–21.

Cinderey, M.

T. G. Harvey, N. Carter, M. Cinderey, D. E. Laidler, T. G. Ryan, P. Summersgill, “Replication of free-space micro-optical elements on glass substrates by UV embossing,” in Free-Space Micro-Optical Systems, Vol. 9 of EOS Digest Series (European Optical Society, Orsay, France, 1996), pp. 20–21.

Coops, P.

P. Coops, “Mass production methods for computer-generated holograms for CD optical pickups,” Philips J. Res. 44, 481–500 (1990).

Dannberg, P.

R. Waldhäusl, P. Dannberg, E. B. Kley, A. Bräuer, W. Karthe, “Highly efficient blazed grating couplers in planar polymer waveguides,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 8, 529–536 (1993).

Däschner, W.

J. Jahns, K.-H. Brenner, W. Däschner, C. Doubrava, T. Merklein, “Replication of diffractive microoptical elements using a PMMA molding technique,” Optik 89, 98–100 (1992).

Doubrava, C.

J. Jahns, K.-H. Brenner, W. Däschner, C. Doubrava, T. Merklein, “Replication of diffractive microoptical elements using a PMMA molding technique,” Optik 89, 98–100 (1992).

Ehbets, P.

Ekberg, M.

Feldman, M. R.

R. D. Te Kolste, W. H. Welch, M. R. Feldman, “Injection molding for diffractive optics,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology II, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2404, 129–131 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Galarneau, L.

D. Rogers, L. Galarneau, “High-fidelity replication of diffractive optics using radiation-curable liquid photopolymers,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2152, 294–302 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gale, M. T.

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, H. Schütz, P. Ehbets, H. P. Herzig, D. Prongué, “Continuous-relief diffractive optical elements for two-dimensional array generation,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2526–2533 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Gale, “Replication,” in Micro-Optics: elements, systems and applications, H. P. Herzig, ed. (Taylor and Francis, Washington, D.C., 1997).

Gaylord, T. K.

Göttert, J.

Guhr, J.

H.-J. Rostalski, A. Mitreiter, J. Guhr, M. Schmidt, F. Wyrowski, H. Mischke, “Replication of diffractive optics by injection moulding,” in Proceedings of the Workshop on Diffractive Optics, Prague, Czech Republic, 21–23 August 1995, pp. 38–39.

Hård, S.

Harvey, T. G.

T. G. Harvey, N. Carter, M. Cinderey, D. E. Laidler, T. G. Ryan, P. Summersgill, “Replication of free-space micro-optical elements on glass substrates by UV embossing,” in Free-Space Micro-Optical Systems, Vol. 9 of EOS Digest Series (European Optical Society, Orsay, France, 1996), pp. 20–21.

Herzig, H. P.

Howell, L.

W. Moreshead, J.-L. Nogués, L. Howell, B. Zhu, “Replication of diffractive optics in silica glass,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology III, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2689, 142–152 (1996).

Imanaka, K.

M. Tanigami, S. Ogata, S. Aoyama, T. Yamashita, K. Imanaka, “Low-wavefront aberration and high-temperature stability molded micro Fresnel lens,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 384–385 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jahns, J.

J. Jahns, K.-H. Brenner, W. Däschner, C. Doubrava, T. Merklein, “Replication of diffractive microoptical elements using a PMMA molding technique,” Optik 89, 98–100 (1992).

Karthe, W.

R. Waldhäusl, P. Dannberg, E. B. Kley, A. Bräuer, W. Karthe, “Highly efficient blazed grating couplers in planar polymer waveguides,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 8, 529–536 (1993).

Kley, E. B.

R. Waldhäusl, P. Dannberg, E. B. Kley, A. Bräuer, W. Karthe, “Highly efficient blazed grating couplers in planar polymer waveguides,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 8, 529–536 (1993).

Kufner, M.

Kufner, S.

Kunz, R. E.

L. Baraldi, R. E. Kunz, J. Meissner, “High-precision molding of integrated optical structures,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics and Micromechanics, N. C. Gallagher, C. S. Roychoudhuri, eds., Proc. SPIE1992, 21–29 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Laidler, D. E.

T. G. Harvey, N. Carter, M. Cinderey, D. E. Laidler, T. G. Ryan, P. Summersgill, “Replication of free-space micro-optical elements on glass substrates by UV embossing,” in Free-Space Micro-Optical Systems, Vol. 9 of EOS Digest Series (European Optical Society, Orsay, France, 1996), pp. 20–21.

Larsson, M.

Magnusson, R.

Meissner, J.

L. Baraldi, R. E. Kunz, J. Meissner, “High-precision molding of integrated optical structures,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics and Micromechanics, N. C. Gallagher, C. S. Roychoudhuri, eds., Proc. SPIE1992, 21–29 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Merklein, T.

J. Jahns, K.-H. Brenner, W. Däschner, C. Doubrava, T. Merklein, “Replication of diffractive microoptical elements using a PMMA molding technique,” Optik 89, 98–100 (1992).

Mischke, H.

H.-J. Rostalski, A. Mitreiter, J. Guhr, M. Schmidt, F. Wyrowski, H. Mischke, “Replication of diffractive optics by injection moulding,” in Proceedings of the Workshop on Diffractive Optics, Prague, Czech Republic, 21–23 August 1995, pp. 38–39.

Mitreiter, A.

H.-J. Rostalski, A. Mitreiter, J. Guhr, M. Schmidt, F. Wyrowski, H. Mischke, “Replication of diffractive optics by injection moulding,” in Proceedings of the Workshop on Diffractive Optics, Prague, Czech Republic, 21–23 August 1995, pp. 38–39.

Mohr, J.

Moisel, J.

Moreshead, W.

W. Moreshead, J.-L. Nogués, L. Howell, B. Zhu, “Replication of diffractive optics in silica glass,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology III, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2689, 142–152 (1996).

Müller, A.

Nikolajeff, F.

Nisper, J.

J. Nisper, “Injection-molded replication of binary optic structures,” in Design, Fabrication, and Applications of Precision Plastic Optics, X. Ning, R. T. Hebert, eds., Proc. SPIE2600, 56–64 (1995).

Nogués, J.-L.

W. Moreshead, J.-L. Nogués, L. Howell, B. Zhu, “Replication of diffractive optics in silica glass,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology III, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2689, 142–152 (1996).

Ogata, S.

M. Tanigami, S. Ogata, S. Aoyama, T. Yamashita, K. Imanaka, “Low-wavefront aberration and high-temperature stability molded micro Fresnel lens,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 384–385 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Prongué, D.

Rogers, D.

D. Rogers, L. Galarneau, “High-fidelity replication of diffractive optics using radiation-curable liquid photopolymers,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2152, 294–302 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rossi, M.

Rostalski, H.-J.

H.-J. Rostalski, A. Mitreiter, J. Guhr, M. Schmidt, F. Wyrowski, H. Mischke, “Replication of diffractive optics by injection moulding,” in Proceedings of the Workshop on Diffractive Optics, Prague, Czech Republic, 21–23 August 1995, pp. 38–39.

Ryan, T. G.

T. G. Harvey, N. Carter, M. Cinderey, D. E. Laidler, T. G. Ryan, P. Summersgill, “Replication of free-space micro-optical elements on glass substrates by UV embossing,” in Free-Space Micro-Optical Systems, Vol. 9 of EOS Digest Series (European Optical Society, Orsay, France, 1996), pp. 20–21.

Schmidt, M.

H.-J. Rostalski, A. Mitreiter, J. Guhr, M. Schmidt, F. Wyrowski, H. Mischke, “Replication of diffractive optics by injection moulding,” in Proceedings of the Workshop on Diffractive Optics, Prague, Czech Republic, 21–23 August 1995, pp. 38–39.

Schütz, H.

Shvartsman, F. P.

F. P. Shvartsman, “Replication of diffractive optics,” in Diffractive and Miniaturized Optics, S. H. Lee, ed., Vol. CR49 of SPIE Critical Reviews Series (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineering, Bellingham, Wash., 1993), pp. 165–186.

Sinzinger, S.

Summersgill, P.

T. G. Harvey, N. Carter, M. Cinderey, D. E. Laidler, T. G. Ryan, P. Summersgill, “Replication of free-space micro-optical elements on glass substrates by UV embossing,” in Free-Space Micro-Optical Systems, Vol. 9 of EOS Digest Series (European Optical Society, Orsay, France, 1996), pp. 20–21.

Swanson, G. J.

G. J. Swanson, “Binary optics technology: theoretical limits on the diffraction efficiency of multi-level diffractive optical elements,” (MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 1991).

Tanigami, M.

M. Tanigami, S. Ogata, S. Aoyama, T. Yamashita, K. Imanaka, “Low-wavefront aberration and high-temperature stability molded micro Fresnel lens,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 384–385 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Te Kolste, R. D.

R. D. Te Kolste, W. H. Welch, M. R. Feldman, “Injection molding for diffractive optics,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology II, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2404, 129–131 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Testorf, M.

Waldhäusl, R.

R. Waldhäusl, P. Dannberg, E. B. Kley, A. Bräuer, W. Karthe, “Highly efficient blazed grating couplers in planar polymer waveguides,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 8, 529–536 (1993).

Welch, W. H.

R. D. Te Kolste, W. H. Welch, M. R. Feldman, “Injection molding for diffractive optics,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology II, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2404, 129–131 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wyrowski, F.

H.-J. Rostalski, A. Mitreiter, J. Guhr, M. Schmidt, F. Wyrowski, H. Mischke, “Replication of diffractive optics by injection moulding,” in Proceedings of the Workshop on Diffractive Optics, Prague, Czech Republic, 21–23 August 1995, pp. 38–39.

Yamashita, T.

M. Tanigami, S. Ogata, S. Aoyama, T. Yamashita, K. Imanaka, “Low-wavefront aberration and high-temperature stability molded micro Fresnel lens,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 384–385 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, B.

W. Moreshead, J.-L. Nogués, L. Howell, B. Zhu, “Replication of diffractive optics in silica glass,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology III, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2689, 142–152 (1996).

Appl. Opt.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

M. Tanigami, S. Ogata, S. Aoyama, T. Yamashita, K. Imanaka, “Low-wavefront aberration and high-temperature stability molded micro Fresnel lens,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 384–385 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Optoelectron.

R. Waldhäusl, P. Dannberg, E. B. Kley, A. Bräuer, W. Karthe, “Highly efficient blazed grating couplers in planar polymer waveguides,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 8, 529–536 (1993).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Optik

J. Jahns, K.-H. Brenner, W. Däschner, C. Doubrava, T. Merklein, “Replication of diffractive microoptical elements using a PMMA molding technique,” Optik 89, 98–100 (1992).

Philips J. Res.

P. Coops, “Mass production methods for computer-generated holograms for CD optical pickups,” Philips J. Res. 44, 481–500 (1990).

Other

See, e.g., Diffractive Optics, Vol. 11 of the 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 1994) or Diffractive Optics and Micro-Optics, Vol. 5 of the 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 1996).

G. J. Swanson, “Binary optics technology: theoretical limits on the diffraction efficiency of multi-level diffractive optical elements,” (MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 1991).

F. P. Shvartsman, “Replication of diffractive optics,” in Diffractive and Miniaturized Optics, S. H. Lee, ed., Vol. CR49 of SPIE Critical Reviews Series (Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineering, Bellingham, Wash., 1993), pp. 165–186.

M. T. Gale, “Replication,” in Micro-Optics: elements, systems and applications, H. P. Herzig, ed. (Taylor and Francis, Washington, D.C., 1997).

W. Moreshead, J.-L. Nogués, L. Howell, B. Zhu, “Replication of diffractive optics in silica glass,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology III, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2689, 142–152 (1996).

D. Rogers, L. Galarneau, “High-fidelity replication of diffractive optics using radiation-curable liquid photopolymers,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2152, 294–302 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Harvey, N. Carter, M. Cinderey, D. E. Laidler, T. G. Ryan, P. Summersgill, “Replication of free-space micro-optical elements on glass substrates by UV embossing,” in Free-Space Micro-Optical Systems, Vol. 9 of EOS Digest Series (European Optical Society, Orsay, France, 1996), pp. 20–21.

R. D. Te Kolste, W. H. Welch, M. R. Feldman, “Injection molding for diffractive optics,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology II, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2404, 129–131 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H.-J. Rostalski, A. Mitreiter, J. Guhr, M. Schmidt, F. Wyrowski, H. Mischke, “Replication of diffractive optics by injection moulding,” in Proceedings of the Workshop on Diffractive Optics, Prague, Czech Republic, 21–23 August 1995, pp. 38–39.

J. Nisper, “Injection-molded replication of binary optic structures,” in Design, Fabrication, and Applications of Precision Plastic Optics, X. Ning, R. T. Hebert, eds., Proc. SPIE2600, 56–64 (1995).

L. Baraldi, R. E. Kunz, J. Meissner, “High-precision molding of integrated optical structures,” in Miniature and Micro-Optics and Micromechanics, N. C. Gallagher, C. S. Roychoudhuri, eds., Proc. SPIE1992, 21–29 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

AFM image of (a) the original linear blazed grating fabricated by e-beam lithography (grating period 20 µm), (b) the grating replicated by injection molding.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

AFM profilometer trace of (a) the original grating shown in Fig. 1(a) and (b) the replicated grating shown in Fig. 1 (b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Computed uniformity error as a function of the phase scale factor for the designed 3 × 3 fan-out element. A phase scale factor of 1 corresponds to a phase of 2π.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ni master that has been used for the injection molding of DOE’s, which are seen as small square areas. The original DOE’s were exposed on a circular 98-mm-diameter substrate by e-beam lithography. The wetlike look of the Ni master is caused by its protective laquer (which is removed before the Ni master is used).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Injection-molded CD (80 mm in diameter) with different kinoforms, each giving a far-field diffraction pattern in the form of a logotype.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Mold Data for a Toolex Alpha MD 100 Injection Molding Machine to Replicate Continuous-Relief DOE’s in the Form of CD’s

Equations (1)

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U=Pmax-PminPmax+Pmin,

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