Abstract

Experimental examination of the accommodative responses to a stereoscopic 3-D display found that accommodation was elicited by convergence and moved to the stereoscopic distance of the 3-D image. Immediately after the depth of the target was changed, the magnitude of response was smaller than that for a real target, but when the subjects fixated on the 3-D images, the responses were in almost the same position as the position of 3-D images. Measurement of accommodation response time after the subjects viewed 3-D images showed an afteraffect on the far-to-near accommodation response. The results are discussed in terms of the mismatch of accommodation and convergence in stereoscopic 3-D images and of the interaction between accommodation and convergence in human eyes.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Ohzu, K. Habara, “Behind the scenes of virtual reality: vision and motion,” Proc. IEEE 84, 782–798 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Ohzu, “Artificial 3D displays and visual functions,” in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 2 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 48–51.
  3. B. Julesz, Foundations of Cyclopean Perception (U. Chicago Press, Chicago, 1971).
  4. B. Julesz, “Binocular depth perception of computer-generated patterns,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 39, 1125–1161 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Fender, B. Julesz, “Extension of Panum’s fusional area in binocularly stabilized vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 819–830 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. N. Ogle, “On the limits of stereoscopic vision,” J. Exp. Psychol. 44, 253–259 (1952).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. N. Ogle, “Stereoscopic depth perception and exposure delay between images to the two eyes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 53, 1296–1304 (1963).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Inoue, H. Ohzu, “Accommodation and convergence when looking at binocular 3-D images,” in Human Factors on Organizational Design and Management III, K. Noro, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1990) pp. 249–252.
  9. T. Inoue, H. Ohzu, “Measurement of the human factors of 3-D images on a large screen,” in Large Screen and Projection Display II, W. P. Bleha, ed., Proc. SPIE1255, 104–107 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. W. Morgan, “Accomodation and vergence,” Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 45, 417–454 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Alpern, “Types of movement,” in The Eye, H. Davson, ed., Vol. 3 of Muscular Mechanisms, 2nd ed. (Academic, London, 1969).
  12. E. F. Fincham, J. Walton, “The reciprocal action of accommodation and convergence,” J. Physiol. London 137, 488–508 (1957).
  13. R. E. Hogan, P. B. Linfield, “The effects of moderate doses of ethanol on heterophoria and other aspects of binocular vision,” Opthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 3, 21–31 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. V. Krishnan, S. Phillips, L. Stark, “Frequency analysis of accommodation, accommodative vergence and disparity vergence,” Vision Res. 13, 1545–1554 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. T. Yoshida, A. Watanabe, “Analysis of interaction between accommodation and vergence feedback control systems of human eyes,” Bull. NHK Broadcast Sci. Res. Lab. 3, 72–80 (1969).
  16. C. M. Schor, J. C. Kotulak, “Dynamic interactions between accommodation and coverage are velocity sensitive,” Vision Res. 26, 927–942 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L. N. Molin, C. M. Schor, P. I. Kruger, “Changing size (looming) as a stimulus to accommodation and vergence,” Vision Res. 28, 882–898 (1988).
  18. J. C. Kotulak, S. E. Morse, “The effect of perceived distance on accommodation under binocular steady-state conditions,” Vision Res. 35, 791–795 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. Ramsdale, W. N. Charman, “Accommodation and convergence: effects of lenses and prisms in ‘closed-loop’,” Opthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 8, 43–52 (1988).
  20. C. M. Schor, “The relationship between fusional vergence eye movements and fixation disparity,” Vision Res. 19, 1359–1367 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. C. M. Schor, “Analysis of tonic and accommodative vergence disorders of binocular vision,” Am J. Optom. 60, 1–14 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  22. C. M. Schor, I. Wood, J. Ogawa, “Spatial tuning of static and dynamic local stereopsis,” Vision Res. 24, 573–578 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. H. Ohzu, “Visual perception mechanism related binocular stereo vision technology,” (in Japanese), J. Jpn. Soc. Precis. Eng. 54, 255–259 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  24. W. Jaschinski-Kruza, “Visual strain during VDU work: the effect of viewing distance and dark focus,” Ergonomics 31, 1449–1465 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

H. Ohzu, K. Habara, “Behind the scenes of virtual reality: vision and motion,” Proc. IEEE 84, 782–798 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. C. Kotulak, S. E. Morse, “The effect of perceived distance on accommodation under binocular steady-state conditions,” Vision Res. 35, 791–795 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

C. Ramsdale, W. N. Charman, “Accommodation and convergence: effects of lenses and prisms in ‘closed-loop’,” Opthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 8, 43–52 (1988).

L. N. Molin, C. M. Schor, P. I. Kruger, “Changing size (looming) as a stimulus to accommodation and vergence,” Vision Res. 28, 882–898 (1988).

H. Ohzu, “Visual perception mechanism related binocular stereo vision technology,” (in Japanese), J. Jpn. Soc. Precis. Eng. 54, 255–259 (1988).
[CrossRef]

W. Jaschinski-Kruza, “Visual strain during VDU work: the effect of viewing distance and dark focus,” Ergonomics 31, 1449–1465 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

C. M. Schor, J. C. Kotulak, “Dynamic interactions between accommodation and coverage are velocity sensitive,” Vision Res. 26, 927–942 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984

C. M. Schor, I. Wood, J. Ogawa, “Spatial tuning of static and dynamic local stereopsis,” Vision Res. 24, 573–578 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

C. M. Schor, “Analysis of tonic and accommodative vergence disorders of binocular vision,” Am J. Optom. 60, 1–14 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Hogan, P. B. Linfield, “The effects of moderate doses of ethanol on heterophoria and other aspects of binocular vision,” Opthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 3, 21–31 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1979

C. M. Schor, “The relationship between fusional vergence eye movements and fixation disparity,” Vision Res. 19, 1359–1367 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973

V. V. Krishnan, S. Phillips, L. Stark, “Frequency analysis of accommodation, accommodative vergence and disparity vergence,” Vision Res. 13, 1545–1554 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969

T. Yoshida, A. Watanabe, “Analysis of interaction between accommodation and vergence feedback control systems of human eyes,” Bull. NHK Broadcast Sci. Res. Lab. 3, 72–80 (1969).

1968

M. W. Morgan, “Accomodation and vergence,” Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 45, 417–454 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1967

1963

1960

B. Julesz, “Binocular depth perception of computer-generated patterns,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 39, 1125–1161 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1957

E. F. Fincham, J. Walton, “The reciprocal action of accommodation and convergence,” J. Physiol. London 137, 488–508 (1957).

1952

K. N. Ogle, “On the limits of stereoscopic vision,” J. Exp. Psychol. 44, 253–259 (1952).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alpern, M.

M. Alpern, “Types of movement,” in The Eye, H. Davson, ed., Vol. 3 of Muscular Mechanisms, 2nd ed. (Academic, London, 1969).

Charman, W. N.

C. Ramsdale, W. N. Charman, “Accommodation and convergence: effects of lenses and prisms in ‘closed-loop’,” Opthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 8, 43–52 (1988).

Fender, D.

Fincham, E. F.

E. F. Fincham, J. Walton, “The reciprocal action of accommodation and convergence,” J. Physiol. London 137, 488–508 (1957).

Habara, K.

H. Ohzu, K. Habara, “Behind the scenes of virtual reality: vision and motion,” Proc. IEEE 84, 782–798 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hogan, R. E.

R. E. Hogan, P. B. Linfield, “The effects of moderate doses of ethanol on heterophoria and other aspects of binocular vision,” Opthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 3, 21–31 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, T.

T. Inoue, H. Ohzu, “Accommodation and convergence when looking at binocular 3-D images,” in Human Factors on Organizational Design and Management III, K. Noro, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1990) pp. 249–252.

T. Inoue, H. Ohzu, “Measurement of the human factors of 3-D images on a large screen,” in Large Screen and Projection Display II, W. P. Bleha, ed., Proc. SPIE1255, 104–107 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jaschinski-Kruza, W.

W. Jaschinski-Kruza, “Visual strain during VDU work: the effect of viewing distance and dark focus,” Ergonomics 31, 1449–1465 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Julesz, B.

D. Fender, B. Julesz, “Extension of Panum’s fusional area in binocularly stabilized vision,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 819–830 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Julesz, “Binocular depth perception of computer-generated patterns,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 39, 1125–1161 (1960).
[CrossRef]

B. Julesz, Foundations of Cyclopean Perception (U. Chicago Press, Chicago, 1971).

Kotulak, J. C.

J. C. Kotulak, S. E. Morse, “The effect of perceived distance on accommodation under binocular steady-state conditions,” Vision Res. 35, 791–795 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Schor, J. C. Kotulak, “Dynamic interactions between accommodation and coverage are velocity sensitive,” Vision Res. 26, 927–942 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Krishnan, V. V.

V. V. Krishnan, S. Phillips, L. Stark, “Frequency analysis of accommodation, accommodative vergence and disparity vergence,” Vision Res. 13, 1545–1554 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kruger, P. I.

L. N. Molin, C. M. Schor, P. I. Kruger, “Changing size (looming) as a stimulus to accommodation and vergence,” Vision Res. 28, 882–898 (1988).

Linfield, P. B.

R. E. Hogan, P. B. Linfield, “The effects of moderate doses of ethanol on heterophoria and other aspects of binocular vision,” Opthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 3, 21–31 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Molin, L. N.

L. N. Molin, C. M. Schor, P. I. Kruger, “Changing size (looming) as a stimulus to accommodation and vergence,” Vision Res. 28, 882–898 (1988).

Morgan, M. W.

M. W. Morgan, “Accomodation and vergence,” Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 45, 417–454 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morse, S. E.

J. C. Kotulak, S. E. Morse, “The effect of perceived distance on accommodation under binocular steady-state conditions,” Vision Res. 35, 791–795 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ogawa, J.

C. M. Schor, I. Wood, J. Ogawa, “Spatial tuning of static and dynamic local stereopsis,” Vision Res. 24, 573–578 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ogle, K. N.

Ohzu, H.

H. Ohzu, K. Habara, “Behind the scenes of virtual reality: vision and motion,” Proc. IEEE 84, 782–798 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Ohzu, “Visual perception mechanism related binocular stereo vision technology,” (in Japanese), J. Jpn. Soc. Precis. Eng. 54, 255–259 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. Ohzu, “Artificial 3D displays and visual functions,” in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 2 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 48–51.

T. Inoue, H. Ohzu, “Measurement of the human factors of 3-D images on a large screen,” in Large Screen and Projection Display II, W. P. Bleha, ed., Proc. SPIE1255, 104–107 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Inoue, H. Ohzu, “Accommodation and convergence when looking at binocular 3-D images,” in Human Factors on Organizational Design and Management III, K. Noro, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1990) pp. 249–252.

Phillips, S.

V. V. Krishnan, S. Phillips, L. Stark, “Frequency analysis of accommodation, accommodative vergence and disparity vergence,” Vision Res. 13, 1545–1554 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramsdale, C.

C. Ramsdale, W. N. Charman, “Accommodation and convergence: effects of lenses and prisms in ‘closed-loop’,” Opthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 8, 43–52 (1988).

Schor, C. M.

L. N. Molin, C. M. Schor, P. I. Kruger, “Changing size (looming) as a stimulus to accommodation and vergence,” Vision Res. 28, 882–898 (1988).

C. M. Schor, J. C. Kotulak, “Dynamic interactions between accommodation and coverage are velocity sensitive,” Vision Res. 26, 927–942 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Schor, I. Wood, J. Ogawa, “Spatial tuning of static and dynamic local stereopsis,” Vision Res. 24, 573–578 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Schor, “Analysis of tonic and accommodative vergence disorders of binocular vision,” Am J. Optom. 60, 1–14 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Schor, “The relationship between fusional vergence eye movements and fixation disparity,” Vision Res. 19, 1359–1367 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stark, L.

V. V. Krishnan, S. Phillips, L. Stark, “Frequency analysis of accommodation, accommodative vergence and disparity vergence,” Vision Res. 13, 1545–1554 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walton, J.

E. F. Fincham, J. Walton, “The reciprocal action of accommodation and convergence,” J. Physiol. London 137, 488–508 (1957).

Watanabe, A.

T. Yoshida, A. Watanabe, “Analysis of interaction between accommodation and vergence feedback control systems of human eyes,” Bull. NHK Broadcast Sci. Res. Lab. 3, 72–80 (1969).

Wood, I.

C. M. Schor, I. Wood, J. Ogawa, “Spatial tuning of static and dynamic local stereopsis,” Vision Res. 24, 573–578 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshida, T.

T. Yoshida, A. Watanabe, “Analysis of interaction between accommodation and vergence feedback control systems of human eyes,” Bull. NHK Broadcast Sci. Res. Lab. 3, 72–80 (1969).

Am J. Optom.

C. M. Schor, “Analysis of tonic and accommodative vergence disorders of binocular vision,” Am J. Optom. 60, 1–14 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom.

M. W. Morgan, “Accomodation and vergence,” Am. J. Optom. Arch. Am. Acad. Optom. 45, 417–454 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bell Syst. Tech. J.

B. Julesz, “Binocular depth perception of computer-generated patterns,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 39, 1125–1161 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Bull. NHK Broadcast Sci. Res. Lab.

T. Yoshida, A. Watanabe, “Analysis of interaction between accommodation and vergence feedback control systems of human eyes,” Bull. NHK Broadcast Sci. Res. Lab. 3, 72–80 (1969).

Ergonomics

W. Jaschinski-Kruza, “Visual strain during VDU work: the effect of viewing distance and dark focus,” Ergonomics 31, 1449–1465 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Exp. Psychol.

K. N. Ogle, “On the limits of stereoscopic vision,” J. Exp. Psychol. 44, 253–259 (1952).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Jpn. Soc. Precis. Eng.

H. Ohzu, “Visual perception mechanism related binocular stereo vision technology,” (in Japanese), J. Jpn. Soc. Precis. Eng. 54, 255–259 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Physiol. London

E. F. Fincham, J. Walton, “The reciprocal action of accommodation and convergence,” J. Physiol. London 137, 488–508 (1957).

Opthalmol. Physiol. Opt.

R. E. Hogan, P. B. Linfield, “The effects of moderate doses of ethanol on heterophoria and other aspects of binocular vision,” Opthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 3, 21–31 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. Ramsdale, W. N. Charman, “Accommodation and convergence: effects of lenses and prisms in ‘closed-loop’,” Opthalmol. Physiol. Opt. 8, 43–52 (1988).

Proc. IEEE

H. Ohzu, K. Habara, “Behind the scenes of virtual reality: vision and motion,” Proc. IEEE 84, 782–798 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res.

V. V. Krishnan, S. Phillips, L. Stark, “Frequency analysis of accommodation, accommodative vergence and disparity vergence,” Vision Res. 13, 1545–1554 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Schor, J. C. Kotulak, “Dynamic interactions between accommodation and coverage are velocity sensitive,” Vision Res. 26, 927–942 (1986).
[CrossRef]

L. N. Molin, C. M. Schor, P. I. Kruger, “Changing size (looming) as a stimulus to accommodation and vergence,” Vision Res. 28, 882–898 (1988).

J. C. Kotulak, S. E. Morse, “The effect of perceived distance on accommodation under binocular steady-state conditions,” Vision Res. 35, 791–795 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Schor, “The relationship between fusional vergence eye movements and fixation disparity,” Vision Res. 19, 1359–1367 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Schor, I. Wood, J. Ogawa, “Spatial tuning of static and dynamic local stereopsis,” Vision Res. 24, 573–578 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

M. Alpern, “Types of movement,” in The Eye, H. Davson, ed., Vol. 3 of Muscular Mechanisms, 2nd ed. (Academic, London, 1969).

H. Ohzu, “Artificial 3D displays and visual functions,” in Vision Science and Its Applications, Vol. 2 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 48–51.

B. Julesz, Foundations of Cyclopean Perception (U. Chicago Press, Chicago, 1971).

T. Inoue, H. Ohzu, “Accommodation and convergence when looking at binocular 3-D images,” in Human Factors on Organizational Design and Management III, K. Noro, ed. (Elsevier, New York, 1990) pp. 249–252.

T. Inoue, H. Ohzu, “Measurement of the human factors of 3-D images on a large screen,” in Large Screen and Projection Display II, W. P. Bleha, ed., Proc. SPIE1255, 104–107 (1990).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Stereoscopic 3-D display and mismatch of distance between accommodation and convergence. When an observer fixates on a reconstructed 3-D image, convergence has to move from the display while accommodation should remain constant on the display.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup. The target images were displayed on the CRT monitor on top of the optometer. Subjects viewed the images through liquid crystal shutters.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Accommodative response after the stimulus changed to a 3-D image from a 2-D image. Accommodation responses were larger than the stimulus immediately after the image changed. Then accommodation responses changed to an almost constant value, smaller than the stimulus.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mean responses of accommodation for 3-D images and for a real object. The lines were fitted by the least-squares method. The accommodative responses for 3-D images were smaller than those for the real target.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Pupil responses for a 3-D image and for a real object. The lines were fitted by the least-squares method. Pupil size was smaller when one looked at 3-D images than when one looked at the real object.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Changes in accommodation and convergence when subjects fixated on a 3-D image as a function of the stereoscopic distance between the 3-D image and the display plane. The dashed line is the 1:1 line. Accommodation changes in the same direction as convergence.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Accommodative responses to a step displacement of the target that were measured before and after 3-D images were looked at for 10 min.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The far-to-near response time of accommodation that was measured after 3-D images were viewed as a function of the binocular disparity of the 3-D images. The error bars show the standard errors of the mean. The response time is longer as the disparity increases.

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