Abstract

The optical design of a photonic switching system is described in detail. The system is a 4-f imaging system with one lens design based on a Petzval lens and the second lens design based on a double Gauss lens. The assembled system is 60 mm × 70 mm × 370 mm and features a single imaging stage, pupil division for beam combination, and a single fiber bundle for both input and output. A brief description of the system requirements is provided, and the implication of some of these requirements for the paraxial design is explained. The choice of design forms for the lenses is explained, the design process is outlined, and the final lens designs are provided. Lens tolerancing is outlined and the final lens tolerances are provided. Finally, the assembly and the alignment processes are described.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, R. A. Novotny, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, S. J. Hinterlong, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, “Optoelectronic ATM switch employing hybrid silicon CMOS/GaAs FET-SEEDs,” in Optical Interconnects in Broadband Switching Architectures, T. J. Cloonan, ed., Proc SPIE2692, 100–108 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. S. Guilfoyle, F. F. Zeise, R. V. Stone, “Diffractive optical interconnect element design for digital switching,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2152, 164–172 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. A. P. Tooley, S. Wakelin, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Interconnects for a symmetric-self-electro-optic-effect-device cellular-logic image processor,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1398–1404 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. P. Barrett, A. C. Walker, D. T. Neilson, B. R. Robertson, “Optical design for crossbar systems,” in International Optical Design Conference, G. W. Forbes, ed., Vol. 22 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 227–231.
  8. D. E. Ludwig, J. C. Carson, L. S. Lome, “Optoelectronic interconnects for 3-D wafer stacks,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging, R. T. Chen, P. S. Guilfoyle, eds., Proc. SPIECR62, 366–389 (1996).
  9. J. Jahns, “Tolerant design of planar optical interconnections,” in International Optical Design Conference, G. W. Forbes, ed., Vol. 22 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 232–235.
  10. Y. S. Liu, R. J. Wojnarowski, W. A. Hennessy, J. P. Bristow, Y. Liu, A. Peczalski, J. R. Rowlette, A. Plotts, J. D. Stack, J. T. Yardley, L. Eldada, R. M. Osgood, R. Scarmozzino, S. H. Lee, V. H. Ozguz, “Polymer optical interconnect technology (POINT): optoelectronic packaging and interconnect for board and backplane applications,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging, R. T. Chen, S. Guilfoyle, eds., Proc. SPIECR62, 405–414 (1996).
  11. T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, “Chuted, growable packet switching arrangement,” U.S. patent5,345,444 (6September1994).
  12. A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, R. A. Novotny, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, S. J. Hinterlong, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, “Asynchronous transfer mode distribution network by use of an optoelectronic VLSI switching chip,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1804–1814 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, T. J. Cloonan, “Beam array generation and holographic interconnections in a free-space optical switching network,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2512–2518 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. M. Sasian, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, “Fabrication of fiber arrays for optical computing and switching systems,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Optical Computing (Institute of Physics Publishing, London, 1994).
  15. J. M. Sasian, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, “Fabrication of fiber bundle arrays for free-space photonic switching systems,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2979–2985 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. L. Lentine, K. W. Gossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky et al., Optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater than 4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of GaAs/AlGaAs MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” in CLEO ’96: Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 517–518.
  17. J. M. Sasian, “Objective lens for a free-space photonic switching system,” U.S. patent5,353,164 (4October1994).
  18. J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, R. Webb, R. J. Crisci, K. O. Mersereau, R. P. Stawicki, “Design, assembly, and testing of an objective lens for a free-space photonic switching system,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1871–1878 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. J. Smith, “Fundamentals of the Optical Tolerance Budget,” in 1990 International Lens Design Conference, G. N. Lawrence, ed., Proc. SPIE1354, 474–481 (1990).
  20. Schott Glass Technologies, 400 York Ave., Duryea, Pa. 18642.
  21. Kreischer Optics, Ltd., 906 N. Draper Road, McHenry, Ill. 60050-7430.

1997 (1)

1994 (3)

1993 (3)

1992 (1)

Barrett, C. P.

C. P. Barrett, A. C. Walker, D. T. Neilson, B. R. Robertson, “Optical design for crossbar systems,” in International Optical Design Conference, G. W. Forbes, ed., Vol. 22 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 227–231.

Beckman, M. G.

A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, R. A. Novotny, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, S. J. Hinterlong, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, “Asynchronous transfer mode distribution network by use of an optoelectronic VLSI switching chip,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1804–1814 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Sasian, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, “Fabrication of fiber bundle arrays for free-space photonic switching systems,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2979–2985 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, R. A. Novotny, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, S. J. Hinterlong, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, “Optoelectronic ATM switch employing hybrid silicon CMOS/GaAs FET-SEEDs,” in Optical Interconnects in Broadband Switching Architectures, T. J. Cloonan, ed., Proc SPIE2692, 100–108 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Sasian, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, “Fabrication of fiber arrays for optical computing and switching systems,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Optical Computing (Institute of Physics Publishing, London, 1994).

Bristow, J. P.

Y. S. Liu, R. J. Wojnarowski, W. A. Hennessy, J. P. Bristow, Y. Liu, A. Peczalski, J. R. Rowlette, A. Plotts, J. D. Stack, J. T. Yardley, L. Eldada, R. M. Osgood, R. Scarmozzino, S. H. Lee, V. H. Ozguz, “Polymer optical interconnect technology (POINT): optoelectronic packaging and interconnect for board and backplane applications,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging, R. T. Chen, S. Guilfoyle, eds., Proc. SPIECR62, 405–414 (1996).

Brubaker, J. L.

Buchholz, D. B.

A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, R. A. Novotny, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, S. J. Hinterlong, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, “Asynchronous transfer mode distribution network by use of an optoelectronic VLSI switching chip,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1804–1814 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, R. A. Novotny, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, S. J. Hinterlong, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, “Optoelectronic ATM switch employing hybrid silicon CMOS/GaAs FET-SEEDs,” in Optical Interconnects in Broadband Switching Architectures, T. J. Cloonan, ed., Proc SPIE2692, 100–108 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Carson, J. C.

D. E. Ludwig, J. C. Carson, L. S. Lome, “Optoelectronic interconnects for 3-D wafer stacks,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging, R. T. Chen, P. S. Guilfoyle, eds., Proc. SPIECR62, 366–389 (1996).

Chirovsky, L. M. F.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Gossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky et al., Optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater than 4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of GaAs/AlGaAs MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” in CLEO ’96: Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 517–518.

Cloonan, T. J.

A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, R. A. Novotny, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, S. J. Hinterlong, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, “Asynchronous transfer mode distribution network by use of an optoelectronic VLSI switching chip,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1804–1814 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, T. J. Cloonan, “Beam array generation and holographic interconnections in a free-space optical switching network,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2512–2518 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, R. A. Novotny, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, S. J. Hinterlong, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, “Optoelectronic ATM switch employing hybrid silicon CMOS/GaAs FET-SEEDs,” in Optical Interconnects in Broadband Switching Architectures, T. J. Cloonan, ed., Proc SPIE2692, 100–108 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, “Chuted, growable packet switching arrangement,” U.S. patent5,345,444 (6September1994).

Crisci, R. J.

Eldada, L.

Y. S. Liu, R. J. Wojnarowski, W. A. Hennessy, J. P. Bristow, Y. Liu, A. Peczalski, J. R. Rowlette, A. Plotts, J. D. Stack, J. T. Yardley, L. Eldada, R. M. Osgood, R. Scarmozzino, S. H. Lee, V. H. Ozguz, “Polymer optical interconnect technology (POINT): optoelectronic packaging and interconnect for board and backplane applications,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging, R. T. Chen, S. Guilfoyle, eds., Proc. SPIECR62, 405–414 (1996).

Gossen, K. W.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Gossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky et al., Optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater than 4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of GaAs/AlGaAs MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” in CLEO ’96: Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 517–518.

Guilfoyle, P. S.

P. S. Guilfoyle, F. F. Zeise, R. V. Stone, “Diffractive optical interconnect element design for digital switching,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2152, 164–172 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hennessy, W. A.

Y. S. Liu, R. J. Wojnarowski, W. A. Hennessy, J. P. Bristow, Y. Liu, A. Peczalski, J. R. Rowlette, A. Plotts, J. D. Stack, J. T. Yardley, L. Eldada, R. M. Osgood, R. Scarmozzino, S. H. Lee, V. H. Ozguz, “Polymer optical interconnect technology (POINT): optoelectronic packaging and interconnect for board and backplane applications,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging, R. T. Chen, S. Guilfoyle, eds., Proc. SPIECR62, 405–414 (1996).

Herron, M. J.

Hinterlong, S. J.

A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, R. A. Novotny, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, S. J. Hinterlong, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, “Asynchronous transfer mode distribution network by use of an optoelectronic VLSI switching chip,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1804–1814 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Sasian, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, “Fabrication of fiber bundle arrays for free-space photonic switching systems,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2979–2985 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, R. A. Novotny, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, S. J. Hinterlong, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, “Optoelectronic ATM switch employing hybrid silicon CMOS/GaAs FET-SEEDs,” in Optical Interconnects in Broadband Switching Architectures, T. J. Cloonan, ed., Proc SPIE2692, 100–108 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Sasian, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, “Fabrication of fiber arrays for optical computing and switching systems,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Optical Computing (Institute of Physics Publishing, London, 1994).

Hinton, H. S.

Jahns, J.

J. Jahns, “Tolerant design of planar optical interconnections,” in International Optical Design Conference, G. W. Forbes, ed., Vol. 22 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 232–235.

Kerbis, E.

Lee, S. H.

Y. S. Liu, R. J. Wojnarowski, W. A. Hennessy, J. P. Bristow, Y. Liu, A. Peczalski, J. R. Rowlette, A. Plotts, J. D. Stack, J. T. Yardley, L. Eldada, R. M. Osgood, R. Scarmozzino, S. H. Lee, V. H. Ozguz, “Polymer optical interconnect technology (POINT): optoelectronic packaging and interconnect for board and backplane applications,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging, R. T. Chen, S. Guilfoyle, eds., Proc. SPIECR62, 405–414 (1996).

Lentine, A. L.

A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, R. A. Novotny, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, S. J. Hinterlong, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, “Asynchronous transfer mode distribution network by use of an optoelectronic VLSI switching chip,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1804–1814 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, R. A. Novotny, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, S. J. Hinterlong, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, “Optoelectronic ATM switch employing hybrid silicon CMOS/GaAs FET-SEEDs,” in Optical Interconnects in Broadband Switching Architectures, T. J. Cloonan, ed., Proc SPIE2692, 100–108 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Gossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky et al., Optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater than 4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of GaAs/AlGaAs MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” in CLEO ’96: Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 517–518.

Liu, Y.

Y. S. Liu, R. J. Wojnarowski, W. A. Hennessy, J. P. Bristow, Y. Liu, A. Peczalski, J. R. Rowlette, A. Plotts, J. D. Stack, J. T. Yardley, L. Eldada, R. M. Osgood, R. Scarmozzino, S. H. Lee, V. H. Ozguz, “Polymer optical interconnect technology (POINT): optoelectronic packaging and interconnect for board and backplane applications,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging, R. T. Chen, S. Guilfoyle, eds., Proc. SPIECR62, 405–414 (1996).

Liu, Y. S.

Y. S. Liu, R. J. Wojnarowski, W. A. Hennessy, J. P. Bristow, Y. Liu, A. Peczalski, J. R. Rowlette, A. Plotts, J. D. Stack, J. T. Yardley, L. Eldada, R. M. Osgood, R. Scarmozzino, S. H. Lee, V. H. Ozguz, “Polymer optical interconnect technology (POINT): optoelectronic packaging and interconnect for board and backplane applications,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging, R. T. Chen, S. Guilfoyle, eds., Proc. SPIECR62, 405–414 (1996).

Lome, L. S.

D. E. Ludwig, J. C. Carson, L. S. Lome, “Optoelectronic interconnects for 3-D wafer stacks,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging, R. T. Chen, P. S. Guilfoyle, eds., Proc. SPIECR62, 366–389 (1996).

Ludwig, D. E.

D. E. Ludwig, J. C. Carson, L. S. Lome, “Optoelectronic interconnects for 3-D wafer stacks,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging, R. T. Chen, P. S. Guilfoyle, eds., Proc. SPIECR62, 366–389 (1996).

McCormick, F. B.

A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, R. A. Novotny, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, S. J. Hinterlong, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, “Asynchronous transfer mode distribution network by use of an optoelectronic VLSI switching chip,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1804–1814 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, R. Webb, R. J. Crisci, K. O. Mersereau, R. P. Stawicki, “Design, assembly, and testing of an objective lens for a free-space photonic switching system,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1871–1878 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, R. A. Novotny, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, S. J. Hinterlong, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, “Optoelectronic ATM switch employing hybrid silicon CMOS/GaAs FET-SEEDs,” in Optical Interconnects in Broadband Switching Architectures, T. J. Cloonan, ed., Proc SPIE2692, 100–108 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mersereau, K. O.

J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, R. Webb, R. J. Crisci, K. O. Mersereau, R. P. Stawicki, “Design, assembly, and testing of an objective lens for a free-space photonic switching system,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1871–1878 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, R. L.

A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, R. A. Novotny, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, S. J. Hinterlong, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, “Asynchronous transfer mode distribution network by use of an optoelectronic VLSI switching chip,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1804–1814 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, T. J. Cloonan, “Beam array generation and holographic interconnections in a free-space optical switching network,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2512–2518 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, R. A. Novotny, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, S. J. Hinterlong, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, “Optoelectronic ATM switch employing hybrid silicon CMOS/GaAs FET-SEEDs,” in Optical Interconnects in Broadband Switching Architectures, T. J. Cloonan, ed., Proc SPIE2692, 100–108 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Neilson, D. T.

C. P. Barrett, A. C. Walker, D. T. Neilson, B. R. Robertson, “Optical design for crossbar systems,” in International Optical Design Conference, G. W. Forbes, ed., Vol. 22 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 227–231.

Novotny, R. A.

A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, R. A. Novotny, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, S. J. Hinterlong, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, “Asynchronous transfer mode distribution network by use of an optoelectronic VLSI switching chip,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1804–1814 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Sasian, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, “Fabrication of fiber bundle arrays for free-space photonic switching systems,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2979–2985 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Sasian, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, “Fabrication of fiber arrays for optical computing and switching systems,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Optical Computing (Institute of Physics Publishing, London, 1994).

A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, R. A. Novotny, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, S. J. Hinterlong, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, “Optoelectronic ATM switch employing hybrid silicon CMOS/GaAs FET-SEEDs,” in Optical Interconnects in Broadband Switching Architectures, T. J. Cloonan, ed., Proc SPIE2692, 100–108 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

Y. S. Liu, R. J. Wojnarowski, W. A. Hennessy, J. P. Bristow, Y. Liu, A. Peczalski, J. R. Rowlette, A. Plotts, J. D. Stack, J. T. Yardley, L. Eldada, R. M. Osgood, R. Scarmozzino, S. H. Lee, V. H. Ozguz, “Polymer optical interconnect technology (POINT): optoelectronic packaging and interconnect for board and backplane applications,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging, R. T. Chen, S. Guilfoyle, eds., Proc. SPIECR62, 405–414 (1996).

Ozguz, V. H.

Y. S. Liu, R. J. Wojnarowski, W. A. Hennessy, J. P. Bristow, Y. Liu, A. Peczalski, J. R. Rowlette, A. Plotts, J. D. Stack, J. T. Yardley, L. Eldada, R. M. Osgood, R. Scarmozzino, S. H. Lee, V. H. Ozguz, “Polymer optical interconnect technology (POINT): optoelectronic packaging and interconnect for board and backplane applications,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging, R. T. Chen, S. Guilfoyle, eds., Proc. SPIECR62, 405–414 (1996).

Peczalski, A.

Y. S. Liu, R. J. Wojnarowski, W. A. Hennessy, J. P. Bristow, Y. Liu, A. Peczalski, J. R. Rowlette, A. Plotts, J. D. Stack, J. T. Yardley, L. Eldada, R. M. Osgood, R. Scarmozzino, S. H. Lee, V. H. Ozguz, “Polymer optical interconnect technology (POINT): optoelectronic packaging and interconnect for board and backplane applications,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging, R. T. Chen, S. Guilfoyle, eds., Proc. SPIECR62, 405–414 (1996).

Plotts, A.

Y. S. Liu, R. J. Wojnarowski, W. A. Hennessy, J. P. Bristow, Y. Liu, A. Peczalski, J. R. Rowlette, A. Plotts, J. D. Stack, J. T. Yardley, L. Eldada, R. M. Osgood, R. Scarmozzino, S. H. Lee, V. H. Ozguz, “Polymer optical interconnect technology (POINT): optoelectronic packaging and interconnect for board and backplane applications,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging, R. T. Chen, S. Guilfoyle, eds., Proc. SPIECR62, 405–414 (1996).

Reiley, D. J.

A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, R. A. Novotny, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, S. J. Hinterlong, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, “Asynchronous transfer mode distribution network by use of an optoelectronic VLSI switching chip,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1804–1814 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, R. A. Novotny, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, S. J. Hinterlong, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, “Optoelectronic ATM switch employing hybrid silicon CMOS/GaAs FET-SEEDs,” in Optical Interconnects in Broadband Switching Architectures, T. J. Cloonan, ed., Proc SPIE2692, 100–108 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Richards, G. W.

A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, R. A. Novotny, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, S. J. Hinterlong, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, “Asynchronous transfer mode distribution network by use of an optoelectronic VLSI switching chip,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1804–1814 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, R. A. Novotny, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, S. J. Hinterlong, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, “Optoelectronic ATM switch employing hybrid silicon CMOS/GaAs FET-SEEDs,” in Optical Interconnects in Broadband Switching Architectures, T. J. Cloonan, ed., Proc SPIE2692, 100–108 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, “Chuted, growable packet switching arrangement,” U.S. patent5,345,444 (6September1994).

Robertson, B. R.

C. P. Barrett, A. C. Walker, D. T. Neilson, B. R. Robertson, “Optical design for crossbar systems,” in International Optical Design Conference, G. W. Forbes, ed., Vol. 22 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 227–231.

Rowlette, J. R.

Y. S. Liu, R. J. Wojnarowski, W. A. Hennessy, J. P. Bristow, Y. Liu, A. Peczalski, J. R. Rowlette, A. Plotts, J. D. Stack, J. T. Yardley, L. Eldada, R. M. Osgood, R. Scarmozzino, S. H. Lee, V. H. Ozguz, “Polymer optical interconnect technology (POINT): optoelectronic packaging and interconnect for board and backplane applications,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging, R. T. Chen, S. Guilfoyle, eds., Proc. SPIECR62, 405–414 (1996).

Sasian, J. M.

A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, R. A. Novotny, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, S. J. Hinterlong, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, “Asynchronous transfer mode distribution network by use of an optoelectronic VLSI switching chip,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1804–1814 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Sasian, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, “Fabrication of fiber bundle arrays for free-space photonic switching systems,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2979–2985 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, R. Webb, R. J. Crisci, K. O. Mersereau, R. P. Stawicki, “Design, assembly, and testing of an objective lens for a free-space photonic switching system,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1871–1878 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, R. A. Novotny, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, S. J. Hinterlong, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, “Optoelectronic ATM switch employing hybrid silicon CMOS/GaAs FET-SEEDs,” in Optical Interconnects in Broadband Switching Architectures, T. J. Cloonan, ed., Proc SPIE2692, 100–108 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Sasian, “Objective lens for a free-space photonic switching system,” U.S. patent5,353,164 (4October1994).

J. M. Sasian, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, “Fabrication of fiber arrays for optical computing and switching systems,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Optical Computing (Institute of Physics Publishing, London, 1994).

Scarmozzino, R.

Y. S. Liu, R. J. Wojnarowski, W. A. Hennessy, J. P. Bristow, Y. Liu, A. Peczalski, J. R. Rowlette, A. Plotts, J. D. Stack, J. T. Yardley, L. Eldada, R. M. Osgood, R. Scarmozzino, S. H. Lee, V. H. Ozguz, “Polymer optical interconnect technology (POINT): optoelectronic packaging and interconnect for board and backplane applications,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging, R. T. Chen, S. Guilfoyle, eds., Proc. SPIECR62, 405–414 (1996).

Smith, W. J.

W. J. Smith, “Fundamentals of the Optical Tolerance Budget,” in 1990 International Lens Design Conference, G. N. Lawrence, ed., Proc. SPIE1354, 474–481 (1990).

Stack, J. D.

Y. S. Liu, R. J. Wojnarowski, W. A. Hennessy, J. P. Bristow, Y. Liu, A. Peczalski, J. R. Rowlette, A. Plotts, J. D. Stack, J. T. Yardley, L. Eldada, R. M. Osgood, R. Scarmozzino, S. H. Lee, V. H. Ozguz, “Polymer optical interconnect technology (POINT): optoelectronic packaging and interconnect for board and backplane applications,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging, R. T. Chen, S. Guilfoyle, eds., Proc. SPIECR62, 405–414 (1996).

Stawicki, R. P.

J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, R. Webb, R. J. Crisci, K. O. Mersereau, R. P. Stawicki, “Design, assembly, and testing of an objective lens for a free-space photonic switching system,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1871–1878 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stone, R. V.

P. S. Guilfoyle, F. F. Zeise, R. V. Stone, “Diffractive optical interconnect element design for digital switching,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2152, 164–172 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Taghizadeh, M. R.

Tooley, F. A. P.

Wakelin, S.

Walker, A. C.

C. P. Barrett, A. C. Walker, D. T. Neilson, B. R. Robertson, “Optical design for crossbar systems,” in International Optical Design Conference, G. W. Forbes, ed., Vol. 22 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 227–231.

Walker, J. A.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Gossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky et al., Optoelectronic VLSI switching chip with greater than 4000 optical I/O based on flip-chip bonding of GaAs/AlGaAs MQW modulators and detectors to silicon CMOS,” in CLEO ’96: Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 517–518.

Walker, S. L.

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Sasian, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, “Fabrication of fiber bundle arrays for free-space photonic switching systems,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2979–2985 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, T. J. Cloonan, “Beam array generation and holographic interconnections in a free-space optical switching network,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2512–2518 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Sasian, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, “Fabrication of fiber arrays for optical computing and switching systems,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Optical Computing (Institute of Physics Publishing, London, 1994).

Webb, R.

J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, R. Webb, R. J. Crisci, K. O. Mersereau, R. P. Stawicki, “Design, assembly, and testing of an objective lens for a free-space photonic switching system,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1871–1878 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wojcik, M. J.

J. M. Sasian, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, “Fabrication of fiber bundle arrays for free-space photonic switching systems,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2979–2985 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Sasian, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, “Fabrication of fiber arrays for optical computing and switching systems,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Optical Computing (Institute of Physics Publishing, London, 1994).

Wojnarowski, R. J.

Y. S. Liu, R. J. Wojnarowski, W. A. Hennessy, J. P. Bristow, Y. Liu, A. Peczalski, J. R. Rowlette, A. Plotts, J. D. Stack, J. T. Yardley, L. Eldada, R. M. Osgood, R. Scarmozzino, S. H. Lee, V. H. Ozguz, “Polymer optical interconnect technology (POINT): optoelectronic packaging and interconnect for board and backplane applications,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging, R. T. Chen, S. Guilfoyle, eds., Proc. SPIECR62, 405–414 (1996).

Yardley, J. T.

Y. S. Liu, R. J. Wojnarowski, W. A. Hennessy, J. P. Bristow, Y. Liu, A. Peczalski, J. R. Rowlette, A. Plotts, J. D. Stack, J. T. Yardley, L. Eldada, R. M. Osgood, R. Scarmozzino, S. H. Lee, V. H. Ozguz, “Polymer optical interconnect technology (POINT): optoelectronic packaging and interconnect for board and backplane applications,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging, R. T. Chen, S. Guilfoyle, eds., Proc. SPIECR62, 405–414 (1996).

Zeise, F. F.

P. S. Guilfoyle, F. F. Zeise, R. V. Stone, “Diffractive optical interconnect element design for digital switching,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2152, 164–172 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

F. B. McCormick, F. A. P. Tooley, T. J. Cloonan, J. L. Brubaker, A. L. Lentine, R. L. Morrison, S. J. Hinterlong, M. J. Herron, S. L. Walker, J. M. Sasian, “Experimental investigation of a free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 31, 5431–5446 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, T. J. Cloonan, “Beam array generation and holographic interconnections in a free-space optical switching network,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2512–2518 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. A. P. Tooley, S. Wakelin, M. R. Taghizadeh, “Interconnects for a symmetric-self-electro-optic-effect-device cellular-logic image processor,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1398–1404 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, R. A. Novotny, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, S. J. Hinterlong, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, “Asynchronous transfer mode distribution network by use of an optoelectronic VLSI switching chip,” Appl. Opt. 36, 1804–1814 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, F. A. P. Tooley, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, J. L. Brubaker, R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, S. J. Hinterlong, H. S. Hinton, E. Kerbis, “Six-stage digital free-space optical switching network using symmetric self-electro-optic-effect devices,” Appl. Opt. 32, 5153–5171 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. McCormick, T. J. Cloonan, A. L. Lentine, J. M. Sasian, R. L. Morrison, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, R. J. Crisci, R. A. Novotny, H. S. Hinton, “Five-stage free-space optical switching network with field-effect transistor self-electro-optic-effect-device smart-pixel arrays,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1601–1618 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (2)

J. M. Sasian, R. A. Novotny, M. G. Beckman, S. L. Walker, M. J. Wojcik, S. J. Hinterlong, “Fabrication of fiber bundle arrays for free-space photonic switching systems,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2979–2985 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Sasian, F. B. McCormick, R. Webb, R. J. Crisci, K. O. Mersereau, R. P. Stawicki, “Design, assembly, and testing of an objective lens for a free-space photonic switching system,” Opt. Eng. 32, 1871–1878 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (13)

W. J. Smith, “Fundamentals of the Optical Tolerance Budget,” in 1990 International Lens Design Conference, G. N. Lawrence, ed., Proc. SPIE1354, 474–481 (1990).

Schott Glass Technologies, 400 York Ave., Duryea, Pa. 18642.

Kreischer Optics, Ltd., 906 N. Draper Road, McHenry, Ill. 60050-7430.

P. S. Guilfoyle, F. F. Zeise, R. V. Stone, “Diffractive optical interconnect element design for digital switching,” in Diffractive and Holographic Optics Technology, I. Cindrich, S. H. Lee, eds., Proc. SPIE2152, 164–172 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, D. J. Reiley, R. A. Novotny, R. L. Morrison, J. M. Sasian, M. G. Beckman, D. B. Buchholz, S. J. Hinterlong, T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, F. B. McCormick, “Optoelectronic ATM switch employing hybrid silicon CMOS/GaAs FET-SEEDs,” in Optical Interconnects in Broadband Switching Architectures, T. J. Cloonan, ed., Proc SPIE2692, 100–108 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Barrett, A. C. Walker, D. T. Neilson, B. R. Robertson, “Optical design for crossbar systems,” in International Optical Design Conference, G. W. Forbes, ed., Vol. 22 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 227–231.

D. E. Ludwig, J. C. Carson, L. S. Lome, “Optoelectronic interconnects for 3-D wafer stacks,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging, R. T. Chen, P. S. Guilfoyle, eds., Proc. SPIECR62, 366–389 (1996).

J. Jahns, “Tolerant design of planar optical interconnections,” in International Optical Design Conference, G. W. Forbes, ed., Vol. 22 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 232–235.

Y. S. Liu, R. J. Wojnarowski, W. A. Hennessy, J. P. Bristow, Y. Liu, A. Peczalski, J. R. Rowlette, A. Plotts, J. D. Stack, J. T. Yardley, L. Eldada, R. M. Osgood, R. Scarmozzino, S. H. Lee, V. H. Ozguz, “Polymer optical interconnect technology (POINT): optoelectronic packaging and interconnect for board and backplane applications,” in Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging, R. T. Chen, S. Guilfoyle, eds., Proc. SPIECR62, 405–414 (1996).

T. J. Cloonan, G. W. Richards, “Chuted, growable packet switching arrangement,” U.S. patent5,345,444 (6September1994).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic showing the paraxial properties of the optical system. A/S 1 is the bottom of the aperture stop for lens 1, and A/S 2 is the bottom of the aperture stop for lens 2. In the paraxial design, the read beams follow a path the same as the signal beams. Note that the optical axes of the lenses are offset to create separate paths for the input and the output beams.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Paraxial properties that are used for lens-design constraints, where o and i are the object and image heights, respectively; uo and ui are the numerical apertures in the object and image planes, respectively; ūo and ūi are the slopes of the chief ray in object and image space, respectively; us is the slope of the marginal ray in the aperture stop; and ūs is the field-of-view of the lenses.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the 34-mm lens. The long aperture-stop distance is particularly helpful when the spots are aligned onto the detectors and the modulators because it allows a pellicle beam splitter to be inserted for a viewport.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Wave front aberration plots for the 34-mm lens at 852 nm, for field angles of 0°, 4°, and 6.5°. Comatic aberrations are evident full field, and third-order aberrations are balanced by higher-order terms.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Assembled 34-mm lens. To simplify the mounting hardware, we designed the outer diameter of the 34-mm lens barrel to be the same size as the outer diameter of the 106.25-mm lens barrel.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic of the 106.25-mm lens. The long aperture stop and image distances were particularly useful when we aligned this lens in the system. Although the aperture stop and image distances are long, this system is quite compact because the distance between the stop and the image is only 70% longer than the focal length.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Wave front aberrations for the 106.25-mm lens at 852 nm, for field angles of 0°, 4°, and 6.5°.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Assembled 106.25-mm lens.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Schematic of the optical system, showing ray paths for an input beam, a read beam, and an output beam. Note that the optical axis of the 106.25-mm lens is offset from the axis of the 34-mm lens in order to provide separate paths for the input and the output beams.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Schematic of both the optical system and the viewport that was used for alignment.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Assembled system. Left to right, the fiber bundle assembly mount, the 106.25-mm lens with the afocal pair mounted on the end, the wedges and diffraction grating at the aperture stop, the 34-mm lens, and the mount for the OE-VLSI chip.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 System Prescription for the 34-mm Lens

Tables Icon

Table 2 System Prescription for the 106.25-mm Lens

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