Abstract

A scanning-laser glint meter designed for field measurements of sea-surface slope statistics is described. A narrow laser beam is scanned in a line, and specular reflections (glints) are counted in bins according to their slope angle. From normalized glint histograms, moments to the fourth order are calculated, and slope probability density functions are approximated with a Gram–Charlier expansion. Field measurements with this instrument show good agreement with previous results when the stability (essentially air–sea temperature difference) is near neutral (zero). Under conditions of negative stability (warm ocean), both the mean-square slope and the probability density function kurtosis increase.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

1997

1996

J. W. McLean, J. D. Freeman, “Effects of ocean waves on airborne lidar imaging,” Appl. Opt. 35(18), 3261–3269 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Winker, R. H. Couch, P. M. McCormick, “An overview of LITE: NASA’s Lidar In-space Technology Experiment,” IEEE Proc. 84(2), 164–180 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Fairall, E. F. Bradley, J. S. Godfrey, G. A. Wick, J. B. Edson, G. S. Young, “Cool-skin and warm-layer effects on sea surface temperature,” J. Geophys. Res. 101(C1), 1295–1308 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

S. H. Yueh, W. J. Wilson, F. K. Li, S. V. Nghiem, W. B. Ricketts, “Polarimetric measurements of sea surface brightness temperatures using an aircraft K-band radiometer,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 33(1), 85–92 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Bock, T. Hara, “Optical measurements of capillary-gravity wave spectra using a scanning laser slope gauge,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 12(2), 395–403 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Yoshimori, K. Itoh, Y. Ichioka, “Optical characteristics of a wind-roughened water surface: a two-dimensional theory,” Appl. Opt. 34(27), 6236–6247 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

1993

A. P. Cracknell, “A method for the correction of sea surface temperatures derived from satellite thermal infrared data in an area of sunglint,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 14(1), 3–8 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

1991

J. Wu, “Effects of atmospheric stability on ocean ripples: a comparison between optical and microwave measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 96(C4), 7265–7269 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Reagan, D. A. Zielinskie, “Spaceborne lidar remote sensing techniques aided by surface returns,” Opt. Eng. 30(1), 96–102 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988

S. D. Smith, “Coefficients for sea surface wind stress, heat flux, and wind profiles as a function of wind speed and temperature,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(C12), 15,467–15,472 (1988).

P. A. Hwang, O. H. Shemdin, “The dependence of sea surface slope on atmospheric stability and swell conditions,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(C11), 13903–13912 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985

S. P. Haimbach, J. Wu, “Field trials of an optical scanner for studying sea-surface fine structures,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. OE-10(4), 451–453 (1985).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Keller, W. J. Plant, D. E. Weissman, “The dependence of X band microwave sea return on atmospheric stability and sea state,” J. Geophys. Res. 90(C1), 1019–1029 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983

S. Tang, O. H. Shemdin, “Measurement of high frequency waves using a wave follower,” J. Geophys. Res. 88(C14), 9832–9840 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Bufton, F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Airborne measurements of laser backscatter from the ocean surface,” Appl. Opt. 22(17), 2603–2618 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1977

C. S. Palm, R. C. Anderson, A. M. Reece, “Laser probe for measuring 2-D wave slope spectra of ocean capillary waves,” Appl. Opt. 16(4), 1074–1081 (1977).

B. A. Hughes, H. L. Grant, R. W. Chappell, “A fast response surface-wave slope meter and measured wind-wave moments,” Deep-Sea Res. 24, 1211–1223 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1974

1973

1971

1963

M. S. Longuet–Higgins, “The effect of non-linearities on statistical distributions in the theory of sea waves,” J. Fluid Mech. 17, 459–480 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1954

C. Cox, W. Munk, “Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter,” J. Mar. Res. 13, 198–227 (1954).

C. Cox, W. Munk, “Measurement of the roughness of the sea surface from photographs of the sun’s glitter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44(11), 838–850 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, R. C.

Apel, J. R.

J. R. Apel, “An improved model of the ocean surface wave vector spectrum and its effects on radar backscatter,” J. Geophys. Res. 99(C8), 16269–16291 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Barter, J. D.

P. H. Y. Lee, J. D. Barter, K. L. Beach, C. L. Hindman, B. M. Lake, H. Rungaldier, J. C. Schatzman, J. C. Shelton, R. N. Wagner, A. B. Williams, R. W. Lee, H. C. Yuan, “Recent advances in ocean-surface characterization by a scanning-laser slope gauge,” in Optics of the Air–Sea Interface: Theory and Measurement, L. Estep, ed., Proc. SPIE1749, 234–244, (1993).

Beach, K. L.

P. H. Y. Lee, J. D. Barter, K. L. Beach, C. L. Hindman, B. M. Lake, H. Rungaldier, J. C. Schatzman, J. C. Shelton, R. N. Wagner, A. B. Williams, R. W. Lee, H. C. Yuan, “Recent advances in ocean-surface characterization by a scanning-laser slope gauge,” in Optics of the Air–Sea Interface: Theory and Measurement, L. Estep, ed., Proc. SPIE1749, 234–244, (1993).

Beyer, W. H.

W. H. Beyer, CRC Standard Math Tables, 27th ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1984), p. 496.

Bock, E. J.

E. J. Bock, T. Hara, “Optical measurements of capillary-gravity wave spectra using a scanning laser slope gauge,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 12(2), 395–403 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, E. F.

C. W. Fairall, E. F. Bradley, J. S. Godfrey, G. A. Wick, J. B. Edson, G. S. Young, “Cool-skin and warm-layer effects on sea surface temperature,” J. Geophys. Res. 101(C1), 1295–1308 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bufton, J. L.

Chappell, R. W.

B. A. Hughes, H. L. Grant, R. W. Chappell, “A fast response surface-wave slope meter and measured wind-wave moments,” Deep-Sea Res. 24, 1211–1223 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Churnside, J. H.

Cooley, T. W.

T. W. Cooley, J. A. Reagan, “Calibration of 1064 nm channel of LITE and other uses of ocean surface returns,” in IGARSS’93, Tokyo, 18–21 August 1993 (IEEE, New York, 1993), pp. 869–871.

Couch, R. H.

D. M. Winker, R. H. Couch, P. M. McCormick, “An overview of LITE: NASA’s Lidar In-space Technology Experiment,” IEEE Proc. 84(2), 164–180 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cox, C.

C. Cox, W. Munk, “Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter,” J. Mar. Res. 13, 198–227 (1954).

C. Cox, W. Munk, “Measurement of the roughness of the sea surface from photographs of the sun’s glitter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44(11), 838–850 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Cracknell, A. P.

A. P. Cracknell, “A method for the correction of sea surface temperatures derived from satellite thermal infrared data in an area of sunglint,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 14(1), 3–8 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Edson, J. B.

C. W. Fairall, E. F. Bradley, J. S. Godfrey, G. A. Wick, J. B. Edson, G. S. Young, “Cool-skin and warm-layer effects on sea surface temperature,” J. Geophys. Res. 101(C1), 1295–1308 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fairall, C. W.

C. W. Fairall, E. F. Bradley, J. S. Godfrey, G. A. Wick, J. B. Edson, G. S. Young, “Cool-skin and warm-layer effects on sea surface temperature,” J. Geophys. Res. 101(C1), 1295–1308 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Finnigan, J. J.

J. C. Kaimal, J. J. Finnigan, Atmospheric Boundary Layer Flows: Their Structure and Measurement (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, UK1994), Ch. 1.

Freeman, J. D.

Frieden, B. R.

B. R. Frieden, Probability, Statistical Optics, and Data Testing, 2nd ed. (Springer–Verlag, New York, 1991), p. 56.

Fung, A. K.

A. K. Fung, Microwave Scattering and Emission Models and Their Applications (Artech House, Boston, Mass., 1994).

Godfrey, J. S.

C. W. Fairall, E. F. Bradley, J. S. Godfrey, G. A. Wick, J. B. Edson, G. S. Young, “Cool-skin and warm-layer effects on sea surface temperature,” J. Geophys. Res. 101(C1), 1295–1308 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

Grant, H. L.

B. A. Hughes, H. L. Grant, R. W. Chappell, “A fast response surface-wave slope meter and measured wind-wave moments,” Deep-Sea Res. 24, 1211–1223 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Haimbach, S. P.

S. P. Haimbach, J. Wu, “Field trials of an optical scanner for studying sea-surface fine structures,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. OE-10(4), 451–453 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hara, T.

E. J. Bock, T. Hara, “Optical measurements of capillary-gravity wave spectra using a scanning laser slope gauge,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 12(2), 395–403 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Harris, L. A.

Hindman, C. L.

P. H. Y. Lee, J. D. Barter, K. L. Beach, C. L. Hindman, B. M. Lake, H. Rungaldier, J. C. Schatzman, J. C. Shelton, R. N. Wagner, A. B. Williams, R. W. Lee, H. C. Yuan, “Recent advances in ocean-surface characterization by a scanning-laser slope gauge,” in Optics of the Air–Sea Interface: Theory and Measurement, L. Estep, ed., Proc. SPIE1749, 234–244, (1993).

Hoge, F. E.

Hughes, B. A.

B. A. Hughes, H. L. Grant, R. W. Chappell, “A fast response surface-wave slope meter and measured wind-wave moments,” Deep-Sea Res. 24, 1211–1223 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, P. A.

P. A. Hwang, O. H. Shemdin, “The dependence of sea surface slope on atmospheric stability and swell conditions,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(C11), 13903–13912 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ichioka, Y.

Irisov, V. G.

Y. G. Trokhimovski, V. G. Irisov, “Wind speed and direction measurement using microwave polarimetric radiometers,” NOAA Technical Memo ERL ETL-250 (National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Va. 22161, 1995).

Irisov, V. I.

Y. G. Trokhimovski, E. R. Westwater, V. I. Irisov, V. Y. Leuskiy, “A scanning 60 Ghz radiometer to measure air–sea temperature difference: recent results during COPE,” in IGARSS’96, Lincoln, NE, 27–31 May (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 1672–1674.

Itoh, K.

Kaimal, J. C.

J. C. Kaimal, J. J. Finnigan, Atmospheric Boundary Layer Flows: Their Structure and Measurement (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, UK1994), Ch. 1.

Keller, W. C.

W. C. Keller, W. J. Plant, D. E. Weissman, “The dependence of X band microwave sea return on atmospheric stability and sea state,” J. Geophys. Res. 90(C1), 1019–1029 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Lake, B. M.

P. H. Y. Lee, J. D. Barter, K. L. Beach, C. L. Hindman, B. M. Lake, H. Rungaldier, J. C. Schatzman, J. C. Shelton, R. N. Wagner, A. B. Williams, R. W. Lee, H. C. Yuan, “Recent advances in ocean-surface characterization by a scanning-laser slope gauge,” in Optics of the Air–Sea Interface: Theory and Measurement, L. Estep, ed., Proc. SPIE1749, 234–244, (1993).

Lee, P. H. Y.

P. H. Y. Lee, J. D. Barter, K. L. Beach, C. L. Hindman, B. M. Lake, H. Rungaldier, J. C. Schatzman, J. C. Shelton, R. N. Wagner, A. B. Williams, R. W. Lee, H. C. Yuan, “Recent advances in ocean-surface characterization by a scanning-laser slope gauge,” in Optics of the Air–Sea Interface: Theory and Measurement, L. Estep, ed., Proc. SPIE1749, 234–244, (1993).

Lee, R. W.

P. H. Y. Lee, J. D. Barter, K. L. Beach, C. L. Hindman, B. M. Lake, H. Rungaldier, J. C. Schatzman, J. C. Shelton, R. N. Wagner, A. B. Williams, R. W. Lee, H. C. Yuan, “Recent advances in ocean-surface characterization by a scanning-laser slope gauge,” in Optics of the Air–Sea Interface: Theory and Measurement, L. Estep, ed., Proc. SPIE1749, 234–244, (1993).

Leuskiy, V. Y.

Y. G. Trokhimovski, E. R. Westwater, V. I. Irisov, V. Y. Leuskiy, “A scanning 60 Ghz radiometer to measure air–sea temperature difference: recent results during COPE,” in IGARSS’96, Lincoln, NE, 27–31 May (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 1672–1674.

Li, F. K.

S. H. Yueh, W. J. Wilson, F. K. Li, S. V. Nghiem, W. B. Ricketts, “Polarimetric measurements of sea surface brightness temperatures using an aircraft K-band radiometer,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 33(1), 85–92 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Longuet–Higgins, M. S.

M. S. Longuet–Higgins, “The effect of non-linearities on statistical distributions in the theory of sea waves,” J. Fluid Mech. 17, 459–480 (1963).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, P. M.

D. M. Winker, R. H. Couch, P. M. McCormick, “An overview of LITE: NASA’s Lidar In-space Technology Experiment,” IEEE Proc. 84(2), 164–180 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McLean, J. W.

Munk, W.

C. Cox, W. Munk, “Measurement of the roughness of the sea surface from photographs of the sun’s glitter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44(11), 838–850 (1954).
[CrossRef]

C. Cox, W. Munk, “Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter,” J. Mar. Res. 13, 198–227 (1954).

Nghiem, S. V.

S. H. Yueh, W. J. Wilson, F. K. Li, S. V. Nghiem, W. B. Ricketts, “Polarimetric measurements of sea surface brightness temperatures using an aircraft K-band radiometer,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 33(1), 85–92 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Palm, C. S.

Papoulis, A.

A. Papoulis, Probability Random Variables and Stochastic Processes, 2nd. ed. (McGraw–Hill, New York, 1984), pp. 196–198.

Plant, W. J.

W. C. Keller, W. J. Plant, D. E. Weissman, “The dependence of X band microwave sea return on atmospheric stability and sea state,” J. Geophys. Res. 90(C1), 1019–1029 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Reagan, J. A.

J. A. Reagan, D. A. Zielinskie, “Spaceborne lidar remote sensing techniques aided by surface returns,” Opt. Eng. 30(1), 96–102 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Cooley, J. A. Reagan, “Calibration of 1064 nm channel of LITE and other uses of ocean surface returns,” in IGARSS’93, Tokyo, 18–21 August 1993 (IEEE, New York, 1993), pp. 869–871.

Reece, A. M.

Ricketts, W. B.

S. H. Yueh, W. J. Wilson, F. K. Li, S. V. Nghiem, W. B. Ricketts, “Polarimetric measurements of sea surface brightness temperatures using an aircraft K-band radiometer,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 33(1), 85–92 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rungaldier, H.

P. H. Y. Lee, J. D. Barter, K. L. Beach, C. L. Hindman, B. M. Lake, H. Rungaldier, J. C. Schatzman, J. C. Shelton, R. N. Wagner, A. B. Williams, R. W. Lee, H. C. Yuan, “Recent advances in ocean-surface characterization by a scanning-laser slope gauge,” in Optics of the Air–Sea Interface: Theory and Measurement, L. Estep, ed., Proc. SPIE1749, 234–244, (1993).

Schatzman, J. C.

P. H. Y. Lee, J. D. Barter, K. L. Beach, C. L. Hindman, B. M. Lake, H. Rungaldier, J. C. Schatzman, J. C. Shelton, R. N. Wagner, A. B. Williams, R. W. Lee, H. C. Yuan, “Recent advances in ocean-surface characterization by a scanning-laser slope gauge,” in Optics of the Air–Sea Interface: Theory and Measurement, L. Estep, ed., Proc. SPIE1749, 234–244, (1993).

Shaw, J. A.

Shelton, J. C.

P. H. Y. Lee, J. D. Barter, K. L. Beach, C. L. Hindman, B. M. Lake, H. Rungaldier, J. C. Schatzman, J. C. Shelton, R. N. Wagner, A. B. Williams, R. W. Lee, H. C. Yuan, “Recent advances in ocean-surface characterization by a scanning-laser slope gauge,” in Optics of the Air–Sea Interface: Theory and Measurement, L. Estep, ed., Proc. SPIE1749, 234–244, (1993).

Shemdin, O. H.

P. A. Hwang, O. H. Shemdin, “The dependence of sea surface slope on atmospheric stability and swell conditions,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(C11), 13903–13912 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. Tang, O. H. Shemdin, “Measurement of high frequency waves using a wave follower,” J. Geophys. Res. 88(C14), 9832–9840 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. Tober, R. C. Anderson, O. H. Shemdin, “Laser instrument for detecting water ripple slopes,” Appl. Opt. 12, 788–794 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, S. D.

S. D. Smith, “Coefficients for sea surface wind stress, heat flux, and wind profiles as a function of wind speed and temperature,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(C12), 15,467–15,472 (1988).

Stamm, G. L.

Swift, R. N.

Tang, S.

S. Tang, O. H. Shemdin, “Measurement of high frequency waves using a wave follower,” J. Geophys. Res. 88(C14), 9832–9840 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tober, G.

Trokhimovski, Y. G.

Y. G. Trokhimovski, E. R. Westwater, V. I. Irisov, V. Y. Leuskiy, “A scanning 60 Ghz radiometer to measure air–sea temperature difference: recent results during COPE,” in IGARSS’96, Lincoln, NE, 27–31 May (IEEE, New York, 1996), pp. 1672–1674.

Y. G. Trokhimovski, V. G. Irisov, “Wind speed and direction measurement using microwave polarimetric radiometers,” NOAA Technical Memo ERL ETL-250 (National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Va. 22161, 1995).

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P. H. Y. Lee, J. D. Barter, K. L. Beach, C. L. Hindman, B. M. Lake, H. Rungaldier, J. C. Schatzman, J. C. Shelton, R. N. Wagner, A. B. Williams, R. W. Lee, H. C. Yuan, “Recent advances in ocean-surface characterization by a scanning-laser slope gauge,” in Optics of the Air–Sea Interface: Theory and Measurement, L. Estep, ed., Proc. SPIE1749, 234–244, (1993).

Y. G. Trokhimovski, V. G. Irisov, “Wind speed and direction measurement using microwave polarimetric radiometers,” NOAA Technical Memo ERL ETL-250 (National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Va. 22161, 1995).

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