Abstract

Tunable excimer lasers are being used to produce species-, space-, and time-resolved images of complex gaseous media. These media may be analyzed for composition, density, temperature, or flow velocities. The techniques are, in general, highly selective, sensitive, and nonintrusive and are being made possible by recent technological developments in these UV lasers and in intensified cameras, imaging spectrographs, and fast digital image processing. We describe the needs for laser diagnostics in combustion, the physical mechanisms, the relevant spectroscopy, typical experimental setups, and equipment considerations. Precision and accuracy are discussed on the basis of some simple, but realistic, calculations intended to guide the experimentalist in design considerations and to reveal potential sources of errors in the often difficult conversion of raw data to values for such quantitative parameters as densities or temperatures. Finally we present an overview of previous results, select some examples that show the power of tunable excimer laser diagnostics in combustion, and present some suggestions for future directions.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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1997 (1)

G. Grünefeld, A. Brockhincke, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, “Laser-based multiparameter measurements in a jet engine burner,” AIAA J. 35, 500–508 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (12)

R. W. Pitz, M. Brown, S. P. Nandula, P. A. Skaggs, P. A. Debarber, M. S. Brown, J. Segall, “Unseeded velocity measurements by ozone tagging velocimetry,” Opt. Lett. 21, 755–757 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Sick, M. Decker, J. Heinze, W. Stricker, “Collisional processes in the O2B3∑u- state,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 249, 335–340 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Knapp, A. Luczak, H. Schlüter, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Andresen, “Crank-angle-resolved laser-induced fluorescence imaging of NO in a spark ignition engine at 248 nm and correlations to flame front propagation and pressure release,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4009–4017 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bormann, T. Nielsen, M. Burrows, P. Andresen, “Single pulse collision-insensitive picosecond-PLIF of OH A2Σ+ (v′ = 2) in atmospheric pressure flames,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 601–607 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Laufer, T. M. Quagliaroli, R. H. Krauss, R. B. Whitehurst, J. C. McDaniel, J. H. Grinstead, “Planar OH density and apparent temperature measurements in a supersonic combusting flow,” AIAA J. 34, 463–469 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Grinstead, T. M. Quagliaroli, G. Laufer, J. C. McDaniel, “Single-pulse temperature measurement in turbulent flame using laser-induced O2 fluorescence,” AIAA J. 34, 624–625 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Rothe, Y. Gu, G. P. Reck, “Laser-induced predissociative fluorescence: dynamics and polarization and the effect of lower-state rotational energy transfer on quantitative diagnostics,” Appl. Opt. 35, 934–947 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Wehrmeyer, S. Yeralan, K. S. Tecu, “Linewise Raman-Stokes/anti-Stokes temperature measurement in flames using an unintensified charge coupled device,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 21–27 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Grünefeld, P. Andresen, H. Schlüter, E. W. Rothe, “Operation of KrF and ArF tunable excimer lasers without Cassegrain optics,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 241–247 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Forkey, N. D. Finkelstein, W. R. Lempert, R. B. Miles, “Demonstration and characterization of filtered Rayleigh scattering for planar velocity measurements,” AIAA J. 34, 442–448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Gölz, P. Andresen, “Atomic vapor for two-dimensional Rayleigh imaging experiments with a narrow-band KrF excimer laser,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6054–6061 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Decker, V. Sick, “Tunable KrCl excimer-laser operation for combustion diagnostics,” Appl. Opt. 35, 482–484 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (8)

A. Brockhinke, P. Andresen, K. Kohse Höinghaus, “Quantitative one dimensional single pulse multispecies concentration and temperature measurements in the lift-off region of a turbulent H2-air diffusion flame,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 533–545 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Kampmann, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and two-dimensional laser Rayleigh thermometry in a contained technical swirl combustor,” Appl.Opt. 34, 2780–2786 (1995).

C. Schulz, B. Yip, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, “A laser induced fluorescence scheme for imaging nitric oxide in engines,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 242, 259–264 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Burrows, F. Bormann, P. Andresen, “Tunable sub-nanosecond KrF-Raman laser in the ultraviolet,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 451–460 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Fletcher, “Two-photon excitation of atomic oxygen using a Raman-shifted ArF-excimer laser,” Appl. Phys. B 60, 61–65 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Grinstead, G. Laufer, J. C. McDaniel, “Single-pulse, two-line temperature measurement techniques using KrF laser-induced O2 fluorescence,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5501–5512 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, “Interference-free uv-laser-induced Raman and Rayleigh measurements in hydrocarbon combustion using polarization properties,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 473–478 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Knapp, G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Andresen, A. Luczak, S. Eisenberg, “Laserspectroskopische Diagnostik im Brennraum eines Ottomotors und an der Flamme eines Ölheizungsbrenners,” VDI Ber. (Ver. Dtsch. Ing.) 1193, 325–332 (1995).

1994 (13)

M. Versluis, K. L. Queeney, J. L. Springfield, T. Dreier, A. Dreizler, “Laser-induced fluorescence detection of OH in a flame near 268 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 166, 486–488 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Quagliaroli, G. Laufer, S. D. Hollo, R. H. Krauss, R. B. Whitehurst, J. C. McDaniel, “KrF laser-induced OH fluorescence imaging in a supersonic combustion tunnel,” J. Propul. Power 10, 377–382 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Versluis, G. Meijer, D. W. Chandler, “Degenerate four wave mixing with a tunable excimer laser,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3289–3295 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Neij, M. Alden, “Application of two-photon laser-induced fluorescence for visualization of water vapor in combustion environments,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6514–6523 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Czarnetski, K. Miyazaki, T. Kajiwara, K. Muraoka, K. Maeda, H. F. Dobele, “Comparison of various two-photon excitation schemes for laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in atomic hydrogen,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2155–2162 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Hönig, G. Kappler, P. Andresen, N. Brehm, “Multispecies detection in a liquid fueled model combustor using tunable excimer lasers,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 102, 1–6 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Grinstead, G. Laufer, R. H. Krauss, J. C. McDaniel, “Calibration source for OH laser-induced fluorescence-density measurements with thermally dissociated H2O in atmospheric air,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1115–1119 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Quagliaroli, G. Laufer, J. C. McDaniel, “Calibration of OH laser-induced fluorescence temperature measurements using thermally dissociated H2O,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 635–638 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, “Spatially resolved Raman scattering for multi-species and temperature analyses in technically applied combustion systems: spray flame and four-cylinder in-line engine,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 333–342 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Cheng, J. A. Wehrmeyer, R. W. Pitz, O. Jarrett, G. B. Northam, “Raman measurement of mixing and finite-rate chemistry in a supersonic hydrogen/air diffusion flame,” Combust. Flame 99, 157 (1994). Originally presented as “Finite-rate chemistry effects in a Mach 2 reacting flow,” presented at the AIAA/SAE/ASME/ASEE Twenty-Seventh Joint Propulsion Conference, Sacramento, Calif., 24–26 June 1991, paper AIAA-91-2320.
[CrossRef]

S. P. Nandula, T. M. Brown, R. W. Pitz, P. A. DeBarber, “Single-pulse, simultaneous multipoint multispecies Raman measurements in turbulent nonpremixed jet flames,” Opt. Lett. 19, 414–416 (1994).
[PubMed]

S. P. Nandula, T. M. Brown, R. W. Pitz, “Measurements of scalar dissipation in the reaction zones of turbulent non-premixed H2-air flames,” Combust. Flame 99, 775–783 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, “Planar air density measurements near model surfaces by Rayleigh/Raman scattering,” AIAA J. 32, 1457–1463 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (24)

A. D. Sappey, D. J. Funk, “Simultaneous detection of atomic and molecular hydrogen using a tunable ArF excimer laser,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 229–234 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Hassel, “Ultraviolet Raman scattering measurements in flames by the use of a narrow band XeCl excimer laser,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4058–4065 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, J. A. Shirley, “Laser Raman diagnostics for propulsion systems development,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 97, 1597–1608 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Pitz, T. S. Cheng, J. A. Wehrmeyer, C. F. Hess, “Two-photon predissociative fluorescence of H2O by a KrF laser for concentration and temperature measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 94–100 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Koch, H. Voges, P. Andresen, H. Schlüter, D. Wolff, W. Hentschel, W. Oppermann, E. Rothe, “Planar imaging of a flame and of internal combustion in an automobile engine using UV Rayleigh and fluorescence light,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 177–184 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kim, L. M. Hitchcock, F. Siegler, E. W. Rothe, C. C. Tung, G. P. Reck, “Planar imaging of Rayleigh and fluorescence light from H2–air combustion inside a bomb using tunable 193 nm light,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 139–145 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. L. McKenzie, “Rayleigh rejection filters for 193-nm ArF laser Raman spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 18, 995–997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Faris, M. J. Dyer, “Raman-shifting ArF excimer laser radiation for vacuum-ultraviolet multiphoton spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 2273–2286 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Smith, L. L. Price, W. D. Williams, “Laser-induced fluorescence diagnostics using a two-line excitation method,” AIAA J. 31, 478–482 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. Reckers, L. Hüwel, G. Grünefeld, P. Andresen, “Spatially resolved multispecies and temperature analyses in hydrogen flames,” Appl. Opt. 32, 907–918 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. McKenzie, “Progress in laser-spectroscopic techniques for aerodynamic measurements—an overview,” AIAA J. 31, 465–477 (1993).
[CrossRef]

This has not been done with tunable excimers. See, e.g., L. A. Melton, “Exciplex-based vapor/liquid visualization systems appropriate for automotive gasolines,” Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 782–786 (1993); “Planar liquid and gas visualization,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 97, 1560–1567 (1993).

A. Koch, A. Chryssostomou, P. Andresen, W. Bornscheuer, “Multi-species detection in spray flames with tunable excimer lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 165–176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Calvert, J. B. Heywood, R. F. Sawyer, J. H. Seinfeld, “Achieving acceptable air quality: some reflections on controlling vehicle emissions,” Science 261, 37–45 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Quagliaroli, G. Laufer, R. H. Krauss, J. C. McDaniel, “Laser selection criteria for OH fluorescence measurements in supersonic combustion test facilities,” AIAA J. 31, 520–527 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Seitzman, R. K. Hanson, “Comparison of excitation techniques for quantitative fluorescence imaging of reacting flows,” AIAA J. 31, 513–519 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Cosby, H. Park, R. A. Copeland, G. T. Slanger, “Predissociation linewidths in O2B3Σu (v = 0, 2),” J. Chem. Phys. 98, 5117–5133 (1993), and references cited therein.
[CrossRef]

N. P. Tait, D. A. Greenhalgh, “PLIF imaging of fuel fraction in practical devices and LII imaging of soot,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 97, 1619–1625 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Wolff, H. Schlüter, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, “Quantitative determination of fuel air mixture distributions in an internal combustion engine using PLIF of acetone,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 97, 1738–1741 (1993); D. Wolff, “Quantitative laserdiagnostische Untersuchung der Gemischaufbereitung in technischen Verbrennungssystemen,” Ph.D. dissertation (Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany, 1995).

R. B. Miles, D. Zhou, B. Zhang, W. R. Lempert, Z. S. She, “Fundamental turbulence measurements by relief flow tagging,” AIAA J. 31, 447–452 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Th. M. Brugman, R. Klein-Douwel, G. Huigen, E. van Walwijk, J. J. ter Meulen, “Laser-induced-fluorescence imaging of NO in an n-heptane- and diesel-fuel-driven diesel engine,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 405–410 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Grinstead, G. Laufer, J. C. McDaniel, “Rotational temperature measurements in high-temperature air using KrF laser-induced O2 fluorescence,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 393–396 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Steffens, J. B. Jeffreys, D. R. Crosley, “Collisional energy transfer in predissociative OH laser-induced fluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1355–1357 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Arnold, A. Braumer, A. Buschmann, M. Decker, F. Dinkelacker, T. Heitzmann, A. Orth, M. Schäfer, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, “2D diagnostics in industrial devices,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 97, 1650–1661 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (14)

M. Versluis, M. Boogaarts, R. Klein-Douwel, B. Thus, W. deJongh, A. Braam, J. J. ter Meulen, W. L. Meerts, G. Meijer, “Laser-induced fluorescence imaging in a 100 kW natural gas flame,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 164–170 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Andresen, W. Reckers, H. G. Wagner, E. K. Dabora, H. Voges, “The structure of gaseous detonations as revealed by laser induced fluorescence of the OH radical,” Z. Physik. Chem. Neue Folge 175, 129–143 (1992).

W. Ketterle, M. Schäfer, A. Arnold, J. Wolfrum, “2D single-shot imaging of OH radicals using tunable excimer lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 109–112 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. K. McMillin, M. P. Lee, R. K. Hanson, “Planar laser-induced fluorescence of shock-tube flows with vibrational nonequilibrium,” AIAA J. 30, 436–443 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Fletcher, R. L. McKenzie, “Single-pulse measurements of density and temperature in a turbulent, supersonic flow using UV laser spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1614–1616 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Vershuis, G. Meijer, D. W. Chandler, “Degenerate four wave mixing with a tunable excimer laser to detect combustion gases,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 192, 1–3 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. L. McKenzie, R. K. Hanson, A. C. Eckbreth, “Shedding new light on gas dynamics,” Aerosp. Am. 30(11), 20–25 (1992).

D. E. Heard, D. R. Crosley, J. B. Jeffries, “Rotationally dependent predissociation in the v′ = 3 level of OH,” J. Chem. Phys. 96, 4366–4371 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Wehrmeyer, T. S. Cheng, R. W. Pitz, “Raman scattering measurements in flames using a tunable KrF laser,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1495–1504 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Arnold, B. Lange, T. Bouché, T. Heitzmann, G. Schiff, W. Ketterle, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, “Absolute temperature fields in flames by 2D-LIF of OH using excimer lasers and CARS spectroscopy,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 96, 1388–1393 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Cheng, J. A. Wehrmeyer, R. W. Pitz, “Simultaneous temparature and multispecies measurement in a lifted hydrogen diffusion flame,” Combust. Flame 91, 323–345 (1992). Originally presented at the Twenty-Ninth AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 7–10 January 1991, paper AIAA-91-0181.
[CrossRef]

T. Dreier, A. Dreizler, J. Wolfrum, “The application of a Raman-shifted tunable KrF excimer laser for laser-induced fluorescence combustion diagnostics,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 381–387 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Andresen, H. Schlüter, D. Wolff, H. Voges, A. Koch, W. Hentschel, W. Oppermann, E. Rothe, “Identification and imaging of OH, (v″ = 0) and O2 (v″ = 6 or 7) in an automobile spark-ignition engine using a tunable KrF excimer laser,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7684–7689 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Burris, T. J. McGee, W. Heaps, “UV Raman cross sections in nitrogen,” Appl. Spectrosc. 46, 1076–1076 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (7)

G. S. Kim, L. M. Hitchcock, E. W. Rothe, G. P. Reck, “Identification and imaging of hot O2 (v″ = 2, 3, or 4) in hydrogen flames using 193 nm and 210 nm-range light,” Appl. Phys. B 53, 180–186 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Versluis, M. Ebben, M. Drabbles, J. J. ter Meulen, “Frequency calibration in the ArF excimer laser tuning range using laser-induced fluorescence of NO,” Appl. Opt. 30, 5229–5234 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Gray, R. L. Farrow, “Predissociation lifetimes of OH A2Σ+ (v′ = 3) obtained from optical–optical double resonance linewidth measurements,” J. Chem. Phys. 95, 7054–7060, (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. Lempert, G. Diskin, V. Kumar, I. Glesk, R. Miles, “Two-dimensional imaging of molecular hydrogen in H2–air diffusion flames using two photon laser induced fluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 16, 660–662 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Hitchcock, G. S. Kim, E. W. Rothe, G. P. Reck, “Stimulated Raman pumping to H2 (v″ = 1, J″ = 1) and resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization from it using a single laser,” Appl. Phys. B 52, 27–31 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Ebben, M. Versluis, J. J. ter Meulen, “The laser induced fluorescence spectrum of SiF around 193 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 149, 329–340 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Schäfer, W. Ketterle, J. Wolfrum, “Saturated 2D-LIF of OH and 2D determination of effective collisional lifetimes in atmospheric pressure flames,” Appl. Phys. B 52, 341–346 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (17)

A. Arnold, H. Becker, R. Hemberger, W. Hentschel, K. Kollner, W. Meienburg, P. Monkhouse, H. Neckel, M. Schafer, K. P. Schindler, V. Sick, R. Suntz, J. Wolfrum, “Laser in situ monitoring of combustion processes,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4860–4872 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Andresen, G. Meijer, H. Schlüter, H. Voges, A. Koch, W. Hentschel, W. Oppermann, E. W. Rothe, “Fluorescence imaging inside an internal combustion engine using tunable excimer lasers,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2392–2404 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Arnold, H. Becker, R. Suntz, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. Maly, W. Pfister, “Flame front imaging in an internal combustion engine simulator by laser-induced fluorescence of acetaldehyde,” Opt. Lett. 15, 831–833 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Robie, J. D. Buck, W. K. Bischel, “Bandwidth and tuning range of an ArF laser measured by a 1 + 1 resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization of NO,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3961–3965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Becker, A. Arnold, R. Suntz, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. Maly, W. Pfister, “Investigation of flame-structure and burning behavior in an IC engine simulator by 2-D-LIF of OH radicals,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 473–478 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Köllner, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, “Time resolved LIF of hydroxyl (A2Σ+, v″ = 1 and v″ = 0) in atmospheric-pressure flames using picosecond excitation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 168, 355–360 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. S.-C. Cheung, K. Yoshino, J. R. Esmond, S. S.-L. Chiu, D. E. Freeman, W. H. Parkinson, “Predissociation linewidths of the (1,0)–(12,0) Schumann–Runge absorption bands of O2 in the wavelength region 179–202 nm,” J. Chem. Phys. 92, 842–849 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. Laufer, R. L. McKenzie, D. G. Fletcher, “Method for measuring temperatures and densities in hypersonic wind tunnel air flows using laser-induced O2 fluorescence,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4873–4883 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Ketterle, A. Arnold, M. Schäfer, “Two-wavelength operation of a tunable KrF excimer laser—a promising technique for combustion diagnostics,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 91–93 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Arnold, W. Ketterle, H. Becker, J. Wolfrum, “Simultaneous single-shot imaging of OH and O2 using a two-wavelength laser,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 99–102 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Hitchcock, G. S. Kim, G. P. Reck, E. W. Rothe, “Absorption of laser light in air in the 193 nm range: analysis of laser locking,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 44, 373–378 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Hanson, J. M. Seitzman, P. H. Paul, “Planar laser-fluorescence imaging of combustion gases,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 441–454 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Shirley, “UV Raman spectroscopy of H2-air flames excited with a narrowband KrF laser,” Appl.Phys. B 51, 45–48 (1990).

R. W. Pitz, J. A. Wehrmeyer, J. M. Bowling, T.-S. Cheng, “Single pulse vibrational Raman scattering by a broadband KrF excimer laser in a hydrogen-air flame,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2325–2332 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Miles, W. Lempert, “Two-dimensional measurement of density, velocity, and temperature in turbulent high-speed air flows by UV Rayleigh scattering,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 1–7 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Dibble, S. H. Stårner, A. R. Masri, R. S. Barlow, “An improved method of data acquisition and reduction of laser Raman–Rayleigh and fluorescence scattering from multispecies,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 39–43 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Arnold, H. Becker, R. Hemberger, W. Hentschel, W. Ketterle, M. Kollner, W. Meienburg, P. Monkhouse, H. Neckel, M. Schafer, K. P. Schindler, V. Sick, R. Suntz, J. Wolfrum, “Laser in situ monitoring of combustion processes,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4860–4872, (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (3)

1988 (8)

R. Suntz, H. Becker, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, “Two-dimensional visualization of the flame front using laser induced fluorescence,” Appl. Phys. B 47, 287–293 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Laufer, R. L. McKenzie, W. M. Huo, “Radiative processes in air excited by an ArF laser,” Opt. Lett. 13, 99–101 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Meijer, A. M. Wodtke, H. Voges, L. Hüwel, H. Schlüter, P. Andresen, “State-selective detection of CO using a tunable excimer laser,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 2588–2589 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Miles, J. J. Connors, P. J. Howard, E. C. Markovitz, G. J. Roth, “Proposed single-pulse two-dimensional temperature and density measurements of oxygen and air,” Opt. Lett. 13, 195–197 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Malov, S. Y. Fedorov, “XeCl and KrF excimer lasers for diagnostics of flames by spontaneous Raman Scattering,” Fiz. Goreniya Vzryva 24, 54–58 (1988) [Combust. Explos. Shock Waves (USSR) 24, 431–434 (1988)].

P. Andresen, A. Bath, W. Gröger, H. W. Lülf, G. Meijer, J. J. ter Meulen, “Laser-induced fluorescence with tunable excimer lasers as a possible method for instantaneous temperature field measurements at high pressures: checks with an atmospheric flame,” Appl. Opt. 27, 365–378 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Wodtke, L. Hüwel, H. Schlüter, H. Voges, G. Meijer, P. Andresen, “Predissociation of O2 in the B state,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 1929–1935 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Wodtke, L. Hüwel, H. Schlüter, G. Meijer, P. Andresen, H. Voges, “High-sensitivity detection of NO in a flame using a tunable ArF laser,” Opt. Lett. 13, 910–912 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (4)

W. Mückenheim, “Seven ways to combine two excimer lasers,” Laser Focus/Electrooptics 23(7), 56–67 (1987).

B. Rückle, P. Lokai, U. Brinkmann, D. Basting, W. Mückenheim, “Tuning ranges of an injection locked excimer laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 19, 153–157 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. Kychakoff, P. H. Paul, I. van Cruyningen, R. K. Hanson, “Movies and 3-D images of flowfields using planar laser-induced fluorescence,” Appl. Opt. 26, 2498–2500 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schwarzwald, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, “Picosecond fluorescence lifetime measurement of the hydroxyl radical in an atmospheric pressure flame,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 142, 15–18 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (3)

E. W. Rothe, G. S. Ondrey, P. Andresen, “High-sensitivity, state-specific detection of H2 by three-photon direct ionization in gases and discharges,” Opt. Commun. 58, 113–117 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Lee, R. K. Hanson, “Calculations of O2 absorption and fluorescence at elevated temperatures for a broadband argon fluoride laser source at 193 nm,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 36, 425–440 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. Meijer, J. J. ter Meulen, P. Andresen, A. Bath, “A sensitive quantum state selective detection of H2O and D2O by (2 + I) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization,” J. Chem. Phys. 85, 6914–6922 (1986); V. Engel, G. Meijer, A. Bath, P. Andresen, R. Schinke, “The C → A emission in water: theory and experiment,” J. Chem. Phys. 87, 4310–4314 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

I. Namer, R. W. Schefer, “Error estimates for Rayleigh scattering density and temperature measurements in premixed flames,” Exp. Fluids 3, 1–9 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

G. A. Massey, C. J. Lemon, “Feasibility of measuring temperature and density fluctuations in air using laser-induced O2 fluorescence,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 454–457 (1984).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Doherty, D. R. Crosley, “Polarization of laser-induced fluorescence in an atmospheric pressure flame,” Appl. Opt. 23, 713–721 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

G. P. Beretta, M. Rashidi, J. C. Keck, “Turbulent flame propagation and combustion in spark ignition engines,” Combust. Flame 52, 217–245 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1978 (2)

M. C. Drake, G. M. Rosenblatt, “Rotational Raman scattering from premixed and diffusion flames,” Combust. Flame 33, 179–196 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Brzozowski, P. Erman, M. Lyyra, “Precision estimates of the predissociation rates of the OH A2Σ state (v ≤ 2),” Phys. Scr. 17, 507–511 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (2)

J. Goldhar, J. Dickie, L. P. Bradley, L. D. Pleasance, “Injection locking of a xenon fluoride laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 677–679 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Goldhar, J. R. Murray, “Injection locked, narrow-band KrF discharge laser using an unstable resonator cavity,” Opt. Lett. 1, 199–201 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

D. R. Crosley, R. K. Lengel, “Relative transition probabilities and the electronic transition moment in the A–X System of OH” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 15, 579–591 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

D. A. Stephenson, “Raman cross sections of selected hydrocarbon and Freons,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 14, 1291–1301 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

Alden, M.

An, H.

E. W. Rothe, H. An, L. M. Hitchcock, Y. Gu, Gene P. Reck, “Rayleigh and predissociative fluorescence imaging of densities from an internal combustion engine using a tunable KrF laser,” in Laser Applications in Combustion and Combustion Diagnostics II, R. J. Locke, ed., Proc. SPIE2122, 79–82 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, T. J.

A. C. Eckbreth, T. J. Anderson, J. A. Shirley, “Laser Raman diagnostics for propulsion systems development,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 97, 1597–1608 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Andresen, P.

G. Grünefeld, A. Brockhincke, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, “Laser-based multiparameter measurements in a jet engine burner,” AIAA J. 35, 500–508 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Grünefeld, P. Andresen, H. Schlüter, E. W. Rothe, “Operation of KrF and ArF tunable excimer lasers without Cassegrain optics,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 241–247 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Knapp, A. Luczak, H. Schlüter, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Andresen, “Crank-angle-resolved laser-induced fluorescence imaging of NO in a spark ignition engine at 248 nm and correlations to flame front propagation and pressure release,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4009–4017 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Gölz, P. Andresen, “Atomic vapor for two-dimensional Rayleigh imaging experiments with a narrow-band KrF excimer laser,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6054–6061 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bormann, T. Nielsen, M. Burrows, P. Andresen, “Single pulse collision-insensitive picosecond-PLIF of OH A2Σ+ (v′ = 2) in atmospheric pressure flames,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 601–607 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Brockhinke, P. Andresen, K. Kohse Höinghaus, “Quantitative one dimensional single pulse multispecies concentration and temperature measurements in the lift-off region of a turbulent H2-air diffusion flame,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 533–545 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Burrows, F. Bormann, P. Andresen, “Tunable sub-nanosecond KrF-Raman laser in the ultraviolet,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 451–460 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, “Interference-free uv-laser-induced Raman and Rayleigh measurements in hydrocarbon combustion using polarization properties,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 473–478 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Knapp, G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Andresen, A. Luczak, S. Eisenberg, “Laserspectroskopische Diagnostik im Brennraum eines Ottomotors und an der Flamme eines Ölheizungsbrenners,” VDI Ber. (Ver. Dtsch. Ing.) 1193, 325–332 (1995).

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, “Planar air density measurements near model surfaces by Rayleigh/Raman scattering,” AIAA J. 32, 1457–1463 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Hönig, G. Kappler, P. Andresen, N. Brehm, “Multispecies detection in a liquid fueled model combustor using tunable excimer lasers,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 102, 1–6 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, “Spatially resolved Raman scattering for multi-species and temperature analyses in technically applied combustion systems: spray flame and four-cylinder in-line engine,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 333–342 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. Reckers, L. Hüwel, G. Grünefeld, P. Andresen, “Spatially resolved multispecies and temperature analyses in hydrogen flames,” Appl. Opt. 32, 907–918 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Koch, A. Chryssostomou, P. Andresen, W. Bornscheuer, “Multi-species detection in spray flames with tunable excimer lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 165–176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Wolff, H. Schlüter, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, “Quantitative determination of fuel air mixture distributions in an internal combustion engine using PLIF of acetone,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 97, 1738–1741 (1993); D. Wolff, “Quantitative laserdiagnostische Untersuchung der Gemischaufbereitung in technischen Verbrennungssystemen,” Ph.D. dissertation (Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany, 1995).

A. Koch, H. Voges, P. Andresen, H. Schlüter, D. Wolff, W. Hentschel, W. Oppermann, E. Rothe, “Planar imaging of a flame and of internal combustion in an automobile engine using UV Rayleigh and fluorescence light,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 177–184 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Andresen, W. Reckers, H. G. Wagner, E. K. Dabora, H. Voges, “The structure of gaseous detonations as revealed by laser induced fluorescence of the OH radical,” Z. Physik. Chem. Neue Folge 175, 129–143 (1992).

P. Andresen, H. Schlüter, D. Wolff, H. Voges, A. Koch, W. Hentschel, W. Oppermann, E. Rothe, “Identification and imaging of OH, (v″ = 0) and O2 (v″ = 6 or 7) in an automobile spark-ignition engine using a tunable KrF excimer laser,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7684–7689 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Andresen, G. Meijer, H. Schlüter, H. Voges, A. Koch, W. Hentschel, W. Oppermann, E. W. Rothe, “Fluorescence imaging inside an internal combustion engine using tunable excimer lasers,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2392–2404 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Wodtke, L. Hüwel, H. Schlüter, P. Andresen, “A simple way to improve an argon fluoride laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 801–802 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. Andresen, A. Bath, W. Gröger, H. W. Lülf, G. Meijer, J. J. ter Meulen, “Laser-induced fluorescence with tunable excimer lasers as a possible method for instantaneous temperature field measurements at high pressures: checks with an atmospheric flame,” Appl. Opt. 27, 365–378 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Wodtke, L. Hüwel, H. Schlüter, G. Meijer, P. Andresen, H. Voges, “High-sensitivity detection of NO in a flame using a tunable ArF laser,” Opt. Lett. 13, 910–912 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Wodtke, L. Hüwel, H. Schlüter, H. Voges, G. Meijer, P. Andresen, “Predissociation of O2 in the B state,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 1929–1935 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Meijer, A. M. Wodtke, H. Voges, L. Hüwel, H. Schlüter, P. Andresen, “State-selective detection of CO using a tunable excimer laser,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 2588–2589 (1988).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Rothe, G. S. Ondrey, P. Andresen, “High-sensitivity, state-specific detection of H2 by three-photon direct ionization in gases and discharges,” Opt. Commun. 58, 113–117 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. Meijer, J. J. ter Meulen, P. Andresen, A. Bath, “A sensitive quantum state selective detection of H2O and D2O by (2 + I) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization,” J. Chem. Phys. 85, 6914–6922 (1986); V. Engel, G. Meijer, A. Bath, P. Andresen, R. Schinke, “The C → A emission in water: theory and experiment,” J. Chem. Phys. 87, 4310–4314 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Luczak, V. Beushausen, S. Eisenberg, M. Knapp, H. Schlüter, P. Andresen, M. Malobabic, A. Schmidt, “New nonintrusive laser diagnostic tools for design and optimization of technically applied combustion systems,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 116, 1–6; Combust. Sci. Technol. 117, 541 (1996).

P. Andresen, “Laser Induced Fluorescence Imaging Applications” in Measurement Techniques in Hypersonic Flows (von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Rhode Saint Genese, Belgium, 1990), pp. 421–449.

M. Knapp, A. Luczak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Andresen, “Combinative in-cylinder measurements of equivalence ratio, temperature, residual gas content, NO and OH formation, and IMEP in single combustion cycles of a 4-cylinder SI-engine,” in Autotech ’95, (Institution of Mechanical Engineers, London, 1995), paper C498/15/035.

M. Knapp, L. Hüwel, G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Andresen, “Spontaneous vibrational Raman and O2 laser-induced predissociative fluorescence measurements with a tunable ArF excimer laser for stoichiometry and temperature analysis in the combustion chamber of an SI engine,” Appl. Opt.

P. Andresen, “Optimierung von turbulenten Verbrennungs und Mischprocessen durch gezielte Zugabe von Substanzen,” German Patent DisclosureDE 4416720 A1 (May1994).

M. Knapp, A. Luczak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Mantz, P. Andresen, “Polarization separated spatially resolved single laser shot multispecies analysis in the combustion chamber of a realistic SI engine with a tunable KrF excimer laser,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 2589–2596.
[CrossRef]

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, “A major origin of cyclic energy conversion variations in SI engines: cycle-by-cycle variations of the equivalence ratio and residual gas of the initial charge,” in 1994 SAE Congress and Exposition, paper 941880 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1994); G. Grünefeld, “Laser diagnostics applied to practical combustion and flow systems,” Ph.D. dissertation (Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany, 1994).

A. Luczak, S. Eisenberg, H. Schlüter, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, “3-D density and temperature-measurements in an oil-spray flame using UV-Raman-scattering,” in Air Pollution and Visibility Measurements, C. Werner, P. Fabian, V. Klein, M. Tacke, K. Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE2506, 121–131 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Brockhinke, P. Andresen, K. Kohse Höinghaus, “Contribution to the analysis of temporal and spatial structures near the lift-off region of a turbulent hydrogen diffusion flame,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 153–159.
[CrossRef]

Arnold, A.

A. Arnold, A. Braumer, A. Buschmann, M. Decker, F. Dinkelacker, T. Heitzmann, A. Orth, M. Schäfer, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, “2D diagnostics in industrial devices,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 97, 1650–1661 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Arnold, B. Lange, T. Bouché, T. Heitzmann, G. Schiff, W. Ketterle, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, “Absolute temperature fields in flames by 2D-LIF of OH using excimer lasers and CARS spectroscopy,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 96, 1388–1393 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. Ketterle, M. Schäfer, A. Arnold, J. Wolfrum, “2D single-shot imaging of OH radicals using tunable excimer lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 109–112 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. Ketterle, A. Arnold, M. Schäfer, “Two-wavelength operation of a tunable KrF excimer laser—a promising technique for combustion diagnostics,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 91–93 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Arnold, W. Ketterle, H. Becker, J. Wolfrum, “Simultaneous single-shot imaging of OH and O2 using a two-wavelength laser,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 99–102 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Arnold, H. Becker, R. Hemberger, W. Hentschel, W. Ketterle, M. Kollner, W. Meienburg, P. Monkhouse, H. Neckel, M. Schafer, K. P. Schindler, V. Sick, R. Suntz, J. Wolfrum, “Laser in situ monitoring of combustion processes,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4860–4872, (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Arnold, H. Becker, R. Suntz, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. Maly, W. Pfister, “Flame front imaging in an internal combustion engine simulator by laser-induced fluorescence of acetaldehyde,” Opt. Lett. 15, 831–833 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Becker, A. Arnold, R. Suntz, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. Maly, W. Pfister, “Investigation of flame-structure and burning behavior in an IC engine simulator by 2-D-LIF of OH radicals,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 473–478 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Arnold, H. Becker, R. Hemberger, W. Hentschel, K. Kollner, W. Meienburg, P. Monkhouse, H. Neckel, M. Schafer, K. P. Schindler, V. Sick, R. Suntz, J. Wolfrum, “Laser in situ monitoring of combustion processes,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4860–4872 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roller, A. Arnold, M. Decker, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, W. Hentschel, K.-P. Schindler, “Non-intrusive temperature measurement during the compression phase of a DI diesel engine,” in Diagnostics in Diesel and SI Engines (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1995), pp. 113–118.

A. Arnold, F. Dinkelacker, T. Heitzmann, P. Monkhouse, M. Schäfer, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, W. Hentschel, K.-P. Schindler, “DI diesel engine combustion visualized by combined laser techniques in flames,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), pp. 1605–1612.
[CrossRef]

V. Sick, A. Arnold, E. Dießel, T. Dreier, W. Ketterle, B. Lange, J. Wolfrum, K. U. Thiele, F. Behrendt, J. Warnatz, “Two-dimensional laser diagnostics and modeling of counterflow diffusion flames,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), pp. 495–501.

Barlow, R. S.

R. W. Dibble, S. H. Stårner, A. R. Masri, R. S. Barlow, “An improved method of data acquisition and reduction of laser Raman–Rayleigh and fluorescence scattering from multispecies,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 39–43 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Barlow, R. W. Dibble, “Effect of Damköhler number on superequilibrium OH concentration in turbulent nonpremixed jet flames,” AIAA paper 89-0061 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1989).

Basting, D.

B. Rückle, P. Lokai, U. Brinkmann, D. Basting, W. Mückenheim, “Tuning ranges of an injection locked excimer laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 19, 153–157 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bath, A.

P. Andresen, A. Bath, W. Gröger, H. W. Lülf, G. Meijer, J. J. ter Meulen, “Laser-induced fluorescence with tunable excimer lasers as a possible method for instantaneous temperature field measurements at high pressures: checks with an atmospheric flame,” Appl. Opt. 27, 365–378 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Meijer, J. J. ter Meulen, P. Andresen, A. Bath, “A sensitive quantum state selective detection of H2O and D2O by (2 + I) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization,” J. Chem. Phys. 85, 6914–6922 (1986); V. Engel, G. Meijer, A. Bath, P. Andresen, R. Schinke, “The C → A emission in water: theory and experiment,” J. Chem. Phys. 87, 4310–4314 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Becker, H.

A. Arnold, H. Becker, R. Hemberger, W. Hentschel, K. Kollner, W. Meienburg, P. Monkhouse, H. Neckel, M. Schafer, K. P. Schindler, V. Sick, R. Suntz, J. Wolfrum, “Laser in situ monitoring of combustion processes,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4860–4872 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Becker, A. Arnold, R. Suntz, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. Maly, W. Pfister, “Investigation of flame-structure and burning behavior in an IC engine simulator by 2-D-LIF of OH radicals,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 473–478 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Arnold, H. Becker, R. Suntz, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. Maly, W. Pfister, “Flame front imaging in an internal combustion engine simulator by laser-induced fluorescence of acetaldehyde,” Opt. Lett. 15, 831–833 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Arnold, H. Becker, R. Hemberger, W. Hentschel, W. Ketterle, M. Kollner, W. Meienburg, P. Monkhouse, H. Neckel, M. Schafer, K. P. Schindler, V. Sick, R. Suntz, J. Wolfrum, “Laser in situ monitoring of combustion processes,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4860–4872, (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Arnold, W. Ketterle, H. Becker, J. Wolfrum, “Simultaneous single-shot imaging of OH and O2 using a two-wavelength laser,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 99–102 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Suntz, H. Becker, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, “Two-dimensional visualization of the flame front using laser induced fluorescence,” Appl. Phys. B 47, 287–293 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. Becker, P. B. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. S. Cant, K. N. C. Bray, R. Maly, W. Pfister, G. Stahl, J. Warnatz, “Investigation of extinction of unsteady flames in turbulent combustion by 2-D LIF analysis of OH radicals and flamelet analysis,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), pp. 817–823.

Behrendt, F.

V. Sick, A. Arnold, E. Dießel, T. Dreier, W. Ketterle, B. Lange, J. Wolfrum, K. U. Thiele, F. Behrendt, J. Warnatz, “Two-dimensional laser diagnostics and modeling of counterflow diffusion flames,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), pp. 495–501.

Beretta, G. P.

G. P. Beretta, M. Rashidi, J. C. Keck, “Turbulent flame propagation and combustion in spark ignition engines,” Combust. Flame 52, 217–245 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Beushausen, V.

G. Grünefeld, A. Brockhincke, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, “Laser-based multiparameter measurements in a jet engine burner,” AIAA J. 35, 500–508 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Knapp, A. Luczak, H. Schlüter, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Andresen, “Crank-angle-resolved laser-induced fluorescence imaging of NO in a spark ignition engine at 248 nm and correlations to flame front propagation and pressure release,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4009–4017 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, “Interference-free uv-laser-induced Raman and Rayleigh measurements in hydrocarbon combustion using polarization properties,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 473–478 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Knapp, G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Andresen, A. Luczak, S. Eisenberg, “Laserspectroskopische Diagnostik im Brennraum eines Ottomotors und an der Flamme eines Ölheizungsbrenners,” VDI Ber. (Ver. Dtsch. Ing.) 1193, 325–332 (1995).

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, “Planar air density measurements near model surfaces by Rayleigh/Raman scattering,” AIAA J. 32, 1457–1463 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, “Spatially resolved Raman scattering for multi-species and temperature analyses in technically applied combustion systems: spray flame and four-cylinder in-line engine,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 333–342 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Wolff, H. Schlüter, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, “Quantitative determination of fuel air mixture distributions in an internal combustion engine using PLIF of acetone,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 97, 1738–1741 (1993); D. Wolff, “Quantitative laserdiagnostische Untersuchung der Gemischaufbereitung in technischen Verbrennungssystemen,” Ph.D. dissertation (Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany, 1995).

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, “A major origin of cyclic energy conversion variations in SI engines: cycle-by-cycle variations of the equivalence ratio and residual gas of the initial charge,” in 1994 SAE Congress and Exposition, paper 941880 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1994); G. Grünefeld, “Laser diagnostics applied to practical combustion and flow systems,” Ph.D. dissertation (Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany, 1994).

A. Luczak, S. Eisenberg, H. Schlüter, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, “3-D density and temperature-measurements in an oil-spray flame using UV-Raman-scattering,” in Air Pollution and Visibility Measurements, C. Werner, P. Fabian, V. Klein, M. Tacke, K. Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE2506, 121–131 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Knapp, A. Luczak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Mantz, P. Andresen, “Polarization separated spatially resolved single laser shot multispecies analysis in the combustion chamber of a realistic SI engine with a tunable KrF excimer laser,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 2589–2596.
[CrossRef]

A. Luczak, V. Beushausen, S. Eisenberg, M. Knapp, H. Schlüter, P. Andresen, M. Malobabic, A. Schmidt, “New nonintrusive laser diagnostic tools for design and optimization of technically applied combustion systems,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 116, 1–6; Combust. Sci. Technol. 117, 541 (1996).

M. Knapp, L. Hüwel, G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Andresen, “Spontaneous vibrational Raman and O2 laser-induced predissociative fluorescence measurements with a tunable ArF excimer laser for stoichiometry and temperature analysis in the combustion chamber of an SI engine,” Appl. Opt.

M. Knapp, A. Luczak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Andresen, “Combinative in-cylinder measurements of equivalence ratio, temperature, residual gas content, NO and OH formation, and IMEP in single combustion cycles of a 4-cylinder SI-engine,” in Autotech ’95, (Institution of Mechanical Engineers, London, 1995), paper C498/15/035.

Bischel, W. K.

D. C. Robie, J. D. Buck, W. K. Bischel, “Bandwidth and tuning range of an ArF laser measured by a 1 + 1 resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization of NO,” Appl. Opt. 29, 3961–3965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. K. Bischel, G. Black, “Dependence of Raman scattering cross section from 200–600 nm,” in Excimer Lasers—1983, C. K. Rhodes, H. Egger, H. Pummer, eds., Vol. 100 of AIP Conference Proceedings Series (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1983), pp. 181–187.
[CrossRef]

Black, G.

W. K. Bischel, G. Black, “Dependence of Raman scattering cross section from 200–600 nm,” in Excimer Lasers—1983, C. K. Rhodes, H. Egger, H. Pummer, eds., Vol. 100 of AIP Conference Proceedings Series (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1983), pp. 181–187.
[CrossRef]

Boedecker, L. R.

L. R. Boedecker, “Velocity measurements by H2O photolysis and laser-induced fluorescence of OH,” Opt. Lett. 14, 473–475 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Shirley, L. R. Boedecker, “Non-intrusive Space Shuttle main engine nozzle exit diagnostics,” presented at the AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Twenty-Fourth Joint Propulsion Conference, Boston, 11–13 July 1988, paper AIAA-88-3038.

Boogaarts, M.

M. Versluis, M. Boogaarts, R. Klein-Douwel, B. Thus, W. deJongh, A. Braam, J. J. ter Meulen, W. L. Meerts, G. Meijer, “Laser-induced fluorescence imaging in a 100 kW natural gas flame,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 164–170 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bormann, F.

F. Bormann, T. Nielsen, M. Burrows, P. Andresen, “Single pulse collision-insensitive picosecond-PLIF of OH A2Σ+ (v′ = 2) in atmospheric pressure flames,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 601–607 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Burrows, F. Bormann, P. Andresen, “Tunable sub-nanosecond KrF-Raman laser in the ultraviolet,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 451–460 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bornscheuer, W.

A. Koch, A. Chryssostomou, P. Andresen, W. Bornscheuer, “Multi-species detection in spray flames with tunable excimer lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 165–176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bouché, T.

A. Arnold, B. Lange, T. Bouché, T. Heitzmann, G. Schiff, W. Ketterle, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, “Absolute temperature fields in flames by 2D-LIF of OH using excimer lasers and CARS spectroscopy,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 96, 1388–1393 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bowling, J. M.

Braam, A.

M. Versluis, M. Boogaarts, R. Klein-Douwel, B. Thus, W. deJongh, A. Braam, J. J. ter Meulen, W. L. Meerts, G. Meijer, “Laser-induced fluorescence imaging in a 100 kW natural gas flame,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 164–170 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, L. P.

J. Goldhar, J. Dickie, L. P. Bradley, L. D. Pleasance, “Injection locking of a xenon fluoride laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 677–679 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Braumer, A.

A. Arnold, A. Braumer, A. Buschmann, M. Decker, F. Dinkelacker, T. Heitzmann, A. Orth, M. Schäfer, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, “2D diagnostics in industrial devices,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 97, 1650–1661 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bräumer, A.

A. Bräumer, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, V. Drewes, M. Zahn, R. Maly, “Quantitative two-dimensional measurements of nitric oxide and temperature distributions in a transparent square piston engine,” in Diagnostics in Diesel and SI Engines (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1995), pp. 119–127.

Bray, K. N. C.

H. Becker, P. B. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. S. Cant, K. N. C. Bray, R. Maly, W. Pfister, G. Stahl, J. Warnatz, “Investigation of extinction of unsteady flames in turbulent combustion by 2-D LIF analysis of OH radicals and flamelet analysis,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), pp. 817–823.

Brehm, N.

R. Hönig, G. Kappler, P. Andresen, N. Brehm, “Multispecies detection in a liquid fueled model combustor using tunable excimer lasers,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 102, 1–6 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brinkmann, U.

B. Rückle, P. Lokai, U. Brinkmann, D. Basting, W. Mückenheim, “Tuning ranges of an injection locked excimer laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 19, 153–157 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Brockhincke, A.

G. Grünefeld, A. Brockhincke, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, “Laser-based multiparameter measurements in a jet engine burner,” AIAA J. 35, 500–508 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brockhinke, A.

A. Brockhinke, P. Andresen, K. Kohse Höinghaus, “Quantitative one dimensional single pulse multispecies concentration and temperature measurements in the lift-off region of a turbulent H2-air diffusion flame,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 533–545 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Brockhinke, P. Andresen, K. Kohse Höinghaus, “Contribution to the analysis of temporal and spatial structures near the lift-off region of a turbulent hydrogen diffusion flame,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 153–159.
[CrossRef]

Brown, M.

Brown, M. S.

Brown, T. M.

S. P. Nandula, T. M. Brown, R. W. Pitz, P. A. DeBarber, “Single-pulse, simultaneous multipoint multispecies Raman measurements in turbulent nonpremixed jet flames,” Opt. Lett. 19, 414–416 (1994).
[PubMed]

S. P. Nandula, T. M. Brown, R. W. Pitz, “Measurements of scalar dissipation in the reaction zones of turbulent non-premixed H2-air flames,” Combust. Flame 99, 775–783 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Nandula, T. M. Brown, W. A. Cole, R. W. Pitz, “Simultaneous multi-species multi-point measurements in H2-air flames using a narrow-band KrF excimer laser,” presented at AIAA/SAE/ASME/ASEE Twenty-Eighth Joint Propulsion Conference, Nashville, Tenn., 6–8 July 1992, paper AIAA-92-3348.

R. W. Pitz, S. Nandula, T. M. Brown, “Comparison of reaction zones in turbulent lifted diffusion flames to stretched laminar flamelets,” presented at the AIAA/SAE/ASME/ASEE Twenty-Eighth Joint Propulsion Conference, Nashville, Tenn., 6–8 July 1992, paper AIAA-92-3349. Also see, R. W. Pitz, T. M. Brown, T. S. Cheng, S. Nandula, T. A. Wehrmeyer, O. Jarrett, G. B. Northern, J. Y. Chen, “Finite-rate chemistry effects in subsonic and supersonic combustion,” in Combustion in High-Speed Flames, J. Buckmaster et al., eds. (Kluwer, The Netherlands, 1994).

Brugman, Th. M.

Th. M. Brugman, R. Klein-Douwel, G. Huigen, E. van Walwijk, J. J. ter Meulen, “Laser-induced-fluorescence imaging of NO in an n-heptane- and diesel-fuel-driven diesel engine,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 405–410 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. G. M. Stoffels, Th. M. Brugman, C. M. I. Spaanjaars, N. Dam, W. L. Meerts, J. J. ter Meulen, “In-cylinder measurements of NO in a running Diesel engine by means of LIF diagnostics,” presented at the Fourth International Symposium on Special Topics in Chemical Propulsion, Stockholm, 27–31 May 1996.

Brzozowski, J.

J. Brzozowski, P. Erman, M. Lyyra, “Precision estimates of the predissociation rates of the OH A2Σ state (v ≤ 2),” Phys. Scr. 17, 507–511 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Buck, J. D.

Burris, J.

Burrows, M.

F. Bormann, T. Nielsen, M. Burrows, P. Andresen, “Single pulse collision-insensitive picosecond-PLIF of OH A2Σ+ (v′ = 2) in atmospheric pressure flames,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 601–607 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, M. D.

M. D. Burrows, F. Bormann, P. Andresen, “Tunable sub-nanosecond KrF-Raman laser in the ultraviolet,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 451–460 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Buschmann, A.

A. Arnold, A. Braumer, A. Buschmann, M. Decker, F. Dinkelacker, T. Heitzmann, A. Orth, M. Schäfer, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, “2D diagnostics in industrial devices,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 97, 1650–1661 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Calvert, J. G.

J. G. Calvert, J. B. Heywood, R. F. Sawyer, J. H. Seinfeld, “Achieving acceptable air quality: some reflections on controlling vehicle emissions,” Science 261, 37–45 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cant, R. S.

H. Becker, P. B. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. S. Cant, K. N. C. Bray, R. Maly, W. Pfister, G. Stahl, J. Warnatz, “Investigation of extinction of unsteady flames in turbulent combustion by 2-D LIF analysis of OH radicals and flamelet analysis,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), pp. 817–823.

Chandler, D. W.

M. Versluis, G. Meijer, D. W. Chandler, “Degenerate four wave mixing with a tunable excimer laser,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3289–3295 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Vershuis, G. Meijer, D. W. Chandler, “Degenerate four wave mixing with a tunable excimer laser to detect combustion gases,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 192, 1–3 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, T. C.

M. M. Tacke, T. C. Cheng, E. P. Hassel, J. Janicka, “Study of swirling recirculating hydrogen diffusion flame using UV-Raman spectroscopy,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 169–175.
[CrossRef]

Cheng, T. S.

T. S. Cheng, J. A. Wehrmeyer, R. W. Pitz, O. Jarrett, G. B. Northam, “Raman measurement of mixing and finite-rate chemistry in a supersonic hydrogen/air diffusion flame,” Combust. Flame 99, 157 (1994). Originally presented as “Finite-rate chemistry effects in a Mach 2 reacting flow,” presented at the AIAA/SAE/ASME/ASEE Twenty-Seventh Joint Propulsion Conference, Sacramento, Calif., 24–26 June 1991, paper AIAA-91-2320.
[CrossRef]

R. W. Pitz, T. S. Cheng, J. A. Wehrmeyer, C. F. Hess, “Two-photon predissociative fluorescence of H2O by a KrF laser for concentration and temperature measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 94–100 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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Heard, D. E.

D. E. Heard, D. R. Crosley, J. B. Jeffries, “Rotationally dependent predissociation in the v′ = 3 level of OH,” J. Chem. Phys. 96, 4366–4371 (1992).
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V. Sick, M. Decker, J. Heinze, W. Stricker, “Collisional processes in the O2B3∑u- state,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 249, 335–340 (1996).
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Hemberger, R.

Hentschel, W.

M. Knapp, A. Luczak, H. Schlüter, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Andresen, “Crank-angle-resolved laser-induced fluorescence imaging of NO in a spark ignition engine at 248 nm and correlations to flame front propagation and pressure release,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4009–4017 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Knapp, G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Andresen, A. Luczak, S. Eisenberg, “Laserspectroskopische Diagnostik im Brennraum eines Ottomotors und an der Flamme eines Ölheizungsbrenners,” VDI Ber. (Ver. Dtsch. Ing.) 1193, 325–332 (1995).

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, “Spatially resolved Raman scattering for multi-species and temperature analyses in technically applied combustion systems: spray flame and four-cylinder in-line engine,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 333–342 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Koch, H. Voges, P. Andresen, H. Schlüter, D. Wolff, W. Hentschel, W. Oppermann, E. Rothe, “Planar imaging of a flame and of internal combustion in an automobile engine using UV Rayleigh and fluorescence light,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 177–184 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Andresen, H. Schlüter, D. Wolff, H. Voges, A. Koch, W. Hentschel, W. Oppermann, E. Rothe, “Identification and imaging of OH, (v″ = 0) and O2 (v″ = 6 or 7) in an automobile spark-ignition engine using a tunable KrF excimer laser,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7684–7689 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Andresen, G. Meijer, H. Schlüter, H. Voges, A. Koch, W. Hentschel, W. Oppermann, E. W. Rothe, “Fluorescence imaging inside an internal combustion engine using tunable excimer lasers,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2392–2404 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Arnold, H. Becker, R. Hemberger, W. Hentschel, W. Ketterle, M. Kollner, W. Meienburg, P. Monkhouse, H. Neckel, M. Schafer, K. P. Schindler, V. Sick, R. Suntz, J. Wolfrum, “Laser in situ monitoring of combustion processes,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4860–4872, (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Arnold, H. Becker, R. Hemberger, W. Hentschel, K. Kollner, W. Meienburg, P. Monkhouse, H. Neckel, M. Schafer, K. P. Schindler, V. Sick, R. Suntz, J. Wolfrum, “Laser in situ monitoring of combustion processes,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4860–4872 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Knapp, A. Luczak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Andresen, “Combinative in-cylinder measurements of equivalence ratio, temperature, residual gas content, NO and OH formation, and IMEP in single combustion cycles of a 4-cylinder SI-engine,” in Autotech ’95, (Institution of Mechanical Engineers, London, 1995), paper C498/15/035.

M. Knapp, L. Hüwel, G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Andresen, “Spontaneous vibrational Raman and O2 laser-induced predissociative fluorescence measurements with a tunable ArF excimer laser for stoichiometry and temperature analysis in the combustion chamber of an SI engine,” Appl. Opt.

A. Roller, A. Arnold, M. Decker, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, W. Hentschel, K.-P. Schindler, “Non-intrusive temperature measurement during the compression phase of a DI diesel engine,” in Diagnostics in Diesel and SI Engines (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1995), pp. 113–118.

A. Arnold, F. Dinkelacker, T. Heitzmann, P. Monkhouse, M. Schäfer, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, W. Hentschel, K.-P. Schindler, “DI diesel engine combustion visualized by combined laser techniques in flames,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), pp. 1605–1612.
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G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, “A major origin of cyclic energy conversion variations in SI engines: cycle-by-cycle variations of the equivalence ratio and residual gas of the initial charge,” in 1994 SAE Congress and Exposition, paper 941880 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1994); G. Grünefeld, “Laser diagnostics applied to practical combustion and flow systems,” Ph.D. dissertation (Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany, 1994).

M. Knapp, A. Luczak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Mantz, P. Andresen, “Polarization separated spatially resolved single laser shot multispecies analysis in the combustion chamber of a realistic SI engine with a tunable KrF excimer laser,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 2589–2596.
[CrossRef]

Hess, C. F.

R. W. Pitz, T. S. Cheng, J. A. Wehrmeyer, C. F. Hess, “Two-photon predissociative fluorescence of H2O by a KrF laser for concentration and temperature measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 94–100 (1993).
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Heywood, J. B.

J. G. Calvert, J. B. Heywood, R. F. Sawyer, J. H. Seinfeld, “Achieving acceptable air quality: some reflections on controlling vehicle emissions,” Science 261, 37–45 (1993).
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Hitchcock, L. M.

G. S. Kim, L. M. Hitchcock, F. Siegler, E. W. Rothe, C. C. Tung, G. P. Reck, “Planar imaging of Rayleigh and fluorescence light from H2–air combustion inside a bomb using tunable 193 nm light,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 139–145 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Hitchcock, G. S. Kim, E. W. Rothe, G. P. Reck, “Stimulated Raman pumping to H2 (v″ = 1, J″ = 1) and resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization from it using a single laser,” Appl. Phys. B 52, 27–31 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kim, L. M. Hitchcock, E. W. Rothe, G. P. Reck, “Identification and imaging of hot O2 (v″ = 2, 3, or 4) in hydrogen flames using 193 nm and 210 nm-range light,” Appl. Phys. B 53, 180–186 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Hitchcock, G. S. Kim, G. P. Reck, E. W. Rothe, “Absorption of laser light in air in the 193 nm range: analysis of laser locking,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 44, 373–378 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G.-S. Kim, E. W. Rothe, L. M. Hitchcock, Y. Gu, G. P. Reck, “Rayleigh and predissociative fluorescence imaging of total and quantum-state specific densities from a combustion bomb using tunable excimer light,” in Laser Applications in Combustion and Combustion Diagnostics, L. C. Liou, ed., Proc. SPIE1862, 154–157 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Hitchcock, G. P. Reck, E. W. Rothe, C. C. Tung, “Diagnostics in H2 discharges using a tunable 193 nm laser,” in Microwave and Particle Beam Sources and Directed Energy Concepts, H. E. Brandt, ed., Proc. SPIE1061, 621–624 (1989).
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E. W. Rothe, H. An, L. M. Hitchcock, Y. Gu, Gene P. Reck, “Rayleigh and predissociative fluorescence imaging of densities from an internal combustion engine using a tunable KrF laser,” in Laser Applications in Combustion and Combustion Diagnostics II, R. J. Locke, ed., Proc. SPIE2122, 79–82 (1994).
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Hollo, S. D.

T. M. Quagliaroli, G. Laufer, S. D. Hollo, R. H. Krauss, R. B. Whitehurst, J. C. McDaniel, “KrF laser-induced OH fluorescence imaging in a supersonic combustion tunnel,” J. Propul. Power 10, 377–382 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hönig, R.

R. Hönig, G. Kappler, P. Andresen, N. Brehm, “Multispecies detection in a liquid fueled model combustor using tunable excimer lasers,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 102, 1–6 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Howard, P. J.

Huigen, G.

Th. M. Brugman, R. Klein-Douwel, G. Huigen, E. van Walwijk, J. J. ter Meulen, “Laser-induced-fluorescence imaging of NO in an n-heptane- and diesel-fuel-driven diesel engine,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 405–410 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Huo, W. M.

Hüwel, L.

W. Reckers, L. Hüwel, G. Grünefeld, P. Andresen, “Spatially resolved multispecies and temperature analyses in hydrogen flames,” Appl. Opt. 32, 907–918 (1993).
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A. M. Wodtke, L. Hüwel, H. Schlüter, P. Andresen, “A simple way to improve an argon fluoride laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 801–802 (1989).
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A. M. Wodtke, L. Hüwel, H. Schlüter, G. Meijer, P. Andresen, H. Voges, “High-sensitivity detection of NO in a flame using a tunable ArF laser,” Opt. Lett. 13, 910–912 (1988).
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A. M. Wodtke, L. Hüwel, H. Schlüter, H. Voges, G. Meijer, P. Andresen, “Predissociation of O2 in the B state,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 1929–1935 (1988).
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G. Meijer, A. M. Wodtke, H. Voges, L. Hüwel, H. Schlüter, P. Andresen, “State-selective detection of CO using a tunable excimer laser,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 2588–2589 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Knapp, L. Hüwel, G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Andresen, “Spontaneous vibrational Raman and O2 laser-induced predissociative fluorescence measurements with a tunable ArF excimer laser for stoichiometry and temperature analysis in the combustion chamber of an SI engine,” Appl. Opt.

Inaba, H.

T. Kobayashi, M. Konishi, M. Ohtaka, S. Taki, M. Ueda, K. Kagawa, H. Inaba, “Application of UV and VUV excimer lasers in combustion measurements using enhanced Raman scattering,” in Laser Diagnostics and Modeling Combustion, K. Iinuma, T. Asanuma, T. Ohsawa, J. Doi, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987), pp. 133–140.
[CrossRef]

Janicka, J.

M. M. Tacke, T. C. Cheng, E. P. Hassel, J. Janicka, “Study of swirling recirculating hydrogen diffusion flame using UV-Raman spectroscopy,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 169–175.
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F. Lipp, J. Hartig, E. P. Hassel, J. Janicka, “Comparison of UV Raman scattering measurements in a turbulent diffusion flame with Reynolds-stress model predictions,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), pp. 287–294.
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E. P. Hassel, F. Lipp, J. Janicka, “Measurement of temperature and concentration in turbulent flames by Raman spectroscopy,” in Combustion and Reaction Kinetics, Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Annual Conference at the Fraunhofer Institut für Chemische Technologie (1991), pp. 25.1–25.15.

J. W. Hartick, M. Tacke, G. Früchtel, E. P. Hassel, J. Janicka, “Interaction of turbulence and radiation in confined diffusion flames,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 75–82.
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Jarrett, O.

T. S. Cheng, J. A. Wehrmeyer, R. W. Pitz, O. Jarrett, G. B. Northam, “Raman measurement of mixing and finite-rate chemistry in a supersonic hydrogen/air diffusion flame,” Combust. Flame 99, 157 (1994). Originally presented as “Finite-rate chemistry effects in a Mach 2 reacting flow,” presented at the AIAA/SAE/ASME/ASEE Twenty-Seventh Joint Propulsion Conference, Sacramento, Calif., 24–26 June 1991, paper AIAA-91-2320.
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Jeffreys, J. B.

Jeffries, J. B.

D. E. Heard, D. R. Crosley, J. B. Jeffries, “Rotationally dependent predissociation in the v′ = 3 level of OH,” J. Chem. Phys. 96, 4366–4371 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kagawa, K.

T. Kobayashi, M. Konishi, M. Ohtaka, S. Taki, M. Ueda, K. Kagawa, H. Inaba, “Application of UV and VUV excimer lasers in combustion measurements using enhanced Raman scattering,” in Laser Diagnostics and Modeling Combustion, K. Iinuma, T. Asanuma, T. Ohsawa, J. Doi, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987), pp. 133–140.
[CrossRef]

Kajiwara, T.

Kampmann, S.

S. Kampmann, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and two-dimensional laser Rayleigh thermometry in a contained technical swirl combustor,” Appl.Opt. 34, 2780–2786 (1995).

S. Kampmann, A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and OH concentration fields in turbulent combustion using one single laser source and one single CCD camera,” in Developments in Laser Techniques and Applications to Fluid Mechanics, R. J. Adrian, D. F. G. Durao, F. Durst, M. V. Heitor, M. Maeda, J. H. Whitelaw, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Kräamer, S. Kampmann, K.-U. Münch, A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous measurements of temperature and concentration fields inside technical combustion systems,” in Air Pollution and Visibility Measurements, C. Werner, P. Fabian, V. Klein, M. Tacke, K. Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE2506, 85–93 (1995).

Kappler, G.

R. Hönig, G. Kappler, P. Andresen, N. Brehm, “Multispecies detection in a liquid fueled model combustor using tunable excimer lasers,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 102, 1–6 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Keck, J. C.

G. P. Beretta, M. Rashidi, J. C. Keck, “Turbulent flame propagation and combustion in spark ignition engines,” Combust. Flame 52, 217–245 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ketterle, W.

W. Ketterle, M. Schäfer, A. Arnold, J. Wolfrum, “2D single-shot imaging of OH radicals using tunable excimer lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 109–112 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Arnold, B. Lange, T. Bouché, T. Heitzmann, G. Schiff, W. Ketterle, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, “Absolute temperature fields in flames by 2D-LIF of OH using excimer lasers and CARS spectroscopy,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 96, 1388–1393 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Schäfer, W. Ketterle, J. Wolfrum, “Saturated 2D-LIF of OH and 2D determination of effective collisional lifetimes in atmospheric pressure flames,” Appl. Phys. B 52, 341–346 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. Ketterle, A. Arnold, M. Schäfer, “Two-wavelength operation of a tunable KrF excimer laser—a promising technique for combustion diagnostics,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 91–93 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Arnold, W. Ketterle, H. Becker, J. Wolfrum, “Simultaneous single-shot imaging of OH and O2 using a two-wavelength laser,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 99–102 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Arnold, H. Becker, R. Hemberger, W. Hentschel, W. Ketterle, M. Kollner, W. Meienburg, P. Monkhouse, H. Neckel, M. Schafer, K. P. Schindler, V. Sick, R. Suntz, J. Wolfrum, “Laser in situ monitoring of combustion processes,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4860–4872, (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Sick, A. Arnold, E. Dießel, T. Dreier, W. Ketterle, B. Lange, J. Wolfrum, K. U. Thiele, F. Behrendt, J. Warnatz, “Two-dimensional laser diagnostics and modeling of counterflow diffusion flames,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), pp. 495–501.

Kim, G. S.

G. S. Kim, L. M. Hitchcock, F. Siegler, E. W. Rothe, C. C. Tung, G. P. Reck, “Planar imaging of Rayleigh and fluorescence light from H2–air combustion inside a bomb using tunable 193 nm light,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 139–145 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Hitchcock, G. S. Kim, E. W. Rothe, G. P. Reck, “Stimulated Raman pumping to H2 (v″ = 1, J″ = 1) and resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization from it using a single laser,” Appl. Phys. B 52, 27–31 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kim, L. M. Hitchcock, E. W. Rothe, G. P. Reck, “Identification and imaging of hot O2 (v″ = 2, 3, or 4) in hydrogen flames using 193 nm and 210 nm-range light,” Appl. Phys. B 53, 180–186 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Hitchcock, G. S. Kim, G. P. Reck, E. W. Rothe, “Absorption of laser light in air in the 193 nm range: analysis of laser locking,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 44, 373–378 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G.-S.

G.-S. Kim, E. W. Rothe, L. M. Hitchcock, Y. Gu, G. P. Reck, “Rayleigh and predissociative fluorescence imaging of total and quantum-state specific densities from a combustion bomb using tunable excimer light,” in Laser Applications in Combustion and Combustion Diagnostics, L. C. Liou, ed., Proc. SPIE1862, 154–157 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Klein-Douwel, R.

Th. M. Brugman, R. Klein-Douwel, G. Huigen, E. van Walwijk, J. J. ter Meulen, “Laser-induced-fluorescence imaging of NO in an n-heptane- and diesel-fuel-driven diesel engine,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 405–410 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Versluis, M. Boogaarts, R. Klein-Douwel, B. Thus, W. deJongh, A. Braam, J. J. ter Meulen, W. L. Meerts, G. Meijer, “Laser-induced fluorescence imaging in a 100 kW natural gas flame,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 164–170 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Knapp, M.

M. Knapp, A. Luczak, H. Schlüter, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Andresen, “Crank-angle-resolved laser-induced fluorescence imaging of NO in a spark ignition engine at 248 nm and correlations to flame front propagation and pressure release,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4009–4017 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Knapp, G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Andresen, A. Luczak, S. Eisenberg, “Laserspectroskopische Diagnostik im Brennraum eines Ottomotors und an der Flamme eines Ölheizungsbrenners,” VDI Ber. (Ver. Dtsch. Ing.) 1193, 325–332 (1995).

M. Knapp, A. Luczak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Mantz, P. Andresen, “Polarization separated spatially resolved single laser shot multispecies analysis in the combustion chamber of a realistic SI engine with a tunable KrF excimer laser,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 2589–2596.
[CrossRef]

M. Knapp, A. Luczak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Andresen, “Combinative in-cylinder measurements of equivalence ratio, temperature, residual gas content, NO and OH formation, and IMEP in single combustion cycles of a 4-cylinder SI-engine,” in Autotech ’95, (Institution of Mechanical Engineers, London, 1995), paper C498/15/035.

M. Knapp, L. Hüwel, G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Andresen, “Spontaneous vibrational Raman and O2 laser-induced predissociative fluorescence measurements with a tunable ArF excimer laser for stoichiometry and temperature analysis in the combustion chamber of an SI engine,” Appl. Opt.

A. Luczak, V. Beushausen, S. Eisenberg, M. Knapp, H. Schlüter, P. Andresen, M. Malobabic, A. Schmidt, “New nonintrusive laser diagnostic tools for design and optimization of technically applied combustion systems,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 116, 1–6; Combust. Sci. Technol. 117, 541 (1996).

Kobayashi, T.

T. Kobayashi, M. Konishi, M. Ohtaka, S. Taki, M. Ueda, K. Kagawa, H. Inaba, “Application of UV and VUV excimer lasers in combustion measurements using enhanced Raman scattering,” in Laser Diagnostics and Modeling Combustion, K. Iinuma, T. Asanuma, T. Ohsawa, J. Doi, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987), pp. 133–140.
[CrossRef]

Koch, A.

A. Koch, A. Chryssostomou, P. Andresen, W. Bornscheuer, “Multi-species detection in spray flames with tunable excimer lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 165–176 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Koch, H. Voges, P. Andresen, H. Schlüter, D. Wolff, W. Hentschel, W. Oppermann, E. Rothe, “Planar imaging of a flame and of internal combustion in an automobile engine using UV Rayleigh and fluorescence light,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 177–184 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Andresen, H. Schlüter, D. Wolff, H. Voges, A. Koch, W. Hentschel, W. Oppermann, E. Rothe, “Identification and imaging of OH, (v″ = 0) and O2 (v″ = 6 or 7) in an automobile spark-ignition engine using a tunable KrF excimer laser,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7684–7689 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Andresen, G. Meijer, H. Schlüter, H. Voges, A. Koch, W. Hentschel, W. Oppermann, E. W. Rothe, “Fluorescence imaging inside an internal combustion engine using tunable excimer lasers,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2392–2404 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kohse Höinghaus, K.

A. Brockhinke, P. Andresen, K. Kohse Höinghaus, “Quantitative one dimensional single pulse multispecies concentration and temperature measurements in the lift-off region of a turbulent H2-air diffusion flame,” Appl. Phys. B 61, 533–545 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Brockhinke, P. Andresen, K. Kohse Höinghaus, “Contribution to the analysis of temporal and spatial structures near the lift-off region of a turbulent hydrogen diffusion flame,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 153–159.
[CrossRef]

Kollner, K.

Kollner, M.

Köllner, M.

M. Köllner, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, “Time resolved LIF of hydroxyl (A2Σ+, v″ = 1 and v″ = 0) in atmospheric-pressure flames using picosecond excitation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 168, 355–360 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Konishi, M.

T. Kobayashi, M. Konishi, M. Ohtaka, S. Taki, M. Ueda, K. Kagawa, H. Inaba, “Application of UV and VUV excimer lasers in combustion measurements using enhanced Raman scattering,” in Laser Diagnostics and Modeling Combustion, K. Iinuma, T. Asanuma, T. Ohsawa, J. Doi, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987), pp. 133–140.
[CrossRef]

Kräamer, H.

H. Kräamer, S. Kampmann, K.-U. Münch, A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous measurements of temperature and concentration fields inside technical combustion systems,” in Air Pollution and Visibility Measurements, C. Werner, P. Fabian, V. Klein, M. Tacke, K. Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE2506, 85–93 (1995).

Krauss, R. H.

G. Laufer, T. M. Quagliaroli, R. H. Krauss, R. B. Whitehurst, J. C. McDaniel, J. H. Grinstead, “Planar OH density and apparent temperature measurements in a supersonic combusting flow,” AIAA J. 34, 463–469 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Grinstead, G. Laufer, R. H. Krauss, J. C. McDaniel, “Calibration source for OH laser-induced fluorescence-density measurements with thermally dissociated H2O in atmospheric air,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1115–1119 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Quagliaroli, G. Laufer, S. D. Hollo, R. H. Krauss, R. B. Whitehurst, J. C. McDaniel, “KrF laser-induced OH fluorescence imaging in a supersonic combustion tunnel,” J. Propul. Power 10, 377–382 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Quagliaroli, G. Laufer, R. H. Krauss, J. C. McDaniel, “Laser selection criteria for OH fluorescence measurements in supersonic combustion test facilities,” AIAA J. 31, 520–527 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Quagliaroli, G. Laufer, R. H. Krauss, J. C. McDaniel, “Planar imaging of OH density distributions in a supersonic combustion tunnel,” presented at the Thirty-First Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 11–14 January 1993, paper AIAA-93-0045.

J. H. Grinstead, G. Laufer, R. H. Krauss, T. M. Quagliarolli, G. B. Northam, “Design and calibration of a planar imaging system for OH and O2 measurements in high-temperature large scale facilities” presented at the Nineteenth AIAA Advanced Measurement and Ground Testing Technology Conference, Los Angeles, 17–20 June 1996, paper AIAA-96-2220.

Kumar, V.

Kychakoff, G.

Lange, B.

A. Arnold, B. Lange, T. Bouché, T. Heitzmann, G. Schiff, W. Ketterle, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, “Absolute temperature fields in flames by 2D-LIF of OH using excimer lasers and CARS spectroscopy,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 96, 1388–1393 (1992).
[CrossRef]

V. Sick, A. Arnold, E. Dießel, T. Dreier, W. Ketterle, B. Lange, J. Wolfrum, K. U. Thiele, F. Behrendt, J. Warnatz, “Two-dimensional laser diagnostics and modeling of counterflow diffusion flames,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), pp. 495–501.

Laufer, G.

J. H. Grinstead, T. M. Quagliaroli, G. Laufer, J. C. McDaniel, “Single-pulse temperature measurement in turbulent flame using laser-induced O2 fluorescence,” AIAA J. 34, 624–625 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Laufer, T. M. Quagliaroli, R. H. Krauss, R. B. Whitehurst, J. C. McDaniel, J. H. Grinstead, “Planar OH density and apparent temperature measurements in a supersonic combusting flow,” AIAA J. 34, 463–469 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Grinstead, G. Laufer, J. C. McDaniel, “Single-pulse, two-line temperature measurement techniques using KrF laser-induced O2 fluorescence,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5501–5512 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Quagliaroli, G. Laufer, J. C. McDaniel, “Calibration of OH laser-induced fluorescence temperature measurements using thermally dissociated H2O,” Appl. Phys. B 59, 635–638 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Quagliaroli, G. Laufer, S. D. Hollo, R. H. Krauss, R. B. Whitehurst, J. C. McDaniel, “KrF laser-induced OH fluorescence imaging in a supersonic combustion tunnel,” J. Propul. Power 10, 377–382 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Grinstead, G. Laufer, R. H. Krauss, J. C. McDaniel, “Calibration source for OH laser-induced fluorescence-density measurements with thermally dissociated H2O in atmospheric air,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1115–1119 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Grinstead, G. Laufer, J. C. McDaniel, “Rotational temperature measurements in high-temperature air using KrF laser-induced O2 fluorescence,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 393–396 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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J. H. Grinstead, G. Laufer, R. H. Krauss, T. M. Quagliarolli, G. B. Northam, “Design and calibration of a planar imaging system for OH and O2 measurements in high-temperature large scale facilities” presented at the Nineteenth AIAA Advanced Measurement and Ground Testing Technology Conference, Los Angeles, 17–20 June 1996, paper AIAA-96-2220.

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J. N. Forkey, N. D. Finkelstein, W. R. Lempert, R. B. Miles, “Demonstration and characterization of filtered Rayleigh scattering for planar velocity measurements,” AIAA J. 34, 442–448 (1996).
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A. Luczak, S. Eisenberg, H. Schlüter, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, “3-D density and temperature-measurements in an oil-spray flame using UV-Raman-scattering,” in Air Pollution and Visibility Measurements, C. Werner, P. Fabian, V. Klein, M. Tacke, K. Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE2506, 121–131 (1995).
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H. Becker, A. Arnold, R. Suntz, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. Maly, W. Pfister, “Investigation of flame-structure and burning behavior in an IC engine simulator by 2-D-LIF of OH radicals,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 473–478 (1990).
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A. Arnold, H. Becker, R. Suntz, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. Maly, W. Pfister, “Flame front imaging in an internal combustion engine simulator by laser-induced fluorescence of acetaldehyde,” Opt. Lett. 15, 831–833 (1990).
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H. Becker, P. B. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. S. Cant, K. N. C. Bray, R. Maly, W. Pfister, G. Stahl, J. Warnatz, “Investigation of extinction of unsteady flames in turbulent combustion by 2-D LIF analysis of OH radicals and flamelet analysis,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), pp. 817–823.

A. Bräumer, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, V. Drewes, M. Zahn, R. Maly, “Quantitative two-dimensional measurements of nitric oxide and temperature distributions in a transparent square piston engine,” in Diagnostics in Diesel and SI Engines (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1995), pp. 119–127.

Maly, R. R.

A. Orth, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, R. R. Maly, M. Zahn, “Simultaneous 2D single-shot imaging of OH concentrations and temperature fields in an SI engine simulator,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 143–150.
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Mantz, P.

M. Knapp, A. Luczak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Mantz, P. Andresen, “Polarization separated spatially resolved single laser shot multispecies analysis in the combustion chamber of a realistic SI engine with a tunable KrF excimer laser,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 2589–2596.
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Markovitz, E. C.

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G. Laufer, T. M. Quagliaroli, R. H. Krauss, R. B. Whitehurst, J. C. McDaniel, J. H. Grinstead, “Planar OH density and apparent temperature measurements in a supersonic combusting flow,” AIAA J. 34, 463–469 (1996).
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J. H. Grinstead, G. Laufer, J. C. McDaniel, “Single-pulse, two-line temperature measurement techniques using KrF laser-induced O2 fluorescence,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5501–5512 (1995).
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T. M. Quagliaroli, G. Laufer, R. H. Krauss, J. C. McDaniel, “Laser selection criteria for OH fluorescence measurements in supersonic combustion test facilities,” AIAA J. 31, 520–527 (1993).
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T. M. Quagliaroli, G. Laufer, R. H. Krauss, J. C. McDaniel, “Planar imaging of OH density distributions in a supersonic combustion tunnel,” presented at the Thirty-First Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 11–14 January 1993, paper AIAA-93-0045.

J. H. Grinstead, G. Laufer, J. C. McDaniel, “Measurements of KrF laser induced O2 fluorescence in high-temperature atmospheric air,” presented at the Thirty-First Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 11–14 January 1993, paper AIAA-93-0045.

McGee, T. J.

McKenzie, R. L.

McMillin, B. K.

B. K. McMillin, M. P. Lee, R. K. Hanson, “Planar laser-induced fluorescence of shock-tube flows with vibrational nonequilibrium,” AIAA J. 30, 436–443 (1992).
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P. Andresen, G. Meijer, H. Schlüter, H. Voges, A. Koch, W. Hentschel, W. Oppermann, E. W. Rothe, “Fluorescence imaging inside an internal combustion engine using tunable excimer lasers,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2392–2404 (1990).
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Miles, R.

Miles, R. B.

J. N. Forkey, N. D. Finkelstein, W. R. Lempert, R. B. Miles, “Demonstration and characterization of filtered Rayleigh scattering for planar velocity measurements,” AIAA J. 34, 442–448 (1996).
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R. B. Miles, D. Zhou, B. Zhang, W. R. Lempert, Z. S. She, “Fundamental turbulence measurements by relief flow tagging,” AIAA J. 31, 447–452 (1993).
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R. B. Miles, W. Lempert, “Two-dimensional measurement of density, velocity, and temperature in turbulent high-speed air flows by UV Rayleigh scattering,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 1–7 (1990).
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R. B. Miles, J. J. Connors, P. J. Howard, E. C. Markovitz, G. J. Roth, “Proposed single-pulse two-dimensional temperature and density measurements of oxygen and air,” Opt. Lett. 13, 195–197 (1988).
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Miyazaki, K.

Monkhouse, P.

A. Arnold, B. Lange, T. Bouché, T. Heitzmann, G. Schiff, W. Ketterle, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, “Absolute temperature fields in flames by 2D-LIF of OH using excimer lasers and CARS spectroscopy,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 96, 1388–1393 (1992).
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A. Arnold, H. Becker, R. Suntz, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. Maly, W. Pfister, “Flame front imaging in an internal combustion engine simulator by laser-induced fluorescence of acetaldehyde,” Opt. Lett. 15, 831–833 (1990).
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H. Becker, A. Arnold, R. Suntz, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. Maly, W. Pfister, “Investigation of flame-structure and burning behavior in an IC engine simulator by 2-D-LIF of OH radicals,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 473–478 (1990).
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A. Arnold, H. Becker, R. Hemberger, W. Hentschel, K. Kollner, W. Meienburg, P. Monkhouse, H. Neckel, M. Schafer, K. P. Schindler, V. Sick, R. Suntz, J. Wolfrum, “Laser in situ monitoring of combustion processes,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4860–4872 (1990).
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A. Arnold, H. Becker, R. Hemberger, W. Hentschel, W. Ketterle, M. Kollner, W. Meienburg, P. Monkhouse, H. Neckel, M. Schafer, K. P. Schindler, V. Sick, R. Suntz, J. Wolfrum, “Laser in situ monitoring of combustion processes,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4860–4872, (1990).
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R. Suntz, H. Becker, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, “Two-dimensional visualization of the flame front using laser induced fluorescence,” Appl. Phys. B 47, 287–293 (1988).
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R. Schwarzwald, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, “Picosecond fluorescence lifetime measurement of the hydroxyl radical in an atmospheric pressure flame,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 142, 15–18 (1987).
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H. Becker, P. B. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. S. Cant, K. N. C. Bray, R. Maly, W. Pfister, G. Stahl, J. Warnatz, “Investigation of extinction of unsteady flames in turbulent combustion by 2-D LIF analysis of OH radicals and flamelet analysis,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), pp. 817–823.

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W. Mückenheim, “Seven ways to combine two excimer lasers,” Laser Focus/Electrooptics 23(7), 56–67 (1987).

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Münch, K.-U.

H. Kräamer, S. Kampmann, K.-U. Münch, A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous measurements of temperature and concentration fields inside technical combustion systems,” in Air Pollution and Visibility Measurements, C. Werner, P. Fabian, V. Klein, M. Tacke, K. Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE2506, 85–93 (1995).

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R. W. Pitz, S. Nandula, T. M. Brown, “Comparison of reaction zones in turbulent lifted diffusion flames to stretched laminar flamelets,” presented at the AIAA/SAE/ASME/ASEE Twenty-Eighth Joint Propulsion Conference, Nashville, Tenn., 6–8 July 1992, paper AIAA-92-3349. Also see, R. W. Pitz, T. M. Brown, T. S. Cheng, S. Nandula, T. A. Wehrmeyer, O. Jarrett, G. B. Northern, J. Y. Chen, “Finite-rate chemistry effects in subsonic and supersonic combustion,” in Combustion in High-Speed Flames, J. Buckmaster et al., eds. (Kluwer, The Netherlands, 1994).

Nandula, S. P.

R. W. Pitz, M. Brown, S. P. Nandula, P. A. Skaggs, P. A. Debarber, M. S. Brown, J. Segall, “Unseeded velocity measurements by ozone tagging velocimetry,” Opt. Lett. 21, 755–757 (1996).
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S. P. Nandula, T. M. Brown, W. A. Cole, R. W. Pitz, “Simultaneous multi-species multi-point measurements in H2-air flames using a narrow-band KrF excimer laser,” presented at AIAA/SAE/ASME/ASEE Twenty-Eighth Joint Propulsion Conference, Nashville, Tenn., 6–8 July 1992, paper AIAA-92-3348.

Neckel, H.

Neij, H.

Nielsen, T.

F. Bormann, T. Nielsen, M. Burrows, P. Andresen, “Single pulse collision-insensitive picosecond-PLIF of OH A2Σ+ (v′ = 2) in atmospheric pressure flames,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 601–607 (1996).
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T. S. Cheng, J. A. Wehrmeyer, R. W. Pitz, O. Jarrett, G. B. Northam, “Raman measurement of mixing and finite-rate chemistry in a supersonic hydrogen/air diffusion flame,” Combust. Flame 99, 157 (1994). Originally presented as “Finite-rate chemistry effects in a Mach 2 reacting flow,” presented at the AIAA/SAE/ASME/ASEE Twenty-Seventh Joint Propulsion Conference, Sacramento, Calif., 24–26 June 1991, paper AIAA-91-2320.
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J. H. Grinstead, G. Laufer, R. H. Krauss, T. M. Quagliarolli, G. B. Northam, “Design and calibration of a planar imaging system for OH and O2 measurements in high-temperature large scale facilities” presented at the Nineteenth AIAA Advanced Measurement and Ground Testing Technology Conference, Los Angeles, 17–20 June 1996, paper AIAA-96-2220.

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A. Arnold, A. Braumer, A. Buschmann, M. Decker, F. Dinkelacker, T. Heitzmann, A. Orth, M. Schäfer, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, “2D diagnostics in industrial devices,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 97, 1650–1661 (1993).
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R. K. Hanson, J. M. Seitzman, P. H. Paul, “Planar laser-fluorescence imaging of combustion gases,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 441–454 (1990).
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Pfister, W.

A. Arnold, H. Becker, R. Suntz, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. Maly, W. Pfister, “Flame front imaging in an internal combustion engine simulator by laser-induced fluorescence of acetaldehyde,” Opt. Lett. 15, 831–833 (1990).
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H. Becker, A. Arnold, R. Suntz, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. Maly, W. Pfister, “Investigation of flame-structure and burning behavior in an IC engine simulator by 2-D-LIF of OH radicals,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 473–478 (1990).
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H. Becker, P. B. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. S. Cant, K. N. C. Bray, R. Maly, W. Pfister, G. Stahl, J. Warnatz, “Investigation of extinction of unsteady flames in turbulent combustion by 2-D LIF analysis of OH radicals and flamelet analysis,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), pp. 817–823.

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R. W. Pitz, M. Brown, S. P. Nandula, P. A. Skaggs, P. A. Debarber, M. S. Brown, J. Segall, “Unseeded velocity measurements by ozone tagging velocimetry,” Opt. Lett. 21, 755–757 (1996).
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S. P. Nandula, T. M. Brown, R. W. Pitz, “Measurements of scalar dissipation in the reaction zones of turbulent non-premixed H2-air flames,” Combust. Flame 99, 775–783 (1994).
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T. S. Cheng, J. A. Wehrmeyer, R. W. Pitz, O. Jarrett, G. B. Northam, “Raman measurement of mixing and finite-rate chemistry in a supersonic hydrogen/air diffusion flame,” Combust. Flame 99, 157 (1994). Originally presented as “Finite-rate chemistry effects in a Mach 2 reacting flow,” presented at the AIAA/SAE/ASME/ASEE Twenty-Seventh Joint Propulsion Conference, Sacramento, Calif., 24–26 June 1991, paper AIAA-91-2320.
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R. W. Pitz, T. S. Cheng, J. A. Wehrmeyer, C. F. Hess, “Two-photon predissociative fluorescence of H2O by a KrF laser for concentration and temperature measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 94–100 (1993).
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J. A. Wehrmeyer, T. S. Cheng, R. W. Pitz, “Raman scattering measurements in flames using a tunable KrF laser,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1495–1504 (1992).
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T. S. Cheng, J. A. Wehrmeyer, R. W. Pitz, “Simultaneous temparature and multispecies measurement in a lifted hydrogen diffusion flame,” Combust. Flame 91, 323–345 (1992). Originally presented at the Twenty-Ninth AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 7–10 January 1991, paper AIAA-91-0181.
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R. W. Pitz, J. A. Wehrmeyer, J. M. Bowling, T.-S. Cheng, “Single pulse vibrational Raman scattering by a broadband KrF excimer laser in a hydrogen-air flame,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2325–2332 (1990).
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R. W. Pitz, T. S. Cheng, S. R. March, J. A. Wehrmeyer, “Effects of swirl on finite-rate chemistry in lifted jet diffusion flames,” presented at the AIAA/SAE/ASME/ASEE Twenty-Seventh Joint Propulsion Conference, Sacramento, Calif., 24–26 June 1991, paper AIAA-91-2319.

S. P. Nandula, T. M. Brown, W. A. Cole, R. W. Pitz, “Simultaneous multi-species multi-point measurements in H2-air flames using a narrow-band KrF excimer laser,” presented at AIAA/SAE/ASME/ASEE Twenty-Eighth Joint Propulsion Conference, Nashville, Tenn., 6–8 July 1992, paper AIAA-92-3348.

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J. H. Grinstead, T. M. Quagliaroli, G. Laufer, J. C. McDaniel, “Single-pulse temperature measurement in turbulent flame using laser-induced O2 fluorescence,” AIAA J. 34, 624–625 (1996).
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T. M. Quagliaroli, G. Laufer, R. H. Krauss, J. C. McDaniel, “Planar imaging of OH density distributions in a supersonic combustion tunnel,” presented at the Thirty-First Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 11–14 January 1993, paper AIAA-93-0045.

Quagliarolli, T. M.

J. H. Grinstead, G. Laufer, R. H. Krauss, T. M. Quagliarolli, G. B. Northam, “Design and calibration of a planar imaging system for OH and O2 measurements in high-temperature large scale facilities” presented at the Nineteenth AIAA Advanced Measurement and Ground Testing Technology Conference, Los Angeles, 17–20 June 1996, paper AIAA-96-2220.

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M. Versluis, K. L. Queeney, J. L. Springfield, T. Dreier, A. Dreizler, “Laser-induced fluorescence detection of OH in a flame near 268 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 166, 486–488 (1994).
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E. W. Rothe, Y. Gu, G. P. Reck, “Laser-induced predissociative fluorescence: dynamics and polarization and the effect of lower-state rotational energy transfer on quantitative diagnostics,” Appl. Opt. 35, 934–947 (1996).
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G. S. Kim, L. M. Hitchcock, F. Siegler, E. W. Rothe, C. C. Tung, G. P. Reck, “Planar imaging of Rayleigh and fluorescence light from H2–air combustion inside a bomb using tunable 193 nm light,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 139–145 (1993).
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L. M. Hitchcock, G. S. Kim, E. W. Rothe, G. P. Reck, “Stimulated Raman pumping to H2 (v″ = 1, J″ = 1) and resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization from it using a single laser,” Appl. Phys. B 52, 27–31 (1991).
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G. S. Kim, L. M. Hitchcock, E. W. Rothe, G. P. Reck, “Identification and imaging of hot O2 (v″ = 2, 3, or 4) in hydrogen flames using 193 nm and 210 nm-range light,” Appl. Phys. B 53, 180–186 (1991).
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L. M. Hitchcock, G. S. Kim, G. P. Reck, E. W. Rothe, “Absorption of laser light in air in the 193 nm range: analysis of laser locking,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 44, 373–378 (1990).
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G.-S. Kim, E. W. Rothe, L. M. Hitchcock, Y. Gu, G. P. Reck, “Rayleigh and predissociative fluorescence imaging of total and quantum-state specific densities from a combustion bomb using tunable excimer light,” in Laser Applications in Combustion and Combustion Diagnostics, L. C. Liou, ed., Proc. SPIE1862, 154–157 (1993).
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Y. Gu, E. W. Rothe, G. P. Reck, “One-dimensional imaging of H2 densities and of temperatures via rotational Raman scattering of narrow-band, 248-nm laser light,” Appl. Spectrosc. (to be published).

L. M. Hitchcock, G. P. Reck, E. W. Rothe, C. C. Tung, “Diagnostics in H2 discharges using a tunable 193 nm laser,” in Microwave and Particle Beam Sources and Directed Energy Concepts, H. E. Brandt, ed., Proc. SPIE1061, 621–624 (1989).
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Reck, Gene P.

E. W. Rothe, H. An, L. M. Hitchcock, Y. Gu, Gene P. Reck, “Rayleigh and predissociative fluorescence imaging of densities from an internal combustion engine using a tunable KrF laser,” in Laser Applications in Combustion and Combustion Diagnostics II, R. J. Locke, ed., Proc. SPIE2122, 79–82 (1994).
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W. Reckers, Y. W. Gu, E. W. Rothe, “Rayleigh scattering of excimer laser light from some simple molecules at 193 nm and 248 nm: the effect of polarization upon imaging diagnostics,” J. Raman Spectrosc. (to be published).

Robie, D. C.

Roller, A.

A. Roller, A. Arnold, M. Decker, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, W. Hentschel, K.-P. Schindler, “Non-intrusive temperature measurement during the compression phase of a DI diesel engine,” in Diagnostics in Diesel and SI Engines (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1995), pp. 113–118.

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Roth, G. J.

Rothe, E.

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Rothe, E. W.

G. Grünefeld, P. Andresen, H. Schlüter, E. W. Rothe, “Operation of KrF and ArF tunable excimer lasers without Cassegrain optics,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 241–247 (1996).
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E. W. Rothe, Y. Gu, G. P. Reck, “Laser-induced predissociative fluorescence: dynamics and polarization and the effect of lower-state rotational energy transfer on quantitative diagnostics,” Appl. Opt. 35, 934–947 (1996).
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L. M. Hitchcock, G. S. Kim, E. W. Rothe, G. P. Reck, “Stimulated Raman pumping to H2 (v″ = 1, J″ = 1) and resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization from it using a single laser,” Appl. Phys. B 52, 27–31 (1991).
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G. S. Kim, L. M. Hitchcock, E. W. Rothe, G. P. Reck, “Identification and imaging of hot O2 (v″ = 2, 3, or 4) in hydrogen flames using 193 nm and 210 nm-range light,” Appl. Phys. B 53, 180–186 (1991).
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L. M. Hitchcock, G. S. Kim, G. P. Reck, E. W. Rothe, “Absorption of laser light in air in the 193 nm range: analysis of laser locking,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 44, 373–378 (1990).
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P. Andresen, G. Meijer, H. Schlüter, H. Voges, A. Koch, W. Hentschel, W. Oppermann, E. W. Rothe, “Fluorescence imaging inside an internal combustion engine using tunable excimer lasers,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2392–2404 (1990).
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L. M. Hitchcock, G. P. Reck, E. W. Rothe, C. C. Tung, “Diagnostics in H2 discharges using a tunable 193 nm laser,” in Microwave and Particle Beam Sources and Directed Energy Concepts, H. E. Brandt, ed., Proc. SPIE1061, 621–624 (1989).
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Y. Gu, E. W. Rothe, G. P. Reck, “One-dimensional imaging of H2 densities and of temperatures via rotational Raman scattering of narrow-band, 248-nm laser light,” Appl. Spectrosc. (to be published).

G.-S. Kim, E. W. Rothe, L. M. Hitchcock, Y. Gu, G. P. Reck, “Rayleigh and predissociative fluorescence imaging of total and quantum-state specific densities from a combustion bomb using tunable excimer light,” in Laser Applications in Combustion and Combustion Diagnostics, L. C. Liou, ed., Proc. SPIE1862, 154–157 (1993).
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W. Reckers, Y. W. Gu, E. W. Rothe, “Rayleigh scattering of excimer laser light from some simple molecules at 193 nm and 248 nm: the effect of polarization upon imaging diagnostics,” J. Raman Spectrosc. (to be published).

E. W. Rothe, H. An, L. M. Hitchcock, Y. Gu, Gene P. Reck, “Rayleigh and predissociative fluorescence imaging of densities from an internal combustion engine using a tunable KrF laser,” in Laser Applications in Combustion and Combustion Diagnostics II, R. J. Locke, ed., Proc. SPIE2122, 79–82 (1994).
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A. D. Sappey, D. J. Funk, “Simultaneous detection of atomic and molecular hydrogen using a tunable ArF excimer laser,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 229–234 (1993).
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Schafer, M.

Schäfer, M.

A. Arnold, A. Braumer, A. Buschmann, M. Decker, F. Dinkelacker, T. Heitzmann, A. Orth, M. Schäfer, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, “2D diagnostics in industrial devices,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 97, 1650–1661 (1993).
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W. Ketterle, M. Schäfer, A. Arnold, J. Wolfrum, “2D single-shot imaging of OH radicals using tunable excimer lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 109–112 (1992).
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A. Arnold, F. Dinkelacker, T. Heitzmann, P. Monkhouse, M. Schäfer, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, W. Hentschel, K.-P. Schindler, “DI diesel engine combustion visualized by combined laser techniques in flames,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), pp. 1605–1612.
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A. Arnold, B. Lange, T. Bouché, T. Heitzmann, G. Schiff, W. Ketterle, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, “Absolute temperature fields in flames by 2D-LIF of OH using excimer lasers and CARS spectroscopy,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 96, 1388–1393 (1992).
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Schindler, K. P.

Schindler, K.-P.

A. Roller, A. Arnold, M. Decker, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, W. Hentschel, K.-P. Schindler, “Non-intrusive temperature measurement during the compression phase of a DI diesel engine,” in Diagnostics in Diesel and SI Engines (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1995), pp. 113–118.

A. Arnold, F. Dinkelacker, T. Heitzmann, P. Monkhouse, M. Schäfer, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, W. Hentschel, K.-P. Schindler, “DI diesel engine combustion visualized by combined laser techniques in flames,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), pp. 1605–1612.
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Schlüter, H.

M. Knapp, A. Luczak, H. Schlüter, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Andresen, “Crank-angle-resolved laser-induced fluorescence imaging of NO in a spark ignition engine at 248 nm and correlations to flame front propagation and pressure release,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4009–4017 (1996).
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A. Koch, H. Voges, P. Andresen, H. Schlüter, D. Wolff, W. Hentschel, W. Oppermann, E. Rothe, “Planar imaging of a flame and of internal combustion in an automobile engine using UV Rayleigh and fluorescence light,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 177–184 (1993).
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P. Andresen, G. Meijer, H. Schlüter, H. Voges, A. Koch, W. Hentschel, W. Oppermann, E. W. Rothe, “Fluorescence imaging inside an internal combustion engine using tunable excimer lasers,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2392–2404 (1990).
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A. Luczak, S. Eisenberg, H. Schlüter, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, “3-D density and temperature-measurements in an oil-spray flame using UV-Raman-scattering,” in Air Pollution and Visibility Measurements, C. Werner, P. Fabian, V. Klein, M. Tacke, K. Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE2506, 121–131 (1995).
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Schmidt, A.

A. Luczak, V. Beushausen, S. Eisenberg, M. Knapp, H. Schlüter, P. Andresen, M. Malobabic, A. Schmidt, “New nonintrusive laser diagnostic tools for design and optimization of technically applied combustion systems,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 116, 1–6; Combust. Sci. Technol. 117, 541 (1996).

Schulz, C.

C. Schulz, B. Yip, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, “A laser induced fluorescence scheme for imaging nitric oxide in engines,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 242, 259–264 (1995).
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S. Kampmann, T. Seeger, A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and two-dimensional laser Rayleigh thermometry in a contained technical swirl combustor,” Appl.Opt. 34, 2780–2786 (1995).

Segall, J.

Seinfeld, J. H.

J. G. Calvert, J. B. Heywood, R. F. Sawyer, J. H. Seinfeld, “Achieving acceptable air quality: some reflections on controlling vehicle emissions,” Science 261, 37–45 (1993).
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Seitzman, J. M.

J. M. Seitzman, R. K. Hanson, “Comparison of excitation techniques for quantitative fluorescence imaging of reacting flows,” AIAA J. 31, 513–519 (1993).
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J. M. Seitzman, A. Üngüt, P. H. Paul, R. K. Hanson, “Imaging and characterization of OH structures in a turbulent nonpremixed flame,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), pp. 637–644.

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J. A. Shirley, L. R. Boedecker, “Non-intrusive Space Shuttle main engine nozzle exit diagnostics,” presented at the AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Twenty-Fourth Joint Propulsion Conference, Boston, 11–13 July 1988, paper AIAA-88-3038.

Sick, V.

M. Decker, V. Sick, “Tunable KrCl excimer-laser operation for combustion diagnostics,” Appl. Opt. 35, 482–484 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Sick, M. Decker, J. Heinze, W. Stricker, “Collisional processes in the O2B3∑u- state,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 249, 335–340 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Schulz, B. Yip, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, “A laser induced fluorescence scheme for imaging nitric oxide in engines,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 242, 259–264 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Arnold, A. Braumer, A. Buschmann, M. Decker, F. Dinkelacker, T. Heitzmann, A. Orth, M. Schäfer, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, “2D diagnostics in industrial devices,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 97, 1650–1661 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Arnold, H. Becker, R. Hemberger, W. Hentschel, K. Kollner, W. Meienburg, P. Monkhouse, H. Neckel, M. Schafer, K. P. Schindler, V. Sick, R. Suntz, J. Wolfrum, “Laser in situ monitoring of combustion processes,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4860–4872 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Arnold, H. Becker, R. Hemberger, W. Hentschel, W. Ketterle, M. Kollner, W. Meienburg, P. Monkhouse, H. Neckel, M. Schafer, K. P. Schindler, V. Sick, R. Suntz, J. Wolfrum, “Laser in situ monitoring of combustion processes,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4860–4872, (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roller, A. Arnold, M. Decker, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, W. Hentschel, K.-P. Schindler, “Non-intrusive temperature measurement during the compression phase of a DI diesel engine,” in Diagnostics in Diesel and SI Engines (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1995), pp. 113–118.

V. Sick, A. Arnold, E. Dießel, T. Dreier, W. Ketterle, B. Lange, J. Wolfrum, K. U. Thiele, F. Behrendt, J. Warnatz, “Two-dimensional laser diagnostics and modeling of counterflow diffusion flames,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), pp. 495–501.

A. Arnold, F. Dinkelacker, T. Heitzmann, P. Monkhouse, M. Schäfer, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, W. Hentschel, K.-P. Schindler, “DI diesel engine combustion visualized by combined laser techniques in flames,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), pp. 1605–1612.
[CrossRef]

A. Bräumer, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, V. Drewes, M. Zahn, R. Maly, “Quantitative two-dimensional measurements of nitric oxide and temperature distributions in a transparent square piston engine,” in Diagnostics in Diesel and SI Engines (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1995), pp. 119–127.

A. Orth, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, R. R. Maly, M. Zahn, “Simultaneous 2D single-shot imaging of OH concentrations and temperature fields in an SI engine simulator,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 143–150.
[CrossRef]

Siegler, F.

G. S. Kim, L. M. Hitchcock, F. Siegler, E. W. Rothe, C. C. Tung, G. P. Reck, “Planar imaging of Rayleigh and fluorescence light from H2–air combustion inside a bomb using tunable 193 nm light,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 139–145 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Skaggs, P. A.

Slanger, G. T.

P. C. Cosby, H. Park, R. A. Copeland, G. T. Slanger, “Predissociation linewidths in O2B3Σu (v = 0, 2),” J. Chem. Phys. 98, 5117–5133 (1993), and references cited therein.
[CrossRef]

Smith, M.

Smith, M. S.

M. S. Smith, L. L. Price, W. D. Williams, “Laser-induced fluorescence diagnostics using a two-line excitation method,” AIAA J. 31, 478–482 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Smits, A.

Spaanjaars, C. M. I.

G. G. M. Stoffels, Th. M. Brugman, C. M. I. Spaanjaars, N. Dam, W. L. Meerts, J. J. ter Meulen, “In-cylinder measurements of NO in a running Diesel engine by means of LIF diagnostics,” presented at the Fourth International Symposium on Special Topics in Chemical Propulsion, Stockholm, 27–31 May 1996.

Springfield, J. L.

M. Versluis, K. L. Queeney, J. L. Springfield, T. Dreier, A. Dreizler, “Laser-induced fluorescence detection of OH in a flame near 268 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 166, 486–488 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stahl, G.

H. Becker, P. B. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. S. Cant, K. N. C. Bray, R. Maly, W. Pfister, G. Stahl, J. Warnatz, “Investigation of extinction of unsteady flames in turbulent combustion by 2-D LIF analysis of OH radicals and flamelet analysis,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), pp. 817–823.

Stårner, S. H.

R. W. Dibble, S. H. Stårner, A. R. Masri, R. S. Barlow, “An improved method of data acquisition and reduction of laser Raman–Rayleigh and fluorescence scattering from multispecies,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 39–43 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Steffens, K. L.

Stephenson, D. A.

D. A. Stephenson, “Raman cross sections of selected hydrocarbon and Freons,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 14, 1291–1301 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Stoffels, G. G. M.

G. G. M. Stoffels, Th. M. Brugman, C. M. I. Spaanjaars, N. Dam, W. L. Meerts, J. J. ter Meulen, “In-cylinder measurements of NO in a running Diesel engine by means of LIF diagnostics,” presented at the Fourth International Symposium on Special Topics in Chemical Propulsion, Stockholm, 27–31 May 1996.

Stricker, W.

V. Sick, M. Decker, J. Heinze, W. Stricker, “Collisional processes in the O2B3∑u- state,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 249, 335–340 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Suchard, S. N.

S. N. Suchard, J. E. Melzer, Spectroscopic Data, Vol. 2 of Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules Series (Plenum, New York, 1976), p. 585.

Suntz, R.

Tacke, M.

J. W. Hartick, M. Tacke, G. Früchtel, E. P. Hassel, J. Janicka, “Interaction of turbulence and radiation in confined diffusion flames,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 75–82.
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Tacke, M. M.

M. M. Tacke, T. C. Cheng, E. P. Hassel, J. Janicka, “Study of swirling recirculating hydrogen diffusion flame using UV-Raman spectroscopy,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 169–175.
[CrossRef]

Tait, N. P.

N. P. Tait, D. A. Greenhalgh, “PLIF imaging of fuel fraction in practical devices and LII imaging of soot,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 97, 1619–1625 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Taki, S.

T. Kobayashi, M. Konishi, M. Ohtaka, S. Taki, M. Ueda, K. Kagawa, H. Inaba, “Application of UV and VUV excimer lasers in combustion measurements using enhanced Raman scattering,” in Laser Diagnostics and Modeling Combustion, K. Iinuma, T. Asanuma, T. Ohsawa, J. Doi, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987), pp. 133–140.
[CrossRef]

Tecu, K. S.

J. A. Wehrmeyer, S. Yeralan, K. S. Tecu, “Linewise Raman-Stokes/anti-Stokes temperature measurement in flames using an unintensified charge coupled device,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 21–27 (1996).
[CrossRef]

ter Meulen, J. J.

Th. M. Brugman, R. Klein-Douwel, G. Huigen, E. van Walwijk, J. J. ter Meulen, “Laser-induced-fluorescence imaging of NO in an n-heptane- and diesel-fuel-driven diesel engine,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 405–410 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Versluis, M. Boogaarts, R. Klein-Douwel, B. Thus, W. deJongh, A. Braam, J. J. ter Meulen, W. L. Meerts, G. Meijer, “Laser-induced fluorescence imaging in a 100 kW natural gas flame,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 164–170 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Ebben, M. Versluis, J. J. ter Meulen, “The laser induced fluorescence spectrum of SiF around 193 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 149, 329–340 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Versluis, M. Ebben, M. Drabbles, J. J. ter Meulen, “Frequency calibration in the ArF excimer laser tuning range using laser-induced fluorescence of NO,” Appl. Opt. 30, 5229–5234 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Andresen, A. Bath, W. Gröger, H. W. Lülf, G. Meijer, J. J. ter Meulen, “Laser-induced fluorescence with tunable excimer lasers as a possible method for instantaneous temperature field measurements at high pressures: checks with an atmospheric flame,” Appl. Opt. 27, 365–378 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Meijer, J. J. ter Meulen, P. Andresen, A. Bath, “A sensitive quantum state selective detection of H2O and D2O by (2 + I) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization,” J. Chem. Phys. 85, 6914–6922 (1986); V. Engel, G. Meijer, A. Bath, P. Andresen, R. Schinke, “The C → A emission in water: theory and experiment,” J. Chem. Phys. 87, 4310–4314 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. G. M. Stoffels, Th. M. Brugman, C. M. I. Spaanjaars, N. Dam, W. L. Meerts, J. J. ter Meulen, “In-cylinder measurements of NO in a running Diesel engine by means of LIF diagnostics,” presented at the Fourth International Symposium on Special Topics in Chemical Propulsion, Stockholm, 27–31 May 1996.

Thiele, K. U.

V. Sick, A. Arnold, E. Dießel, T. Dreier, W. Ketterle, B. Lange, J. Wolfrum, K. U. Thiele, F. Behrendt, J. Warnatz, “Two-dimensional laser diagnostics and modeling of counterflow diffusion flames,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), pp. 495–501.

Thus, B.

M. Versluis, M. Boogaarts, R. Klein-Douwel, B. Thus, W. deJongh, A. Braam, J. J. ter Meulen, W. L. Meerts, G. Meijer, “Laser-induced fluorescence imaging in a 100 kW natural gas flame,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 164–170 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tung, C. C.

G. S. Kim, L. M. Hitchcock, F. Siegler, E. W. Rothe, C. C. Tung, G. P. Reck, “Planar imaging of Rayleigh and fluorescence light from H2–air combustion inside a bomb using tunable 193 nm light,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 139–145 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Hitchcock, G. P. Reck, E. W. Rothe, C. C. Tung, “Diagnostics in H2 discharges using a tunable 193 nm laser,” in Microwave and Particle Beam Sources and Directed Energy Concepts, H. E. Brandt, ed., Proc. SPIE1061, 621–624 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, M.

T. Kobayashi, M. Konishi, M. Ohtaka, S. Taki, M. Ueda, K. Kagawa, H. Inaba, “Application of UV and VUV excimer lasers in combustion measurements using enhanced Raman scattering,” in Laser Diagnostics and Modeling Combustion, K. Iinuma, T. Asanuma, T. Ohsawa, J. Doi, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987), pp. 133–140.
[CrossRef]

Üngüt, A.

J. M. Seitzman, A. Üngüt, P. H. Paul, R. K. Hanson, “Imaging and characterization of OH structures in a turbulent nonpremixed flame,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), pp. 637–644.

van Cruyningen, I.

van Walwijk, E.

Th. M. Brugman, R. Klein-Douwel, G. Huigen, E. van Walwijk, J. J. ter Meulen, “Laser-induced-fluorescence imaging of NO in an n-heptane- and diesel-fuel-driven diesel engine,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 405–410 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vershuis, M.

M. Vershuis, G. Meijer, D. W. Chandler, “Degenerate four wave mixing with a tunable excimer laser to detect combustion gases,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 192, 1–3 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Versluis, M.

M. Versluis, G. Meijer, D. W. Chandler, “Degenerate four wave mixing with a tunable excimer laser,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3289–3295 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Versluis, K. L. Queeney, J. L. Springfield, T. Dreier, A. Dreizler, “Laser-induced fluorescence detection of OH in a flame near 268 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 166, 486–488 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Versluis, M. Boogaarts, R. Klein-Douwel, B. Thus, W. deJongh, A. Braam, J. J. ter Meulen, W. L. Meerts, G. Meijer, “Laser-induced fluorescence imaging in a 100 kW natural gas flame,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 164–170 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Ebben, M. Versluis, J. J. ter Meulen, “The laser induced fluorescence spectrum of SiF around 193 nm,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 149, 329–340 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Versluis, M. Ebben, M. Drabbles, J. J. ter Meulen, “Frequency calibration in the ArF excimer laser tuning range using laser-induced fluorescence of NO,” Appl. Opt. 30, 5229–5234 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Versluis, “Combustion diagnostics at atmospheric pressures using a tunable excimer laser,” Ph.D. dissertation (Catholic University of Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, 1992).

Voges, H.

A. Koch, H. Voges, P. Andresen, H. Schlüter, D. Wolff, W. Hentschel, W. Oppermann, E. Rothe, “Planar imaging of a flame and of internal combustion in an automobile engine using UV Rayleigh and fluorescence light,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 177–184 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Andresen, W. Reckers, H. G. Wagner, E. K. Dabora, H. Voges, “The structure of gaseous detonations as revealed by laser induced fluorescence of the OH radical,” Z. Physik. Chem. Neue Folge 175, 129–143 (1992).

P. Andresen, H. Schlüter, D. Wolff, H. Voges, A. Koch, W. Hentschel, W. Oppermann, E. Rothe, “Identification and imaging of OH, (v″ = 0) and O2 (v″ = 6 or 7) in an automobile spark-ignition engine using a tunable KrF excimer laser,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7684–7689 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Andresen, G. Meijer, H. Schlüter, H. Voges, A. Koch, W. Hentschel, W. Oppermann, E. W. Rothe, “Fluorescence imaging inside an internal combustion engine using tunable excimer lasers,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2392–2404 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Wodtke, L. Hüwel, H. Schlüter, G. Meijer, P. Andresen, H. Voges, “High-sensitivity detection of NO in a flame using a tunable ArF laser,” Opt. Lett. 13, 910–912 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Wodtke, L. Hüwel, H. Schlüter, H. Voges, G. Meijer, P. Andresen, “Predissociation of O2 in the B state,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 1929–1935 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Meijer, A. M. Wodtke, H. Voges, L. Hüwel, H. Schlüter, P. Andresen, “State-selective detection of CO using a tunable excimer laser,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 2588–2589 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. Voges, LaVision Corp., Göttingen, Germany (private communication, 1995).

Wagner, H. G.

P. Andresen, W. Reckers, H. G. Wagner, E. K. Dabora, H. Voges, “The structure of gaseous detonations as revealed by laser induced fluorescence of the OH radical,” Z. Physik. Chem. Neue Folge 175, 129–143 (1992).

Warnatz, J.

V. Sick, A. Arnold, E. Dießel, T. Dreier, W. Ketterle, B. Lange, J. Wolfrum, K. U. Thiele, F. Behrendt, J. Warnatz, “Two-dimensional laser diagnostics and modeling of counterflow diffusion flames,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), pp. 495–501.

H. Becker, P. B. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. S. Cant, K. N. C. Bray, R. Maly, W. Pfister, G. Stahl, J. Warnatz, “Investigation of extinction of unsteady flames in turbulent combustion by 2-D LIF analysis of OH radicals and flamelet analysis,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), pp. 817–823.

Wehrmeyer, J. A.

J. A. Wehrmeyer, S. Yeralan, K. S. Tecu, “Linewise Raman-Stokes/anti-Stokes temperature measurement in flames using an unintensified charge coupled device,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 21–27 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Cheng, J. A. Wehrmeyer, R. W. Pitz, O. Jarrett, G. B. Northam, “Raman measurement of mixing and finite-rate chemistry in a supersonic hydrogen/air diffusion flame,” Combust. Flame 99, 157 (1994). Originally presented as “Finite-rate chemistry effects in a Mach 2 reacting flow,” presented at the AIAA/SAE/ASME/ASEE Twenty-Seventh Joint Propulsion Conference, Sacramento, Calif., 24–26 June 1991, paper AIAA-91-2320.
[CrossRef]

R. W. Pitz, T. S. Cheng, J. A. Wehrmeyer, C. F. Hess, “Two-photon predissociative fluorescence of H2O by a KrF laser for concentration and temperature measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 94–100 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Wehrmeyer, T. S. Cheng, R. W. Pitz, “Raman scattering measurements in flames using a tunable KrF laser,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1495–1504 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. S. Cheng, J. A. Wehrmeyer, R. W. Pitz, “Simultaneous temparature and multispecies measurement in a lifted hydrogen diffusion flame,” Combust. Flame 91, 323–345 (1992). Originally presented at the Twenty-Ninth AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 7–10 January 1991, paper AIAA-91-0181.
[CrossRef]

R. W. Pitz, J. A. Wehrmeyer, J. M. Bowling, T.-S. Cheng, “Single pulse vibrational Raman scattering by a broadband KrF excimer laser in a hydrogen-air flame,” Appl. Opt. 29, 2325–2332 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Pitz, T. S. Cheng, S. R. March, J. A. Wehrmeyer, “Effects of swirl on finite-rate chemistry in lifted jet diffusion flames,” presented at the AIAA/SAE/ASME/ASEE Twenty-Seventh Joint Propulsion Conference, Sacramento, Calif., 24–26 June 1991, paper AIAA-91-2319.

Whitehurst, R. B.

G. Laufer, T. M. Quagliaroli, R. H. Krauss, R. B. Whitehurst, J. C. McDaniel, J. H. Grinstead, “Planar OH density and apparent temperature measurements in a supersonic combusting flow,” AIAA J. 34, 463–469 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Quagliaroli, G. Laufer, S. D. Hollo, R. H. Krauss, R. B. Whitehurst, J. C. McDaniel, “KrF laser-induced OH fluorescence imaging in a supersonic combustion tunnel,” J. Propul. Power 10, 377–382 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Williams, W. D.

M. S. Smith, L. L. Price, W. D. Williams, “Laser-induced fluorescence diagnostics using a two-line excitation method,” AIAA J. 31, 478–482 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wodtke, A. M.

A. M. Wodtke, L. Hüwel, H. Schlüter, P. Andresen, “A simple way to improve an argon fluoride laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 801–802 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Wodtke, L. Hüwel, H. Schlüter, G. Meijer, P. Andresen, H. Voges, “High-sensitivity detection of NO in a flame using a tunable ArF laser,” Opt. Lett. 13, 910–912 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Wodtke, L. Hüwel, H. Schlüter, H. Voges, G. Meijer, P. Andresen, “Predissociation of O2 in the B state,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 1929–1935 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Meijer, A. M. Wodtke, H. Voges, L. Hüwel, H. Schlüter, P. Andresen, “State-selective detection of CO using a tunable excimer laser,” J. Chem. Phys. 89, 2588–2589 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wolff, D.

A. Koch, H. Voges, P. Andresen, H. Schlüter, D. Wolff, W. Hentschel, W. Oppermann, E. Rothe, “Planar imaging of a flame and of internal combustion in an automobile engine using UV Rayleigh and fluorescence light,” Appl. Phys. B 56, 177–184 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Wolff, H. Schlüter, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, “Quantitative determination of fuel air mixture distributions in an internal combustion engine using PLIF of acetone,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 97, 1738–1741 (1993); D. Wolff, “Quantitative laserdiagnostische Untersuchung der Gemischaufbereitung in technischen Verbrennungssystemen,” Ph.D. dissertation (Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany, 1995).

P. Andresen, H. Schlüter, D. Wolff, H. Voges, A. Koch, W. Hentschel, W. Oppermann, E. Rothe, “Identification and imaging of OH, (v″ = 0) and O2 (v″ = 6 or 7) in an automobile spark-ignition engine using a tunable KrF excimer laser,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7684–7689 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolfrum, J.

C. Schulz, B. Yip, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, “A laser induced fluorescence scheme for imaging nitric oxide in engines,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 242, 259–264 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Arnold, A. Braumer, A. Buschmann, M. Decker, F. Dinkelacker, T. Heitzmann, A. Orth, M. Schäfer, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, “2D diagnostics in industrial devices,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 97, 1650–1661 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Arnold, B. Lange, T. Bouché, T. Heitzmann, G. Schiff, W. Ketterle, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, “Absolute temperature fields in flames by 2D-LIF of OH using excimer lasers and CARS spectroscopy,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 96, 1388–1393 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Dreier, A. Dreizler, J. Wolfrum, “The application of a Raman-shifted tunable KrF excimer laser for laser-induced fluorescence combustion diagnostics,” Appl. Phys. B 55, 381–387 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. Ketterle, M. Schäfer, A. Arnold, J. Wolfrum, “2D single-shot imaging of OH radicals using tunable excimer lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 109–112 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Schäfer, W. Ketterle, J. Wolfrum, “Saturated 2D-LIF of OH and 2D determination of effective collisional lifetimes in atmospheric pressure flames,” Appl. Phys. B 52, 341–346 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. Becker, A. Arnold, R. Suntz, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. Maly, W. Pfister, “Investigation of flame-structure and burning behavior in an IC engine simulator by 2-D-LIF of OH radicals,” Appl. Phys. B 50, 473–478 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Arnold, H. Becker, R. Suntz, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. Maly, W. Pfister, “Flame front imaging in an internal combustion engine simulator by laser-induced fluorescence of acetaldehyde,” Opt. Lett. 15, 831–833 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Arnold, H. Becker, R. Hemberger, W. Hentschel, K. Kollner, W. Meienburg, P. Monkhouse, H. Neckel, M. Schafer, K. P. Schindler, V. Sick, R. Suntz, J. Wolfrum, “Laser in situ monitoring of combustion processes,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4860–4872 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Köllner, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, “Time resolved LIF of hydroxyl (A2Σ+, v″ = 1 and v″ = 0) in atmospheric-pressure flames using picosecond excitation,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 168, 355–360 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Arnold, W. Ketterle, H. Becker, J. Wolfrum, “Simultaneous single-shot imaging of OH and O2 using a two-wavelength laser,” Appl. Phys. B 51, 99–102 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Arnold, H. Becker, R. Hemberger, W. Hentschel, W. Ketterle, M. Kollner, W. Meienburg, P. Monkhouse, H. Neckel, M. Schafer, K. P. Schindler, V. Sick, R. Suntz, J. Wolfrum, “Laser in situ monitoring of combustion processes,” Appl. Opt. 29, 4860–4872, (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Suntz, H. Becker, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, “Two-dimensional visualization of the flame front using laser induced fluorescence,” Appl. Phys. B 47, 287–293 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. Schwarzwald, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, “Picosecond fluorescence lifetime measurement of the hydroxyl radical in an atmospheric pressure flame,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 142, 15–18 (1987).
[CrossRef]

H. Becker, P. B. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. S. Cant, K. N. C. Bray, R. Maly, W. Pfister, G. Stahl, J. Warnatz, “Investigation of extinction of unsteady flames in turbulent combustion by 2-D LIF analysis of OH radicals and flamelet analysis,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), pp. 817–823.

A. Orth, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, R. R. Maly, M. Zahn, “Simultaneous 2D single-shot imaging of OH concentrations and temperature fields in an SI engine simulator,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 143–150.
[CrossRef]

A. Bräumer, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, V. Drewes, M. Zahn, R. Maly, “Quantitative two-dimensional measurements of nitric oxide and temperature distributions in a transparent square piston engine,” in Diagnostics in Diesel and SI Engines (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1995), pp. 119–127.

A. Roller, A. Arnold, M. Decker, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, W. Hentschel, K.-P. Schindler, “Non-intrusive temperature measurement during the compression phase of a DI diesel engine,” in Diagnostics in Diesel and SI Engines (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1995), pp. 113–118.

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A. Arnold, F. Dinkelacker, T. Heitzmann, P. Monkhouse, M. Schäfer, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, W. Hentschel, K.-P. Schindler, “DI diesel engine combustion visualized by combined laser techniques in flames,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), pp. 1605–1612.
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Yeralan, S.

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Yip, B.

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A. S.-C. Cheung, K. Yoshino, J. R. Esmond, S. S.-L. Chiu, D. E. Freeman, W. H. Parkinson, “Predissociation linewidths of the (1,0)–(12,0) Schumann–Runge absorption bands of O2 in the wavelength region 179–202 nm,” J. Chem. Phys. 92, 842–849 (1990).
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A. Orth, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, R. R. Maly, M. Zahn, “Simultaneous 2D single-shot imaging of OH concentrations and temperature fields in an SI engine simulator,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 143–150.
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Aerosp. Am. (1)

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T. M. Quagliaroli, G. Laufer, R. H. Krauss, J. C. McDaniel, “Laser selection criteria for OH fluorescence measurements in supersonic combustion test facilities,” AIAA J. 31, 520–527 (1993).
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L. M. Hitchcock, G. S. Kim, G. P. Reck, E. W. Rothe, “Absorption of laser light in air in the 193 nm range: analysis of laser locking,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 44, 373–378 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Stephenson, “Raman cross sections of selected hydrocarbon and Freons,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 14, 1291–1301 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Laser Focus/Electrooptics (1)

W. Mückenheim, “Seven ways to combine two excimer lasers,” Laser Focus/Electrooptics 23(7), 56–67 (1987).

Opt. Commun. (1)

E. W. Rothe, G. S. Ondrey, P. Andresen, “High-sensitivity, state-specific detection of H2 by three-photon direct ionization in gases and discharges,” Opt. Commun. 58, 113–117 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

B. Rückle, P. Lokai, U. Brinkmann, D. Basting, W. Mückenheim, “Tuning ranges of an injection locked excimer laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 19, 153–157 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (13)

J. Goldhar, J. R. Murray, “Injection locked, narrow-band KrF discharge laser using an unstable resonator cavity,” Opt. Lett. 1, 199–201 (1977).
[CrossRef]

G. Laufer, R. L. McKenzie, W. M. Huo, “Radiative processes in air excited by an ArF laser,” Opt. Lett. 13, 99–101 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Miles, J. J. Connors, P. J. Howard, E. C. Markovitz, G. J. Roth, “Proposed single-pulse two-dimensional temperature and density measurements of oxygen and air,” Opt. Lett. 13, 195–197 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Wodtke, L. Hüwel, H. Schlüter, G. Meijer, P. Andresen, H. Voges, “High-sensitivity detection of NO in a flame using a tunable ArF laser,” Opt. Lett. 13, 910–912 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. R. Boedecker, “Velocity measurements by H2O photolysis and laser-induced fluorescence of OH,” Opt. Lett. 14, 473–475 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Smith, A. Smits, R. Miles, “Compressible boundary layer density cross sections by UV Rayleigh scattering,” Opt. Lett. 14, 916–918 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Lempert, G. Diskin, V. Kumar, I. Glesk, R. Miles, “Two-dimensional imaging of molecular hydrogen in H2–air diffusion flames using two photon laser induced fluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 16, 660–662 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Fletcher, R. L. McKenzie, “Single-pulse measurements of density and temperature in a turbulent, supersonic flow using UV laser spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1614–1616 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. McKenzie, “Rayleigh rejection filters for 193-nm ArF laser Raman spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 18, 995–997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Steffens, J. B. Jeffreys, D. R. Crosley, “Collisional energy transfer in predissociative OH laser-induced fluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1355–1357 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Nandula, T. M. Brown, R. W. Pitz, P. A. DeBarber, “Single-pulse, simultaneous multipoint multispecies Raman measurements in turbulent nonpremixed jet flames,” Opt. Lett. 19, 414–416 (1994).
[PubMed]

A. Arnold, H. Becker, R. Suntz, P. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. Maly, W. Pfister, “Flame front imaging in an internal combustion engine simulator by laser-induced fluorescence of acetaldehyde,” Opt. Lett. 15, 831–833 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Pitz, M. Brown, S. P. Nandula, P. A. Skaggs, P. A. Debarber, M. S. Brown, J. Segall, “Unseeded velocity measurements by ozone tagging velocimetry,” Opt. Lett. 21, 755–757 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Scr. (1)

J. Brzozowski, P. Erman, M. Lyyra, “Precision estimates of the predissociation rates of the OH A2Σ state (v ≤ 2),” Phys. Scr. 17, 507–511 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. M. Wodtke, L. Hüwel, H. Schlüter, P. Andresen, “A simple way to improve an argon fluoride laser,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 801–802 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. G. Calvert, J. B. Heywood, R. F. Sawyer, J. H. Seinfeld, “Achieving acceptable air quality: some reflections on controlling vehicle emissions,” Science 261, 37–45 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

VDI Ber. (Ver. Dtsch. Ing.) (1)

M. Knapp, G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Andresen, A. Luczak, S. Eisenberg, “Laserspectroskopische Diagnostik im Brennraum eines Ottomotors und an der Flamme eines Ölheizungsbrenners,” VDI Ber. (Ver. Dtsch. Ing.) 1193, 325–332 (1995).

Z. Physik. Chem. Neue Folge (1)

P. Andresen, W. Reckers, H. G. Wagner, E. K. Dabora, H. Voges, “The structure of gaseous detonations as revealed by laser induced fluorescence of the OH radical,” Z. Physik. Chem. Neue Folge 175, 129–143 (1992).

Other (52)

M. Versluis, “Combustion diagnostics at atmospheric pressures using a tunable excimer laser,” Ph.D. dissertation (Catholic University of Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, 1992).

G. Laufer, A. S. Lee, “Time-resolved visualization of N2 – H2O molecular mixing,” presented at the AIAA Thirty-Fifth Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 6–9 January 1997, paper AIAA-97-0153.

H. Becker, P. B. Monkhouse, J. Wolfrum, R. S. Cant, K. N. C. Bray, R. Maly, W. Pfister, G. Stahl, J. Warnatz, “Investigation of extinction of unsteady flames in turbulent combustion by 2-D LIF analysis of OH radicals and flamelet analysis,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), pp. 817–823.

A. Bräumer, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, V. Drewes, M. Zahn, R. Maly, “Quantitative two-dimensional measurements of nitric oxide and temperature distributions in a transparent square piston engine,” in Diagnostics in Diesel and SI Engines (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1995), pp. 119–127.

T. M. Quagliaroli, G. Laufer, R. H. Krauss, J. C. McDaniel, “Planar imaging of OH density distributions in a supersonic combustion tunnel,” presented at the Thirty-First Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 11–14 January 1993, paper AIAA-93-0045.

E. W. Rothe, H. An, L. M. Hitchcock, Y. Gu, Gene P. Reck, “Rayleigh and predissociative fluorescence imaging of densities from an internal combustion engine using a tunable KrF laser,” in Laser Applications in Combustion and Combustion Diagnostics II, R. J. Locke, ed., Proc. SPIE2122, 79–82 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. G. M. Stoffels, Th. M. Brugman, C. M. I. Spaanjaars, N. Dam, W. L. Meerts, J. J. ter Meulen, “In-cylinder measurements of NO in a running Diesel engine by means of LIF diagnostics,” presented at the Fourth International Symposium on Special Topics in Chemical Propulsion, Stockholm, 27–31 May 1996.

R. K. Hanson, J. M. Seitzman, “Planar fluorescence imaging in gases,” in Instrumentation for Flows with Combustion, A. M. P. K. Taylor, ed. (Academic, London, 1993), Chap. 6.

A. Roller, A. Arnold, M. Decker, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, W. Hentschel, K.-P. Schindler, “Non-intrusive temperature measurement during the compression phase of a DI diesel engine,” in Diagnostics in Diesel and SI Engines (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1995), pp. 113–118.

J. H. Grinstead, G. Laufer, J. C. McDaniel, “Measurements of KrF laser induced O2 fluorescence in high-temperature atmospheric air,” presented at the Thirty-First Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, Nev., 11–14 January 1993, paper AIAA-93-0045.

J. H. Grinstead, G. Laufer, R. H. Krauss, T. M. Quagliarolli, G. B. Northam, “Design and calibration of a planar imaging system for OH and O2 measurements in high-temperature large scale facilities” presented at the Nineteenth AIAA Advanced Measurement and Ground Testing Technology Conference, Los Angeles, 17–20 June 1996, paper AIAA-96-2220.

V. Sick, A. Arnold, E. Dießel, T. Dreier, W. Ketterle, B. Lange, J. Wolfrum, K. U. Thiele, F. Behrendt, J. Warnatz, “Two-dimensional laser diagnostics and modeling of counterflow diffusion flames,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), pp. 495–501.

A. Arnold, F. Dinkelacker, T. Heitzmann, P. Monkhouse, M. Schäfer, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, W. Hentschel, K.-P. Schindler, “DI diesel engine combustion visualized by combined laser techniques in flames,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), pp. 1605–1612.
[CrossRef]

G.-S. Kim, E. W. Rothe, L. M. Hitchcock, Y. Gu, G. P. Reck, “Rayleigh and predissociative fluorescence imaging of total and quantum-state specific densities from a combustion bomb using tunable excimer light,” in Laser Applications in Combustion and Combustion Diagnostics, L. C. Liou, ed., Proc. SPIE1862, 154–157 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Andresen, “Laser Induced Fluorescence Imaging Applications” in Measurement Techniques in Hypersonic Flows (von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Rhode Saint Genese, Belgium, 1990), pp. 421–449.

A. Serpengüzl, “OH radical detection in an optical engine,” in Laser Applications in Combustion and Combustion Diagnostics, L. C. Liuo, ed., Proc. SPIE1862, 158–161 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Seitzman, A. Üngüt, P. H. Paul, R. K. Hanson, “Imaging and characterization of OH structures in a turbulent nonpremixed flame,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1990), pp. 637–644.

S. N. Suchard, J. E. Melzer, Spectroscopic Data, Vol. 2 of Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules Series (Plenum, New York, 1976), p. 585.

L. M. Hitchcock, G. P. Reck, E. W. Rothe, C. C. Tung, “Diagnostics in H2 discharges using a tunable 193 nm laser,” in Microwave and Particle Beam Sources and Directed Energy Concepts, H. E. Brandt, ed., Proc. SPIE1061, 621–624 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Chryssostomou, “Ortsaufgelöste Temperaturmessung mit laserinduzierter Prädissoziationsfluoreszenz in turbulenter Verbrennung,” Ph.D. dissertation (Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany, 1995).

J. H. Grinstead, G. Laufer, “Requirements for temperature measurements in nonequilibrium flows using laser-induced O2 fluorescence,” in ICIAF ’91 Record, International Conference on Instrumentation for Aerospace Simulation Facilities (IEEE, New York, 1991), p. 262.
[CrossRef]

R. B. Miles, “Quantitative visualization of velocity and density fields in unseeded air flows,” in Experimental and Numerical Flow Visualization (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, 1991), pp. 29–32.

G. S. Diskin, W. R. Lempert, R. B. Miles, “Observation of vibrational relaxation dynamics in X3∑g- oxygen following stimulated Raman excitation to the v = 1 level,” presented at Thirty-Fourth Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nev., 15–18 January 1996, paper AIAA-96-0301.

R. Falco, “Laser-induced photochemical anemometry-LIPA,” in Lambda Highlights, 15/16, (Lambda Physik, Göttingen, Germany, May1989), Vol. 15/16, pp. 3–4.

P. Andresen, “Optimierung von turbulenten Verbrennungs und Mischprocessen durch gezielte Zugabe von Substanzen,” German Patent DisclosureDE 4416720 A1 (May1994).

R. S. Barlow, R. W. Dibble, “Effect of Damköhler number on superequilibrium OH concentration in turbulent nonpremixed jet flames,” AIAA paper 89-0061 (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, New York, 1989).

A. Luczak, S. Eisenberg, H. Schlüter, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, “3-D density and temperature-measurements in an oil-spray flame using UV-Raman-scattering,” in Air Pollution and Visibility Measurements, C. Werner, P. Fabian, V. Klein, M. Tacke, K. Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE2506, 121–131 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Bischel, G. Black, “Dependence of Raman scattering cross section from 200–600 nm,” in Excimer Lasers—1983, C. K. Rhodes, H. Egger, H. Pummer, eds., Vol. 100 of AIP Conference Proceedings Series (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1983), pp. 181–187.
[CrossRef]

G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, P. Andresen, W. Hentschel, “A major origin of cyclic energy conversion variations in SI engines: cycle-by-cycle variations of the equivalence ratio and residual gas of the initial charge,” in 1994 SAE Congress and Exposition, paper 941880 (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 1994); G. Grünefeld, “Laser diagnostics applied to practical combustion and flow systems,” Ph.D. dissertation (Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany, 1994).

M. Knapp, A. Luczak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Mantz, P. Andresen, “Polarization separated spatially resolved single laser shot multispecies analysis in the combustion chamber of a realistic SI engine with a tunable KrF excimer laser,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 2589–2596.
[CrossRef]

M. Knapp, L. Hüwel, G. Grünefeld, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Andresen, “Spontaneous vibrational Raman and O2 laser-induced predissociative fluorescence measurements with a tunable ArF excimer laser for stoichiometry and temperature analysis in the combustion chamber of an SI engine,” Appl. Opt.

M. Knapp, A. Luczak, V. Beushausen, W. Hentschel, P. Andresen, “Combinative in-cylinder measurements of equivalence ratio, temperature, residual gas content, NO and OH formation, and IMEP in single combustion cycles of a 4-cylinder SI-engine,” in Autotech ’95, (Institution of Mechanical Engineers, London, 1995), paper C498/15/035.

A. Brockhinke, P. Andresen, K. Kohse Höinghaus, “Contribution to the analysis of temporal and spatial structures near the lift-off region of a turbulent hydrogen diffusion flame,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 153–159.
[CrossRef]

M. M. Tacke, T. C. Cheng, E. P. Hassel, J. Janicka, “Study of swirling recirculating hydrogen diffusion flame using UV-Raman spectroscopy,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 169–175.
[CrossRef]

J. W. Hartick, M. Tacke, G. Früchtel, E. P. Hassel, J. Janicka, “Interaction of turbulence and radiation in confined diffusion flames,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1996), pp. 75–82.
[CrossRef]

S. P. Nandula, T. M. Brown, W. A. Cole, R. W. Pitz, “Simultaneous multi-species multi-point measurements in H2-air flames using a narrow-band KrF excimer laser,” presented at AIAA/SAE/ASME/ASEE Twenty-Eighth Joint Propulsion Conference, Nashville, Tenn., 6–8 July 1992, paper AIAA-92-3348.

A. Orth, V. Sick, J. Wolfrum, R. R. Maly, M. Zahn, “Simultaneous 2D single-shot imaging of OH concentrations and temperature fields in an SI engine simulator,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 143–150.
[CrossRef]

D. A. Long, Raman Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1977).

T. Kobayashi, M. Konishi, M. Ohtaka, S. Taki, M. Ueda, K. Kagawa, H. Inaba, “Application of UV and VUV excimer lasers in combustion measurements using enhanced Raman scattering,” in Laser Diagnostics and Modeling Combustion, K. Iinuma, T. Asanuma, T. Ohsawa, J. Doi, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987), pp. 133–140.
[CrossRef]

E. P. Hassel, F. Lipp, J. Janicka, “Measurement of temperature and concentration in turbulent flames by Raman spectroscopy,” in Combustion and Reaction Kinetics, Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Annual Conference at the Fraunhofer Institut für Chemische Technologie (1991), pp. 25.1–25.15.

F. Lipp, J. Hartig, E. P. Hassel, J. Janicka, “Comparison of UV Raman scattering measurements in a turbulent diffusion flame with Reynolds-stress model predictions,” in Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1992), pp. 287–294.
[CrossRef]

J. A. Shirley, L. R. Boedecker, “Non-intrusive Space Shuttle main engine nozzle exit diagnostics,” presented at the AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Twenty-Fourth Joint Propulsion Conference, Boston, 11–13 July 1988, paper AIAA-88-3038.

R. W. Pitz, T. S. Cheng, S. R. March, J. A. Wehrmeyer, “Effects of swirl on finite-rate chemistry in lifted jet diffusion flames,” presented at the AIAA/SAE/ASME/ASEE Twenty-Seventh Joint Propulsion Conference, Sacramento, Calif., 24–26 June 1991, paper AIAA-91-2319.

R. W. Pitz, S. Nandula, T. M. Brown, “Comparison of reaction zones in turbulent lifted diffusion flames to stretched laminar flamelets,” presented at the AIAA/SAE/ASME/ASEE Twenty-Eighth Joint Propulsion Conference, Nashville, Tenn., 6–8 July 1992, paper AIAA-92-3349. Also see, R. W. Pitz, T. M. Brown, T. S. Cheng, S. Nandula, T. A. Wehrmeyer, O. Jarrett, G. B. Northern, J. Y. Chen, “Finite-rate chemistry effects in subsonic and supersonic combustion,” in Combustion in High-Speed Flames, J. Buckmaster et al., eds. (Kluwer, The Netherlands, 1994).

M. Frodermann, “UV-laser spektroskopische Untersuchungen mit einem abstimmbaren Krypton-Fluorid Excimer-Laser am laminaren, vorgemischten Kohlenwasserstoff Flammen,” Ph.D. dissertation (Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany, 1996).

See, e.g., I. Glassman, Combustion (Academic, London, 1987).

A. C. Eckbreth, Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species, 2nd ed. (Gordon and Breach, Amsterdam, 1996).

Y. Gu, E. W. Rothe, G. P. Reck, “One-dimensional imaging of H2 densities and of temperatures via rotational Raman scattering of narrow-band, 248-nm laser light,” Appl. Spectrosc. (to be published).

H. Voges, LaVision Corp., Göttingen, Germany (private communication, 1995).

H. Kräamer, S. Kampmann, K.-U. Münch, A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous measurements of temperature and concentration fields inside technical combustion systems,” in Air Pollution and Visibility Measurements, C. Werner, P. Fabian, V. Klein, M. Tacke, K. Weber, eds., Proc. SPIE2506, 85–93 (1995).

S. Kampmann, A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous measurement of temperature and OH concentration fields in turbulent combustion using one single laser source and one single CCD camera,” in Developments in Laser Techniques and Applications to Fluid Mechanics, R. J. Adrian, D. F. G. Durao, F. Durst, M. V. Heitor, M. Maeda, J. H. Whitelaw, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Reckers, Y. W. Gu, E. W. Rothe, “Rayleigh scattering of excimer laser light from some simple molecules at 193 nm and 248 nm: the effect of polarization upon imaging diagnostics,” J. Raman Spectrosc. (to be published).

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Figures (21)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the injection system of the oil burner of a residential furnace. It indicates the complex gas-dynamic processes in a spray flame. (b) Mie scattering that visualizes the liquid-droplet distribution. (c) Fuel as vapor (left) and liquid (right). These were visualized with tracers. (d) Fuel density (upper) and O2 distributions (lower). (e) OH (upper) and NO (lower) distributions, similar to those of (d).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Excitation-emission spectra for atmospheric methane–air combustion (a) with E , (b) with E , (c) the intensities of (a) minus those in (b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Excitation-emission spectra for atmospheric combustion of (a) CH4–O2, (b) C3H8–O2. In both cases E was used.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Generalized experimental arrangement for planar imaging (to the right of the laser beam) and spectrally resolved imaging (to the left). For further details, see the text.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Images of a 10-mm-high sheet of ArF light bisecting a premixed H2–air flame that were acquired with various experimental conditions. (a) had no filter in front of the camera and used a 1-ms open time. The λlaser was tuned to probe vibrationally excited O2. (b) was taken with the same conditions, except that the open time was 10-4 ms. (c) was acquired like (b), except that RS light was filtered out. (d) was like (c), except that the laser was tuned for vibrationally excited NO.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectrally and spatially (1D) resolved image from a premixed CH4–O2 flame. The vertical direction corresponds to the horizontal direction in the flame. The emission in the upper part is from reactants, that in the middle from combusting gases, and that below from ambient air.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic of a standard Lambda Physik TEL (Model LPG 250).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Two configurations for a modified TEL without Cassegrain mirrors. The top is best suited for KrF, the bottom for ArF.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Spectrally and spatially resolved images with RS and RRS for a narrow flow of 300-K H2. All three images are from the same stored data, but are presented with different intensity resolutions. Top, only RS is visible. The weaker portion in the middle is from H2, which has a smaller RS cross section than does the surrounding air. Bottom, RS and the much weaker RRS Stokes and anti-Stokes H2 lines. Middle, intermediate case. The polarization-sensitive RS line has been greatly suppressed relative to the comparatively insensitive RRS lines by the use of E detection geometry.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Volume element V in a reactive flow field that is irradiated by a laser through area F. That portion of the resulting LIE that goes through area F′ and lies within solid angle ΔΩ is collected and is sent into either a camera or a spectrometer slit. Also shown are the defining polarization directions for E and E . For details see text.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Emission spectra showing VET’s in different laminar premixed flames: CH4–air, CH4–O2, and H2–O2. The peaks labeled 3, 2 and 3, 1 arise directly from laser-prepared states. The others arise from VET, which clearly decreases from top to bottom.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Results of the RELIEF method: (a) a cross of O2 (v″ = 1) written and detected at two different delay times in a free jet, (b) a line written in a turbulent flow. For details see the text.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

1D imaging and results in the reaction zone of a nonpremixed H2–air flame that has a Reynolds number of 13,600. (a) raw VRS signals, (b) absolute species concentrations T and mixture fraction ξ, a conserved scalar that describes the state of mixing, which is 0 in air, 1 in pure H2, and 0.283 under stoichiometric conditions.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

NO reduction in a residential furnace. For details see text.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Experimental setup for a spark-ignited IC engine.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

VRS and power measurements in an IC-engine cylinder. (a) shows a number of single cycle measurements that show that the air–fuel ratio is different from cycle to cycle. The other panels show correlations between compositions of present and previous cycles and of composition (see text).

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Effect of composition and pressure on flame-front formation in an IC engine simulator (see text). There is a clean flame front in (a) and a badly broken up one in (c).

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

IC-engine results from a diesel engine. (a), (b) Two single-shot images of OH; (c), (d) LIF and Mie scattering from n-heptane fuel. The bright portions near the bottom are droplets.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Analysis of an H2–air engine (see text).

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Planar distribution of (a) OH, (b) NO in a section of a hydrocarbon jet engine. The early appearance of NO, relative to OH, indicates prompt NO formation here.

Fig. 21
Fig. 21

NO reduction by local seeding of a tracer (again NO) in a commercial furnace by the TACC method. 3D flow visualization with global (upper left) and local seeding at the marked spots at the injection system (upper right, two images, second row). The right image in the third row shows the best seeding position to reduce NO. 3D distributions of NO and temperature are given in the third and the fourth rows, respectively. The lowest right plot shows the result. For more details see text.

Tables (9)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Manufacturer’s Specifications for the Largest Lambda Physik Tunable Laser, the LPX 350, in its Standard Version

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Table 2 Approximate (see text) Mole Fractions of Products and Reactants in the Combustion of Iso-octane in Air

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Table 3 Number of PE’s, Z e , Generated under Different Focusing Conditions for RS, VRS, RRS, and Various LIF Processes for Four Different Combustion Situationsa

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Table 4 VRS, RRS, and RS Cross Sections at 248 nma

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Table 5 Absolute Temperature Errors ΔT (K) for Different Combustion Conditions, as Calculated from Eqs. (41) and (43)

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Table 6 Species Excitation for LIF, LIPF, or Resonance-Enhanced Multiphoton Ionization (REMPI) with Tunable Excimer Light or with Stimulated Raman-Shifted Light in the First or the Second Stokes (S1 or S2) or the First Anti-Stokes (AS1) in H2 or D2a

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Table 7 Typical Problems with Quantification of Various LIE Techniquesa

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Table 8 Excitation Parameters for LIF of OH and NO Excited by Different Wavelengths

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Table 9 Parameters Used for the Calculation of the Number Z e of PE’s Given in Table 3

Equations (73)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dZ/dΩ =Zi dw/dΩ,
dw/dΩ =Zl/Fdσeff/dΩ  RS,
=Zl/Fdσim/dΩ  VRS,
=η q/4Ω  LIPF;
Zi=n V  RS,
=χmn V  VRS,
=fTχmn V  LIPF,
Ze=C dZ/dΩ=Cdw/dΩZi,
CTλQPKΔΩ.
V=2.7×10-5 cm3,  F=F=9×10-4 cm2.
2 C8H18+25 O2+100 N2 18 H2O+16 CO2+100 N2.
I=Zl/F  photons/cm2/pulse.
I=Zl/F Δν¯laserphotons/cm2/cm-1/pulse.
C=0.02 sr.
p=1/Fdσem/dΩ,
p ZlZm=Zl/Fχm n V dσem/dΩ
dZ/dΩ=m Zl/Fχm n V dσem/dΩ.
dσeff/dΩ=m χm dσem/dΩ,
dZ/dΩ=Zl/FnV dσeff/dΩ=Zi dw/dΩ,
dw/dΩ=Zl/Fdσeff/dΩ,  with Zi=nV.
dσem/dΩ=1.25×10-26 cm2 sr-1  N2, 248 nm.
dw/dΩ=Zl/Fdσeff/dΩ=1.25×10-8 sr-1  N2 at 248 nm, casea
=1.25×10-6 sr-1  N2 at 248 nm, caseb.
dw/dΩ=Zl/Fdσim/dΩ,
dZ/dΩ=Zi dw/dΩ,
dσim/dΩ=1.2×10-29 cm2 sr-1  N2 at 248 nm.
dw/dΩ=1.2×10-11 sr-1  casea
=1.2×10-9 sr-1  caseb.
Zem=ZeN2χm/χN2dσim/dΩ/dσiN2/dΩ.
γ=σν¯eJν¯edν¯e,
γ=Jν¯e σν¯edν¯e=Jν¯eσint,
η= γ dt=Iν¯eσint
σint=qv, vSjj/8 πc ν¯e2 τ
τ=1/A.
σint=1.3×10-12 qv, v Sjj/ν¯e2 τ.
q=A/A+P+Q.
Q=σvn,
σ=15×10-16 cm2.
dw/dΩ=η q/4π.
dw/dΩ=0.04 q.
dZ/dΩ=0.04 q Zi.
fT=gj2j+1exp-ΔEv/kT)×exp-ΔEj/kT/,
Zi=fTχm n V.
Ze=0.04CZiq=0.04qCfTχmnV,
ZefTχmnq.
R=2j1+1/2j2+1exp-ΔE/kT,
ΔT/T=ΔR/RkT/ΔE.
ΔR=dR/dZe1ΔZe1+dR/dZe2ΔZe2,
ΔR/R=1/Ze11/2+1/Ze21/2.
ΔR/R=9 Ze2-1/2+Ze2-1/2=1.33 Ze2-1/2=4 Ze1-1/2,
ΔT=T ΔR/R=1.7TZ-1/2.
Δn/n=-ΔT/T.
ΔT=-TZe-1/2.
Ta= pT, nmT dTdnm,
nma= pT, nmnmVdTdnm.
Ze1=Cdw/dΩfj1, T1nm1 V,
Ze2=Cdw/dΩfj2, T2nm2 V,
R=Ze1/Ze2=fj1, T1nm1/fj2, T2nm2.
R=Ze1/Ze2=fj1, T/fj2, T.
Ze=iCdw/dΩpTi, nmifj, TinmiV dTdnm=Cdw/dΩnmjV.
Ze1/Ze2=ipTi, nm1fj1, Tinmi×kpTk, nmkfj2, Tknmk.
Ze1/Ze2=nm1/nm2.
Ze1/Ze2=ifj1, Tanmakfj2, Tanma=fj1, Ta/fj2, Ta.
Zem=Cdw/dΩnmVpT, nm,
Zem=C dw/dΩnmV.
Zon=Zej+Zint,  Zoff=Zint.
Zon-Zoff=Zej,
Zex, y=Ex, yn  E is in counts cm-3,
nx, y=Zex, y/Ex, y.
ΔΩi=ΔΩ/M2.
ΔΩs=ΔΩi.
ΔΩ=M2ΔΩs=M2/f2.
C=ΔΩTλTsQPK  where ΔΩ=M2/f2.

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