Abstract

We have designed and installed a new set of actuators for the suspension of the primary mirror of the 2.1-m telescope at San Pedro Mártir. This active optics system has allowed us to correct low-order aberrations identified by several wave-front analysis techniques.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, L. Noethe, G. Andreoni, “Active optics IV. Set-up and performance of the optics of the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT) at the observatory,” J. Modern Opt. 38, 219–243 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Roddier, F. Roddier, “Wave-front reconstruction from defocused images and the testing of ground-base optical telescopes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2277–2287 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Baldwin, G. Pérez, B. Gregory, W. Weller, R. Wilson, L. Noethe, “Retrofitting new technology to an old telescope,” in ESO Conference on Progress in Telescope and Instrumentation Technologies (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1992), pp. 247–250.
  4. J. Baldwin, “4-m image quality improvements,” Natl. Opt. Astron. Observ. Newslett. 41, 34–35 (1995).
  5. J. de la Herrán, “The Mexican 2.12-m telescope for the National Astronomical Observatory at SPM, BC, México,” in Symposium on Recent Advances in Observational Astronomy Held at Ensenada, México (UNAM PressMéxico City, 1981), pp. 133–139.
  6. G. Schwesinger, “Theoretical aspects of mirror support,” in Proceedings of the Symposium on Support and Testing of Large Astronomical Mirrors (U. of Arizona Press, Tucson, Ariz., 1968), pp. 11–46.
  7. J. E. Nelson, J. Lubliner, T. S. Mast, “Telescope mirror supports: plate deflections on point supports,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes I, L. D. Barr, G. Burbidge, eds., Proc. SPIE332, 212–228 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Arnold, “Uniform load and actuator influence functions of a thin or thick annular mirror. Application to active mirror support optimization,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1095–1106 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975), Chap. 9, p. 464.
  10. R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, L. Noethe, “Active optics I. A system for optimizing the optical quality and reducing the costs of large telescopes,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 485–509 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Cordero, E. Luna, S. Zárate, O. Harris, “Evaluación de la calidad de la imagen del telescopio de 2.1-m,” (Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM Press, Mexico City, 1995).
  12. L. Salas, “Variable separation in curvature sensing. A fast method to solve the irradiance transport equation in the context of optical telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1593–1596 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. Cornejo, “Ronchi test,” in Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed., D. Malacara, ed., (Wiley, New York, 1991), pp. 338–339.
  14. D. Malacara, L. DeVore, “Interferogram evaluation and wavefront fitting,” in Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed., D. Malacara, ed., (Wiley, New York, 1991), pp. 470–472.
  15. C. Roddier, J. E. Graves, M. J. Northcott, F. Roddier, “Testing optical telescopes from defocused stellar images,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE2199, 1172–1177 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Miralles, S. Kurtz, I. Cruz-González, L. Salas, Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM, Ensenada 22800, México (personal communication, 1996).
  17. I. Cruz-González, L. Carrasco, E. Ruiz, L. Salas, M. Skrutskie, M. Meyer, P. Sotelo, F. Barbosa, L. Gutiérrez, A. Iriarte, F. Cobos, A. Bernal, B. Sánchez, J. Valdéz, S. Argüelles, P. Conconi, “CAMILA: Infrared Camera/Spectrograph for OAN-SPM,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VIII, D. L. Crawford, E. R. Craine, eds., Proc. SPIE2198, 774–780 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

1996

1995

J. Baldwin, “4-m image quality improvements,” Natl. Opt. Astron. Observ. Newslett. 41, 34–35 (1995).

1993

1991

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, L. Noethe, G. Andreoni, “Active optics IV. Set-up and performance of the optics of the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT) at the observatory,” J. Modern Opt. 38, 219–243 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, L. Noethe, “Active optics I. A system for optimizing the optical quality and reducing the costs of large telescopes,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 485–509 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Andreoni, G.

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, L. Noethe, G. Andreoni, “Active optics IV. Set-up and performance of the optics of the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT) at the observatory,” J. Modern Opt. 38, 219–243 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Argüelles, S.

I. Cruz-González, L. Carrasco, E. Ruiz, L. Salas, M. Skrutskie, M. Meyer, P. Sotelo, F. Barbosa, L. Gutiérrez, A. Iriarte, F. Cobos, A. Bernal, B. Sánchez, J. Valdéz, S. Argüelles, P. Conconi, “CAMILA: Infrared Camera/Spectrograph for OAN-SPM,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VIII, D. L. Crawford, E. R. Craine, eds., Proc. SPIE2198, 774–780 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, L.

Baldwin, J.

J. Baldwin, “4-m image quality improvements,” Natl. Opt. Astron. Observ. Newslett. 41, 34–35 (1995).

J. Baldwin, G. Pérez, B. Gregory, W. Weller, R. Wilson, L. Noethe, “Retrofitting new technology to an old telescope,” in ESO Conference on Progress in Telescope and Instrumentation Technologies (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1992), pp. 247–250.

Barbosa, F.

I. Cruz-González, L. Carrasco, E. Ruiz, L. Salas, M. Skrutskie, M. Meyer, P. Sotelo, F. Barbosa, L. Gutiérrez, A. Iriarte, F. Cobos, A. Bernal, B. Sánchez, J. Valdéz, S. Argüelles, P. Conconi, “CAMILA: Infrared Camera/Spectrograph for OAN-SPM,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VIII, D. L. Crawford, E. R. Craine, eds., Proc. SPIE2198, 774–780 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bernal, A.

I. Cruz-González, L. Carrasco, E. Ruiz, L. Salas, M. Skrutskie, M. Meyer, P. Sotelo, F. Barbosa, L. Gutiérrez, A. Iriarte, F. Cobos, A. Bernal, B. Sánchez, J. Valdéz, S. Argüelles, P. Conconi, “CAMILA: Infrared Camera/Spectrograph for OAN-SPM,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VIII, D. L. Crawford, E. R. Craine, eds., Proc. SPIE2198, 774–780 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975), Chap. 9, p. 464.

Carrasco, L.

I. Cruz-González, L. Carrasco, E. Ruiz, L. Salas, M. Skrutskie, M. Meyer, P. Sotelo, F. Barbosa, L. Gutiérrez, A. Iriarte, F. Cobos, A. Bernal, B. Sánchez, J. Valdéz, S. Argüelles, P. Conconi, “CAMILA: Infrared Camera/Spectrograph for OAN-SPM,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VIII, D. L. Crawford, E. R. Craine, eds., Proc. SPIE2198, 774–780 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cobos, F.

I. Cruz-González, L. Carrasco, E. Ruiz, L. Salas, M. Skrutskie, M. Meyer, P. Sotelo, F. Barbosa, L. Gutiérrez, A. Iriarte, F. Cobos, A. Bernal, B. Sánchez, J. Valdéz, S. Argüelles, P. Conconi, “CAMILA: Infrared Camera/Spectrograph for OAN-SPM,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VIII, D. L. Crawford, E. R. Craine, eds., Proc. SPIE2198, 774–780 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Conconi, P.

I. Cruz-González, L. Carrasco, E. Ruiz, L. Salas, M. Skrutskie, M. Meyer, P. Sotelo, F. Barbosa, L. Gutiérrez, A. Iriarte, F. Cobos, A. Bernal, B. Sánchez, J. Valdéz, S. Argüelles, P. Conconi, “CAMILA: Infrared Camera/Spectrograph for OAN-SPM,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VIII, D. L. Crawford, E. R. Craine, eds., Proc. SPIE2198, 774–780 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cordero, A.

A. Cordero, E. Luna, S. Zárate, O. Harris, “Evaluación de la calidad de la imagen del telescopio de 2.1-m,” (Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM Press, Mexico City, 1995).

Cornejo, A.

A. Cornejo, “Ronchi test,” in Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed., D. Malacara, ed., (Wiley, New York, 1991), pp. 338–339.

Cruz-González, I.

M. Miralles, S. Kurtz, I. Cruz-González, L. Salas, Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM, Ensenada 22800, México (personal communication, 1996).

I. Cruz-González, L. Carrasco, E. Ruiz, L. Salas, M. Skrutskie, M. Meyer, P. Sotelo, F. Barbosa, L. Gutiérrez, A. Iriarte, F. Cobos, A. Bernal, B. Sánchez, J. Valdéz, S. Argüelles, P. Conconi, “CAMILA: Infrared Camera/Spectrograph for OAN-SPM,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VIII, D. L. Crawford, E. R. Craine, eds., Proc. SPIE2198, 774–780 (1994).
[CrossRef]

de la Herrán, J.

J. de la Herrán, “The Mexican 2.12-m telescope for the National Astronomical Observatory at SPM, BC, México,” in Symposium on Recent Advances in Observational Astronomy Held at Ensenada, México (UNAM PressMéxico City, 1981), pp. 133–139.

DeVore, L.

D. Malacara, L. DeVore, “Interferogram evaluation and wavefront fitting,” in Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed., D. Malacara, ed., (Wiley, New York, 1991), pp. 470–472.

Franza, F.

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, L. Noethe, G. Andreoni, “Active optics IV. Set-up and performance of the optics of the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT) at the observatory,” J. Modern Opt. 38, 219–243 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, L. Noethe, “Active optics I. A system for optimizing the optical quality and reducing the costs of large telescopes,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 485–509 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Graves, J. E.

C. Roddier, J. E. Graves, M. J. Northcott, F. Roddier, “Testing optical telescopes from defocused stellar images,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE2199, 1172–1177 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, B.

J. Baldwin, G. Pérez, B. Gregory, W. Weller, R. Wilson, L. Noethe, “Retrofitting new technology to an old telescope,” in ESO Conference on Progress in Telescope and Instrumentation Technologies (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1992), pp. 247–250.

Gutiérrez, L.

I. Cruz-González, L. Carrasco, E. Ruiz, L. Salas, M. Skrutskie, M. Meyer, P. Sotelo, F. Barbosa, L. Gutiérrez, A. Iriarte, F. Cobos, A. Bernal, B. Sánchez, J. Valdéz, S. Argüelles, P. Conconi, “CAMILA: Infrared Camera/Spectrograph for OAN-SPM,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VIII, D. L. Crawford, E. R. Craine, eds., Proc. SPIE2198, 774–780 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Harris, O.

A. Cordero, E. Luna, S. Zárate, O. Harris, “Evaluación de la calidad de la imagen del telescopio de 2.1-m,” (Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM Press, Mexico City, 1995).

Iriarte, A.

I. Cruz-González, L. Carrasco, E. Ruiz, L. Salas, M. Skrutskie, M. Meyer, P. Sotelo, F. Barbosa, L. Gutiérrez, A. Iriarte, F. Cobos, A. Bernal, B. Sánchez, J. Valdéz, S. Argüelles, P. Conconi, “CAMILA: Infrared Camera/Spectrograph for OAN-SPM,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VIII, D. L. Crawford, E. R. Craine, eds., Proc. SPIE2198, 774–780 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kurtz, S.

M. Miralles, S. Kurtz, I. Cruz-González, L. Salas, Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM, Ensenada 22800, México (personal communication, 1996).

Lubliner, J.

J. E. Nelson, J. Lubliner, T. S. Mast, “Telescope mirror supports: plate deflections on point supports,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes I, L. D. Barr, G. Burbidge, eds., Proc. SPIE332, 212–228 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Luna, E.

A. Cordero, E. Luna, S. Zárate, O. Harris, “Evaluación de la calidad de la imagen del telescopio de 2.1-m,” (Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM Press, Mexico City, 1995).

Malacara, D.

D. Malacara, L. DeVore, “Interferogram evaluation and wavefront fitting,” in Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed., D. Malacara, ed., (Wiley, New York, 1991), pp. 470–472.

Mast, T. S.

J. E. Nelson, J. Lubliner, T. S. Mast, “Telescope mirror supports: plate deflections on point supports,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes I, L. D. Barr, G. Burbidge, eds., Proc. SPIE332, 212–228 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, M.

I. Cruz-González, L. Carrasco, E. Ruiz, L. Salas, M. Skrutskie, M. Meyer, P. Sotelo, F. Barbosa, L. Gutiérrez, A. Iriarte, F. Cobos, A. Bernal, B. Sánchez, J. Valdéz, S. Argüelles, P. Conconi, “CAMILA: Infrared Camera/Spectrograph for OAN-SPM,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VIII, D. L. Crawford, E. R. Craine, eds., Proc. SPIE2198, 774–780 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Miralles, M.

M. Miralles, S. Kurtz, I. Cruz-González, L. Salas, Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM, Ensenada 22800, México (personal communication, 1996).

Nelson, J. E.

J. E. Nelson, J. Lubliner, T. S. Mast, “Telescope mirror supports: plate deflections on point supports,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes I, L. D. Barr, G. Burbidge, eds., Proc. SPIE332, 212–228 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Noethe, L.

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, L. Noethe, G. Andreoni, “Active optics IV. Set-up and performance of the optics of the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT) at the observatory,” J. Modern Opt. 38, 219–243 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, L. Noethe, “Active optics I. A system for optimizing the optical quality and reducing the costs of large telescopes,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 485–509 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Baldwin, G. Pérez, B. Gregory, W. Weller, R. Wilson, L. Noethe, “Retrofitting new technology to an old telescope,” in ESO Conference on Progress in Telescope and Instrumentation Technologies (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1992), pp. 247–250.

Northcott, M. J.

C. Roddier, J. E. Graves, M. J. Northcott, F. Roddier, “Testing optical telescopes from defocused stellar images,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE2199, 1172–1177 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pérez, G.

J. Baldwin, G. Pérez, B. Gregory, W. Weller, R. Wilson, L. Noethe, “Retrofitting new technology to an old telescope,” in ESO Conference on Progress in Telescope and Instrumentation Technologies (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1992), pp. 247–250.

Roddier, C.

C. Roddier, F. Roddier, “Wave-front reconstruction from defocused images and the testing of ground-base optical telescopes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2277–2287 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Roddier, J. E. Graves, M. J. Northcott, F. Roddier, “Testing optical telescopes from defocused stellar images,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE2199, 1172–1177 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Roddier, F.

C. Roddier, F. Roddier, “Wave-front reconstruction from defocused images and the testing of ground-base optical telescopes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2277–2287 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Roddier, J. E. Graves, M. J. Northcott, F. Roddier, “Testing optical telescopes from defocused stellar images,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE2199, 1172–1177 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ruiz, E.

I. Cruz-González, L. Carrasco, E. Ruiz, L. Salas, M. Skrutskie, M. Meyer, P. Sotelo, F. Barbosa, L. Gutiérrez, A. Iriarte, F. Cobos, A. Bernal, B. Sánchez, J. Valdéz, S. Argüelles, P. Conconi, “CAMILA: Infrared Camera/Spectrograph for OAN-SPM,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VIII, D. L. Crawford, E. R. Craine, eds., Proc. SPIE2198, 774–780 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Salas, L.

L. Salas, “Variable separation in curvature sensing. A fast method to solve the irradiance transport equation in the context of optical telescopes,” Appl. Opt. 35, 1593–1596 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Cruz-González, L. Carrasco, E. Ruiz, L. Salas, M. Skrutskie, M. Meyer, P. Sotelo, F. Barbosa, L. Gutiérrez, A. Iriarte, F. Cobos, A. Bernal, B. Sánchez, J. Valdéz, S. Argüelles, P. Conconi, “CAMILA: Infrared Camera/Spectrograph for OAN-SPM,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VIII, D. L. Crawford, E. R. Craine, eds., Proc. SPIE2198, 774–780 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Miralles, S. Kurtz, I. Cruz-González, L. Salas, Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM, Ensenada 22800, México (personal communication, 1996).

Sánchez, B.

I. Cruz-González, L. Carrasco, E. Ruiz, L. Salas, M. Skrutskie, M. Meyer, P. Sotelo, F. Barbosa, L. Gutiérrez, A. Iriarte, F. Cobos, A. Bernal, B. Sánchez, J. Valdéz, S. Argüelles, P. Conconi, “CAMILA: Infrared Camera/Spectrograph for OAN-SPM,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VIII, D. L. Crawford, E. R. Craine, eds., Proc. SPIE2198, 774–780 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schwesinger, G.

G. Schwesinger, “Theoretical aspects of mirror support,” in Proceedings of the Symposium on Support and Testing of Large Astronomical Mirrors (U. of Arizona Press, Tucson, Ariz., 1968), pp. 11–46.

Skrutskie, M.

I. Cruz-González, L. Carrasco, E. Ruiz, L. Salas, M. Skrutskie, M. Meyer, P. Sotelo, F. Barbosa, L. Gutiérrez, A. Iriarte, F. Cobos, A. Bernal, B. Sánchez, J. Valdéz, S. Argüelles, P. Conconi, “CAMILA: Infrared Camera/Spectrograph for OAN-SPM,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VIII, D. L. Crawford, E. R. Craine, eds., Proc. SPIE2198, 774–780 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sotelo, P.

I. Cruz-González, L. Carrasco, E. Ruiz, L. Salas, M. Skrutskie, M. Meyer, P. Sotelo, F. Barbosa, L. Gutiérrez, A. Iriarte, F. Cobos, A. Bernal, B. Sánchez, J. Valdéz, S. Argüelles, P. Conconi, “CAMILA: Infrared Camera/Spectrograph for OAN-SPM,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VIII, D. L. Crawford, E. R. Craine, eds., Proc. SPIE2198, 774–780 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Valdéz, J.

I. Cruz-González, L. Carrasco, E. Ruiz, L. Salas, M. Skrutskie, M. Meyer, P. Sotelo, F. Barbosa, L. Gutiérrez, A. Iriarte, F. Cobos, A. Bernal, B. Sánchez, J. Valdéz, S. Argüelles, P. Conconi, “CAMILA: Infrared Camera/Spectrograph for OAN-SPM,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VIII, D. L. Crawford, E. R. Craine, eds., Proc. SPIE2198, 774–780 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Weller, W.

J. Baldwin, G. Pérez, B. Gregory, W. Weller, R. Wilson, L. Noethe, “Retrofitting new technology to an old telescope,” in ESO Conference on Progress in Telescope and Instrumentation Technologies (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1992), pp. 247–250.

Wilson, R.

J. Baldwin, G. Pérez, B. Gregory, W. Weller, R. Wilson, L. Noethe, “Retrofitting new technology to an old telescope,” in ESO Conference on Progress in Telescope and Instrumentation Technologies (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1992), pp. 247–250.

Wilson, R. N.

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, L. Noethe, G. Andreoni, “Active optics IV. Set-up and performance of the optics of the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT) at the observatory,” J. Modern Opt. 38, 219–243 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, L. Noethe, “Active optics I. A system for optimizing the optical quality and reducing the costs of large telescopes,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 485–509 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975), Chap. 9, p. 464.

Zárate, S.

A. Cordero, E. Luna, S. Zárate, O. Harris, “Evaluación de la calidad de la imagen del telescopio de 2.1-m,” (Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM Press, Mexico City, 1995).

Appl. Opt.

J. Mod. Opt.

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, L. Noethe, “Active optics I. A system for optimizing the optical quality and reducing the costs of large telescopes,” J. Mod. Opt. 34, 485–509 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Modern Opt.

R. N. Wilson, F. Franza, L. Noethe, G. Andreoni, “Active optics IV. Set-up and performance of the optics of the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT) at the observatory,” J. Modern Opt. 38, 219–243 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Natl. Opt. Astron. Observ. Newslett.

J. Baldwin, “4-m image quality improvements,” Natl. Opt. Astron. Observ. Newslett. 41, 34–35 (1995).

Other

J. de la Herrán, “The Mexican 2.12-m telescope for the National Astronomical Observatory at SPM, BC, México,” in Symposium on Recent Advances in Observational Astronomy Held at Ensenada, México (UNAM PressMéxico City, 1981), pp. 133–139.

G. Schwesinger, “Theoretical aspects of mirror support,” in Proceedings of the Symposium on Support and Testing of Large Astronomical Mirrors (U. of Arizona Press, Tucson, Ariz., 1968), pp. 11–46.

J. E. Nelson, J. Lubliner, T. S. Mast, “Telescope mirror supports: plate deflections on point supports,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes I, L. D. Barr, G. Burbidge, eds., Proc. SPIE332, 212–228 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 5th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975), Chap. 9, p. 464.

A. Cordero, E. Luna, S. Zárate, O. Harris, “Evaluación de la calidad de la imagen del telescopio de 2.1-m,” (Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM Press, Mexico City, 1995).

A. Cornejo, “Ronchi test,” in Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed., D. Malacara, ed., (Wiley, New York, 1991), pp. 338–339.

D. Malacara, L. DeVore, “Interferogram evaluation and wavefront fitting,” in Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed., D. Malacara, ed., (Wiley, New York, 1991), pp. 470–472.

C. Roddier, J. E. Graves, M. J. Northcott, F. Roddier, “Testing optical telescopes from defocused stellar images,” in Advanced Technology Optical Telescopes V, L. M. Stepp, ed., Proc. SPIE2199, 1172–1177 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Miralles, S. Kurtz, I. Cruz-González, L. Salas, Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM, Ensenada 22800, México (personal communication, 1996).

I. Cruz-González, L. Carrasco, E. Ruiz, L. Salas, M. Skrutskie, M. Meyer, P. Sotelo, F. Barbosa, L. Gutiérrez, A. Iriarte, F. Cobos, A. Bernal, B. Sánchez, J. Valdéz, S. Argüelles, P. Conconi, “CAMILA: Infrared Camera/Spectrograph for OAN-SPM,” in Instrumentation in Astronomy VIII, D. L. Crawford, E. R. Craine, eds., Proc. SPIE2198, 774–780 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Baldwin, G. Pérez, B. Gregory, W. Weller, R. Wilson, L. Noethe, “Retrofitting new technology to an old telescope,” in ESO Conference on Progress in Telescope and Instrumentation Technologies (European Southern Observatory, Garching, Germany, 1992), pp. 247–250.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Position of the 18 force actuators (air bags) and three hard points in the mirror cell.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated residual surface deformation and image quality of the mirror resting in the proposed supports: (a) residual surface deformations; (b) point image produced in focus; (c) intensity distribution of the point image as a function of radius; (d) integrated flux of the point image as a function of radius, showing that 80% of the radiation will be included in a circle of 0.6 arcsec.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pressure control loop regulates the pressure in each air bag to its desired value (set point, S.P.) with better than 1% accuracy. The pressure is controlled through a stepper-motor driven regulator, and a sensor feeds back the actual pressure to the computer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Position loop modifies the set point of each pressure loop as a function of the fraction of the mirror weight corresponding to each bag (Pw i), the fraction of the mirror weight corresponding to each load cell (PC 1,2,3), the transformation matrix (Kij) that defines a pressure plane, and the desired deformation (Pd i). A PID algorithm is used to close the position loop. The zenith reference is given by an inclinometer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Mechanical design of the hard points. A load cell senses the weight of the mirror through a spherical contact point. A couple of bearings permit rotatory action to position the height of the mirror at each hard point.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Effect of applied pressures on the wave front: (a) original wave front (µm); (b) wave front obtained after pressures were applied to the actuators; (c) the difference of (b) - (a); (d) the set of applied pressures in each actuator.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Graph of the deformations obtained at the position of the actuators versus the applied pressure. Each actuator is numbered. The solid line represents a slope of 3 µm/psi.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

PSF reconstructions from wave-front analyses, before [(a)–(c)] and after [(d)–(f)] the introduction of the active system; (a) and (c) show surface plots of the PSF, (b) and (e) show contour plots with a scale of 0.15 arcsec per pixel, and (c) and (f) show the integrated flux contained in a circle of radius r.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Image of the Ultra-Compact HII region G173.7, obtained with the corrected f/13 configuration and the infrared camera CAMILA. Contours are log spaced with 0.2 decimal exponent intervals. The offset position from the central source is given in arcseconds for declination (DEC) and right ascension (R.A.).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Intrinsic rms Aberrations of Different Telescopes

Equations (10)

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δrms=γNqDAN2,
Pi=Pwi cos z+Pdi+PIDjKi,jEpj; i=1  18, j=1  3.
Epj=Mjc-Pwjc cos z+Pdjc; j=1  3,
Tx=i=0k-1j=0i Cijxjyi-j,
Ty=i=0k-1j=0i Dijxjyi-j,
Wx=-TxR, Wy=-TyR,
Wx, y=i=0kj=0iBijxjyi-j,
C=I1-I212I1+I2,
Sρ, θ=1IIzff-ll.
Iz=-I·W+I2W,

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