Abstract

The ordinary recordings of TV holography (phase-stepped electronic speckle interferometry), arranged for out-of-plane sensitivity, are recombined and also analyzed by use of electronic speckle photography for simultaneous measurements of all three components of the deformation vector field. The principles of this technique are presented. Experimental results showing the opening of a slot in a perspex plate are also presented.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. J. Pryputniewicz, “Quantitative determination of displacements and strain from holograms,” in Holographic Interferometry, P. K. Rastogi, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. F. Luo, Y. J. Chao, M. A. Sutton, W. H. Peters, “Accurate measurement of three-dimensional deformations in deformable and rigid bodies using computer vision,” Exp. Mech. 33, 123–132 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Benckert, M. Jonsson, N. E. Molin, “Measuring true in-plane displacements of a surface by stereoscopic white light speckle photography,” Opt. Eng. 26, 167–169 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Henao, F. Medina, H. J. Rabal, M. Trivi, “Three-dimensional speckle measurements with a diffraction grating,” Appl. Opt. 32, 726–729 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Wang, F.-P. Chiang, “New moiré interferometry for measuring three-dimensional displacements,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2654–2658 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. P. Chiang, D. W. Li, “Random (speckle) patterns for displacement and strain measurement: some recent advances,” Opt. Eng. 24, 936–943 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  7. O. J. Løkberg, “Recent development in video speckle interferometry,” in Speckle Metrology, R. S. Sirohi, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1993).
  8. M. Sjöodahl, L. R. Benckert, “Electronic speckle photography: analysis of an algorithm giving the displacement with subpixel accuracy,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2278–2284 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Sjödahl, L. R. Benckert, “Systematic and random errors in electronic speckle photography,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7461–7471 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Sjödahl, “Electronic speckle photography: increased accuracy by nonintegral pixel shifting,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6667–6673 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. A. Stetson, “Theory and applications of electronic holography,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Hologram Interferometry and Speckle Metrology, K. A. Stetson, R. J. Pryputniewicz, eds. (Society for Experimental Mechanics, Bethel, Conn., 1990), pp. 294–300.
  12. K. Creath, “Phase-measuring techniques for nondestructive testing,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Hologram Interferometry and Speckle Metrology, K. A. Stetson, R. J. Pryputniewicz, eds. (Society for Experimental Mechanics, Bethel, Conn., 1990), pp. 473–479.
  13. J. M. Huntley, “Random-phase measurement errors in digital speckle pattern interferometry,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 26, 131–150 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. M. Huntley, “Noise-immune phase unwrapping algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3268–3270 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

J. M. Huntley, “Random-phase measurement errors in digital speckle pattern interferometry,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 26, 131–150 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

1993 (3)

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

L. Benckert, M. Jonsson, N. E. Molin, “Measuring true in-plane displacements of a surface by stereoscopic white light speckle photography,” Opt. Eng. 26, 167–169 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

F. P. Chiang, D. W. Li, “Random (speckle) patterns for displacement and strain measurement: some recent advances,” Opt. Eng. 24, 936–943 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Benckert, L.

L. Benckert, M. Jonsson, N. E. Molin, “Measuring true in-plane displacements of a surface by stereoscopic white light speckle photography,” Opt. Eng. 26, 167–169 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Benckert, L. R.

Chao, Y. J.

P. F. Luo, Y. J. Chao, M. A. Sutton, W. H. Peters, “Accurate measurement of three-dimensional deformations in deformable and rigid bodies using computer vision,” Exp. Mech. 33, 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, F. P.

F. P. Chiang, D. W. Li, “Random (speckle) patterns for displacement and strain measurement: some recent advances,” Opt. Eng. 24, 936–943 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, F.-P.

Y. Wang, F.-P. Chiang, “New moiré interferometry for measuring three-dimensional displacements,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2654–2658 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Creath, K.

K. Creath, “Phase-measuring techniques for nondestructive testing,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Hologram Interferometry and Speckle Metrology, K. A. Stetson, R. J. Pryputniewicz, eds. (Society for Experimental Mechanics, Bethel, Conn., 1990), pp. 473–479.

Henao, R.

Huntley, J. M.

J. M. Huntley, “Random-phase measurement errors in digital speckle pattern interferometry,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 26, 131–150 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Huntley, “Noise-immune phase unwrapping algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3268–3270 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jonsson, M.

L. Benckert, M. Jonsson, N. E. Molin, “Measuring true in-plane displacements of a surface by stereoscopic white light speckle photography,” Opt. Eng. 26, 167–169 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Li, D. W.

F. P. Chiang, D. W. Li, “Random (speckle) patterns for displacement and strain measurement: some recent advances,” Opt. Eng. 24, 936–943 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Løkberg, O. J.

O. J. Løkberg, “Recent development in video speckle interferometry,” in Speckle Metrology, R. S. Sirohi, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1993).

Luo, P. F.

P. F. Luo, Y. J. Chao, M. A. Sutton, W. H. Peters, “Accurate measurement of three-dimensional deformations in deformable and rigid bodies using computer vision,” Exp. Mech. 33, 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Medina, F.

Molin, N. E.

L. Benckert, M. Jonsson, N. E. Molin, “Measuring true in-plane displacements of a surface by stereoscopic white light speckle photography,” Opt. Eng. 26, 167–169 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Peters, W. H.

P. F. Luo, Y. J. Chao, M. A. Sutton, W. H. Peters, “Accurate measurement of three-dimensional deformations in deformable and rigid bodies using computer vision,” Exp. Mech. 33, 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pryputniewicz, R. J.

R. J. Pryputniewicz, “Quantitative determination of displacements and strain from holograms,” in Holographic Interferometry, P. K. Rastogi, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Rabal, H. J.

Sjödahl, M.

Sjöodahl, M.

Stetson, K. A.

K. A. Stetson, “Theory and applications of electronic holography,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Hologram Interferometry and Speckle Metrology, K. A. Stetson, R. J. Pryputniewicz, eds. (Society for Experimental Mechanics, Bethel, Conn., 1990), pp. 294–300.

Sutton, M. A.

P. F. Luo, Y. J. Chao, M. A. Sutton, W. H. Peters, “Accurate measurement of three-dimensional deformations in deformable and rigid bodies using computer vision,” Exp. Mech. 33, 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Trivi, M.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, F.-P. Chiang, “New moiré interferometry for measuring three-dimensional displacements,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2654–2658 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Exp. Mech. (1)

P. F. Luo, Y. J. Chao, M. A. Sutton, W. H. Peters, “Accurate measurement of three-dimensional deformations in deformable and rigid bodies using computer vision,” Exp. Mech. 33, 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (3)

L. Benckert, M. Jonsson, N. E. Molin, “Measuring true in-plane displacements of a surface by stereoscopic white light speckle photography,” Opt. Eng. 26, 167–169 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, F.-P. Chiang, “New moiré interferometry for measuring three-dimensional displacements,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2654–2658 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Chiang, D. W. Li, “Random (speckle) patterns for displacement and strain measurement: some recent advances,” Opt. Eng. 24, 936–943 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

J. M. Huntley, “Random-phase measurement errors in digital speckle pattern interferometry,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 26, 131–150 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

R. J. Pryputniewicz, “Quantitative determination of displacements and strain from holograms,” in Holographic Interferometry, P. K. Rastogi, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994).
[CrossRef]

O. J. Løkberg, “Recent development in video speckle interferometry,” in Speckle Metrology, R. S. Sirohi, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1993).

K. A. Stetson, “Theory and applications of electronic holography,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Hologram Interferometry and Speckle Metrology, K. A. Stetson, R. J. Pryputniewicz, eds. (Society for Experimental Mechanics, Bethel, Conn., 1990), pp. 294–300.

K. Creath, “Phase-measuring techniques for nondestructive testing,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Hologram Interferometry and Speckle Metrology, K. A. Stetson, R. J. Pryputniewicz, eds. (Society for Experimental Mechanics, Bethel, Conn., 1990), pp. 473–479.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical configuration of the system for simultaneous measurement of the complete deformation vector (u, v, w) T . BS, beam splitter; PS, phase-stepped mirror; M, mirror; BE, beam expander; R, relay lens; CCD, video camera.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Phase map of the TV holography measurement of the out-of-plane component. Black and white represent phase values of -π and +π, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

White-light-illuminated object with a contour plot of the out-of-plane deformation and an arrow plot of the in-plane deformation.

Equations (16)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I0x, y=Iox, y+Irx, y+Imx, ycosϕx, y,
I90x, y=Iox, y+Irx, y+Imx, y×cosϕx, y+π/2,
I180x, y=Iox, y+Irx, y+Imx, y×cosϕx, y+π,
I270x, y=Iox, y+Irx, y+Imx, y×cosϕx, y+3π/2,
I0x, y=Iox, y+Irx, y+Imx, y×cosϕx, y+Ωx, y,
I90x, y=Iox, y+Irx, y+Imx, y×cosϕx, y+π/2+Ωx, y,
I180x, y=Iox, y+Irx, y+Imx, y×cosϕx, y+π+Ωx, y,
I270x, y=Iox, y+Irx, y+Imx, y×cosϕx, y+3π/2+Ωx, y,
C1=I0-I180=2Imx, ycosϕx, y,
S1=I270-I90=2Imx, ysinϕx, y,
C2=I0-I180=2Imx, ycosϕx, y+Ωx, y,
S2=I270-I90=2Imx, ysinϕx, y+Ωx, y,
Ωx, y=tan-1×C1+S22+S1-C22-C1-S22-S1+C22C1+C22+S1+S22-C1-C22-S1-S22
Ωx, y=4πλwx, y,
2Imx, y=C12+S12,
2Im x, y=C22+S22,

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