Abstract

A technique for obtaining simultaneous quantitative images of the hydroxyl radical, OH, temperature, mixture fraction, and scalar dissipation rates in turbulent diffusion flames is described. Mixture fraction is obtained from images of Rayleigh and fuel Raman scattering. We quantified the OH laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) images using detailed calibration and a correction for quenching and population distribution effects based on the simultaneous mixture fraction and temperature images. This correction was derived from calculations of laminar counterflow diffusion flames for identical fuel mixtures. These laminar flame computations are further used to estimate the errors in the measured OH concentrations. The technique is applied to piloted, nonpremixed flames over a range of jet velocities. The measured mixture fraction, temperature, and OH concentrations are in good agreement with those obtained earlier in similar flames using the single-point Raman/Rayleigh/LIF technique.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Peters, “Laminar flamelet concepts in turbulent combustion,” in Twenty-First Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1986), pp. 231–1250.
  2. R. W. Bilger, “The structure of turbulent non-Premixed flames,” in Twenty-Second Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), pp. 475–488.
  3. S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, K. M. Lyons, J. H. Frank, M. B. Long, “Conserved scalar measurements in turbulent diffusion flames by a Raman and Rayleigh ribbon imaging method,” Combust. and Flame 99, 347–354 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. P. Nandula, T. M. Brown, R. W. Pitz, “Measurements of scalar dissipation in the reaction zones of turbulent non-premixed H2–air flames,” Combust. and Flame 99, 775–783 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. W. Bilger, “Conditional moment closure for turbulent reacting flows,” Phys. Fluids A. 5, 436–444 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Peters, “Partially premixed diffusion flamelets in non-Premixed turbulent combustion,” in Twentieth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1984), pp. 353–360.
  7. A. R. Masri, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, “The structure of turbulent non-Premixed flames of methanol over a range of mixing rates,” Combust. Flame 89, 167–185 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. R. Masri, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, “Turbulent non-Premixed flames of methane near extinction: mean structure from Raman measurements,” Combust. and Flame 71, 245–266 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. R. Masri, R. W. Dibble, “Spontaneous Raman measurements in turbulent CO/H2/N2 flames near extinction,” in Twenty-Second Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), pp. 607–618.
  10. S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, K. M. Lyons, D. F. Marran, M. B. Long, “Planar mixture fraction measurements in turbulent diffusion flames by a joint Rayleigh and fuel LIF method,” presented at the 14th International Colloquium on the Dynamics of Explosions and Reactive Systems, Coimbra, Portugal, 1993.
  11. J. B. Kelman, S. H. Stårner, A. R. Masri, R. W. Bilger, “Wide-field conserved scalar imaging in turbulent diffusion flames by a Raman and Rayleigh method,” in Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 1141–1147.
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. B. Kelman, “Simultaneous laser imaging in turbulent diffusion flames,” Ph.D. dissertation (Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia, 1995).
  13. J. H. Frank, K. M. Lyons, D. F. Marran, M. B. Long, S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, “Mixture fraction imaging in turbulent non-Premixed hydrocarbon flames,” in Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 1159–1166.
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. B. Kelman, A. R. Masri, “Imaging of reaction zone structure in turbulent diffusion flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, “Piloted diffusion flames of diluted methane near extinction: detailed structure from laser measurements,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 72, 255–269 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. R. Masri, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, “Chemical kinetic effects in nonpremixed flames of H2/CO2 fuel,” Combust. and Flame 91, 285–309 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. H. Dieke, H. M. Crosswhite, “The ultra-Violet bands of OH: fundamental data,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 2, 97–199 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. Dally, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia (personal communication, 1994).
  19. S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, “Measurements of conserved scalars in turbulent diffusion flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 86, 223–236 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, M. B. Long, “A method for contour-aligned smoothing of joint 2-D scalar images in turbulent flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 107, 195–203 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. B. Kelman, A. R. Masri, “Quantitative imaging of temperature and OH in turbulent diffusion flames using a single laser source,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3992–3999 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. R. S. Barlow, A. Collignon, “Linear LIF measurements of OH in non-Premixed methane–air flames: when are quenching corrections unnecessary?” in Proceedings 29th Aerospace Sciences Meeting (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 555 West 57th Street, New York, N.Y., 1991).
    [CrossRef]
  23. N. L. Garland, D. R. Crosely, “On the collisional quenching of electronically excited OH, NH, CH in flames,” in Twenty-First Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1986), pp. 1693–1702.

1997 (1)

J. B. Kelman, A. R. Masri, “Imaging of reaction zone structure in turbulent diffusion flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, M. B. Long, “A method for contour-aligned smoothing of joint 2-D scalar images in turbulent flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 107, 195–203 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

J. B. Kelman, A. R. Masri, “Quantitative imaging of temperature and OH in turbulent diffusion flames using a single laser source,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3992–3999 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, K. M. Lyons, J. H. Frank, M. B. Long, “Conserved scalar measurements in turbulent diffusion flames by a Raman and Rayleigh ribbon imaging method,” Combust. and Flame 99, 347–354 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Nandula, T. M. Brown, R. W. Pitz, “Measurements of scalar dissipation in the reaction zones of turbulent non-premixed H2–air flames,” Combust. and Flame 99, 775–783 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. W. Bilger, “Conditional moment closure for turbulent reacting flows,” Phys. Fluids A. 5, 436–444 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

A. R. Masri, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, “The structure of turbulent non-Premixed flames of methanol over a range of mixing rates,” Combust. Flame 89, 167–185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Masri, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, “Chemical kinetic effects in nonpremixed flames of H2/CO2 fuel,” Combust. and Flame 91, 285–309 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, “Measurements of conserved scalars in turbulent diffusion flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 86, 223–236 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, “Piloted diffusion flames of diluted methane near extinction: detailed structure from laser measurements,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 72, 255–269 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

A. R. Masri, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, “Turbulent non-Premixed flames of methane near extinction: mean structure from Raman measurements,” Combust. and Flame 71, 245–266 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

G. H. Dieke, H. M. Crosswhite, “The ultra-Violet bands of OH: fundamental data,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 2, 97–199 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Barlow, R. S.

A. R. Masri, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, “The structure of turbulent non-Premixed flames of methanol over a range of mixing rates,” Combust. Flame 89, 167–185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Masri, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, “Chemical kinetic effects in nonpremixed flames of H2/CO2 fuel,” Combust. and Flame 91, 285–309 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, “Measurements of conserved scalars in turbulent diffusion flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 86, 223–236 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, “Piloted diffusion flames of diluted methane near extinction: detailed structure from laser measurements,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 72, 255–269 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Barlow, A. Collignon, “Linear LIF measurements of OH in non-Premixed methane–air flames: when are quenching corrections unnecessary?” in Proceedings 29th Aerospace Sciences Meeting (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 555 West 57th Street, New York, N.Y., 1991).
[CrossRef]

Bilger, R. W.

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, M. B. Long, “A method for contour-aligned smoothing of joint 2-D scalar images in turbulent flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 107, 195–203 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, K. M. Lyons, J. H. Frank, M. B. Long, “Conserved scalar measurements in turbulent diffusion flames by a Raman and Rayleigh ribbon imaging method,” Combust. and Flame 99, 347–354 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Bilger, “Conditional moment closure for turbulent reacting flows,” Phys. Fluids A. 5, 436–444 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, “Measurements of conserved scalars in turbulent diffusion flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 86, 223–236 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, “Piloted diffusion flames of diluted methane near extinction: detailed structure from laser measurements,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 72, 255–269 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Masri, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, “Turbulent non-Premixed flames of methane near extinction: mean structure from Raman measurements,” Combust. and Flame 71, 245–266 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Bilger, “The structure of turbulent non-Premixed flames,” in Twenty-Second Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), pp. 475–488.

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, K. M. Lyons, D. F. Marran, M. B. Long, “Planar mixture fraction measurements in turbulent diffusion flames by a joint Rayleigh and fuel LIF method,” presented at the 14th International Colloquium on the Dynamics of Explosions and Reactive Systems, Coimbra, Portugal, 1993.

J. B. Kelman, S. H. Stårner, A. R. Masri, R. W. Bilger, “Wide-field conserved scalar imaging in turbulent diffusion flames by a Raman and Rayleigh method,” in Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 1141–1147.
[CrossRef]

J. H. Frank, K. M. Lyons, D. F. Marran, M. B. Long, S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, “Mixture fraction imaging in turbulent non-Premixed hydrocarbon flames,” in Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 1159–1166.
[CrossRef]

Brown, T. M.

S. P. Nandula, T. M. Brown, R. W. Pitz, “Measurements of scalar dissipation in the reaction zones of turbulent non-premixed H2–air flames,” Combust. and Flame 99, 775–783 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Collignon, A.

R. S. Barlow, A. Collignon, “Linear LIF measurements of OH in non-Premixed methane–air flames: when are quenching corrections unnecessary?” in Proceedings 29th Aerospace Sciences Meeting (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 555 West 57th Street, New York, N.Y., 1991).
[CrossRef]

Crosely, D. R.

N. L. Garland, D. R. Crosely, “On the collisional quenching of electronically excited OH, NH, CH in flames,” in Twenty-First Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1986), pp. 1693–1702.

Crosswhite, H. M.

G. H. Dieke, H. M. Crosswhite, “The ultra-Violet bands of OH: fundamental data,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 2, 97–199 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Dally, B.

B. Dally, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia (personal communication, 1994).

Dibble, R. W.

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, “Measurements of conserved scalars in turbulent diffusion flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 86, 223–236 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Masri, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, “Chemical kinetic effects in nonpremixed flames of H2/CO2 fuel,” Combust. and Flame 91, 285–309 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Masri, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, “The structure of turbulent non-Premixed flames of methanol over a range of mixing rates,” Combust. Flame 89, 167–185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, “Piloted diffusion flames of diluted methane near extinction: detailed structure from laser measurements,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 72, 255–269 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Masri, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, “Turbulent non-Premixed flames of methane near extinction: mean structure from Raman measurements,” Combust. and Flame 71, 245–266 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Masri, R. W. Dibble, “Spontaneous Raman measurements in turbulent CO/H2/N2 flames near extinction,” in Twenty-Second Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), pp. 607–618.

Dieke, G. H.

G. H. Dieke, H. M. Crosswhite, “The ultra-Violet bands of OH: fundamental data,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 2, 97–199 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Frank, J. H.

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, K. M. Lyons, J. H. Frank, M. B. Long, “Conserved scalar measurements in turbulent diffusion flames by a Raman and Rayleigh ribbon imaging method,” Combust. and Flame 99, 347–354 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Frank, K. M. Lyons, D. F. Marran, M. B. Long, S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, “Mixture fraction imaging in turbulent non-Premixed hydrocarbon flames,” in Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 1159–1166.
[CrossRef]

Garland, N. L.

N. L. Garland, D. R. Crosely, “On the collisional quenching of electronically excited OH, NH, CH in flames,” in Twenty-First Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1986), pp. 1693–1702.

Kelman, J. B.

J. B. Kelman, A. R. Masri, “Imaging of reaction zone structure in turbulent diffusion flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kelman, A. R. Masri, “Quantitative imaging of temperature and OH in turbulent diffusion flames using a single laser source,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3992–3999 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Kelman, “Simultaneous laser imaging in turbulent diffusion flames,” Ph.D. dissertation (Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia, 1995).

J. B. Kelman, S. H. Stårner, A. R. Masri, R. W. Bilger, “Wide-field conserved scalar imaging in turbulent diffusion flames by a Raman and Rayleigh method,” in Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 1141–1147.
[CrossRef]

Long, M. B.

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, M. B. Long, “A method for contour-aligned smoothing of joint 2-D scalar images in turbulent flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 107, 195–203 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, K. M. Lyons, J. H. Frank, M. B. Long, “Conserved scalar measurements in turbulent diffusion flames by a Raman and Rayleigh ribbon imaging method,” Combust. and Flame 99, 347–354 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, K. M. Lyons, D. F. Marran, M. B. Long, “Planar mixture fraction measurements in turbulent diffusion flames by a joint Rayleigh and fuel LIF method,” presented at the 14th International Colloquium on the Dynamics of Explosions and Reactive Systems, Coimbra, Portugal, 1993.

J. H. Frank, K. M. Lyons, D. F. Marran, M. B. Long, S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, “Mixture fraction imaging in turbulent non-Premixed hydrocarbon flames,” in Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 1159–1166.
[CrossRef]

Lyons, K. M.

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, K. M. Lyons, J. H. Frank, M. B. Long, “Conserved scalar measurements in turbulent diffusion flames by a Raman and Rayleigh ribbon imaging method,” Combust. and Flame 99, 347–354 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, K. M. Lyons, D. F. Marran, M. B. Long, “Planar mixture fraction measurements in turbulent diffusion flames by a joint Rayleigh and fuel LIF method,” presented at the 14th International Colloquium on the Dynamics of Explosions and Reactive Systems, Coimbra, Portugal, 1993.

J. H. Frank, K. M. Lyons, D. F. Marran, M. B. Long, S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, “Mixture fraction imaging in turbulent non-Premixed hydrocarbon flames,” in Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 1159–1166.
[CrossRef]

Marran, D. F.

J. H. Frank, K. M. Lyons, D. F. Marran, M. B. Long, S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, “Mixture fraction imaging in turbulent non-Premixed hydrocarbon flames,” in Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 1159–1166.
[CrossRef]

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, K. M. Lyons, D. F. Marran, M. B. Long, “Planar mixture fraction measurements in turbulent diffusion flames by a joint Rayleigh and fuel LIF method,” presented at the 14th International Colloquium on the Dynamics of Explosions and Reactive Systems, Coimbra, Portugal, 1993.

Masri, A. R.

J. B. Kelman, A. R. Masri, “Imaging of reaction zone structure in turbulent diffusion flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kelman, A. R. Masri, “Quantitative imaging of temperature and OH in turbulent diffusion flames using a single laser source,” Appl. Opt. 33, 3992–3999 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Masri, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, “Chemical kinetic effects in nonpremixed flames of H2/CO2 fuel,” Combust. and Flame 91, 285–309 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Masri, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, “The structure of turbulent non-Premixed flames of methanol over a range of mixing rates,” Combust. Flame 89, 167–185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Masri, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, “Turbulent non-Premixed flames of methane near extinction: mean structure from Raman measurements,” Combust. and Flame 71, 245–266 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Masri, R. W. Dibble, “Spontaneous Raman measurements in turbulent CO/H2/N2 flames near extinction,” in Twenty-Second Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), pp. 607–618.

J. B. Kelman, S. H. Stårner, A. R. Masri, R. W. Bilger, “Wide-field conserved scalar imaging in turbulent diffusion flames by a Raman and Rayleigh method,” in Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 1141–1147.
[CrossRef]

Nandula, S. P.

S. P. Nandula, T. M. Brown, R. W. Pitz, “Measurements of scalar dissipation in the reaction zones of turbulent non-premixed H2–air flames,” Combust. and Flame 99, 775–783 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Peters, N.

N. Peters, “Laminar flamelet concepts in turbulent combustion,” in Twenty-First Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1986), pp. 231–1250.

N. Peters, “Partially premixed diffusion flamelets in non-Premixed turbulent combustion,” in Twentieth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1984), pp. 353–360.

Pitz, R. W.

S. P. Nandula, T. M. Brown, R. W. Pitz, “Measurements of scalar dissipation in the reaction zones of turbulent non-premixed H2–air flames,” Combust. and Flame 99, 775–783 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stårner, S. H.

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, M. B. Long, “A method for contour-aligned smoothing of joint 2-D scalar images in turbulent flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 107, 195–203 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, K. M. Lyons, J. H. Frank, M. B. Long, “Conserved scalar measurements in turbulent diffusion flames by a Raman and Rayleigh ribbon imaging method,” Combust. and Flame 99, 347–354 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, “Measurements of conserved scalars in turbulent diffusion flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 86, 223–236 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, “Piloted diffusion flames of diluted methane near extinction: detailed structure from laser measurements,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 72, 255–269 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, K. M. Lyons, D. F. Marran, M. B. Long, “Planar mixture fraction measurements in turbulent diffusion flames by a joint Rayleigh and fuel LIF method,” presented at the 14th International Colloquium on the Dynamics of Explosions and Reactive Systems, Coimbra, Portugal, 1993.

J. B. Kelman, S. H. Stårner, A. R. Masri, R. W. Bilger, “Wide-field conserved scalar imaging in turbulent diffusion flames by a Raman and Rayleigh method,” in Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 1141–1147.
[CrossRef]

J. H. Frank, K. M. Lyons, D. F. Marran, M. B. Long, S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, “Mixture fraction imaging in turbulent non-Premixed hydrocarbon flames,” in Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 1159–1166.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Combust. and Flame (4)

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, K. M. Lyons, J. H. Frank, M. B. Long, “Conserved scalar measurements in turbulent diffusion flames by a Raman and Rayleigh ribbon imaging method,” Combust. and Flame 99, 347–354 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Nandula, T. M. Brown, R. W. Pitz, “Measurements of scalar dissipation in the reaction zones of turbulent non-premixed H2–air flames,” Combust. and Flame 99, 775–783 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Masri, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, “Turbulent non-Premixed flames of methane near extinction: mean structure from Raman measurements,” Combust. and Flame 71, 245–266 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Masri, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, “Chemical kinetic effects in nonpremixed flames of H2/CO2 fuel,” Combust. and Flame 91, 285–309 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Flame (1)

A. R. Masri, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, “The structure of turbulent non-Premixed flames of methanol over a range of mixing rates,” Combust. Flame 89, 167–185 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Sci. Technol. (4)

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, “Measurements of conserved scalars in turbulent diffusion flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 86, 223–236 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, M. B. Long, “A method for contour-aligned smoothing of joint 2-D scalar images in turbulent flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 107, 195–203 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kelman, A. R. Masri, “Imaging of reaction zone structure in turbulent diffusion flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol. (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, R. W. Dibble, R. S. Barlow, “Piloted diffusion flames of diluted methane near extinction: detailed structure from laser measurements,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 72, 255–269 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

G. H. Dieke, H. M. Crosswhite, “The ultra-Violet bands of OH: fundamental data,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 2, 97–199 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Fluids A. (1)

R. W. Bilger, “Conditional moment closure for turbulent reacting flows,” Phys. Fluids A. 5, 436–444 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (11)

N. Peters, “Partially premixed diffusion flamelets in non-Premixed turbulent combustion,” in Twentieth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1984), pp. 353–360.

A. R. Masri, R. W. Dibble, “Spontaneous Raman measurements in turbulent CO/H2/N2 flames near extinction,” in Twenty-Second Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), pp. 607–618.

S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, K. M. Lyons, D. F. Marran, M. B. Long, “Planar mixture fraction measurements in turbulent diffusion flames by a joint Rayleigh and fuel LIF method,” presented at the 14th International Colloquium on the Dynamics of Explosions and Reactive Systems, Coimbra, Portugal, 1993.

J. B. Kelman, S. H. Stårner, A. R. Masri, R. W. Bilger, “Wide-field conserved scalar imaging in turbulent diffusion flames by a Raman and Rayleigh method,” in Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 1141–1147.
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kelman, “Simultaneous laser imaging in turbulent diffusion flames,” Ph.D. dissertation (Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia, 1995).

J. H. Frank, K. M. Lyons, D. F. Marran, M. B. Long, S. H. Stårner, R. W. Bilger, “Mixture fraction imaging in turbulent non-Premixed hydrocarbon flames,” in Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 1159–1166.
[CrossRef]

B. Dally, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia (personal communication, 1994).

N. Peters, “Laminar flamelet concepts in turbulent combustion,” in Twenty-First Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1986), pp. 231–1250.

R. W. Bilger, “The structure of turbulent non-Premixed flames,” in Twenty-Second Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), pp. 475–488.

R. S. Barlow, A. Collignon, “Linear LIF measurements of OH in non-Premixed methane–air flames: when are quenching corrections unnecessary?” in Proceedings 29th Aerospace Sciences Meeting (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 555 West 57th Street, New York, N.Y., 1991).
[CrossRef]

N. L. Garland, D. R. Crosely, “On the collisional quenching of electronically excited OH, NH, CH in flames,” in Twenty-First Symposium (International) on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1986), pp. 1693–1702.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical layout for the simultaneous imaging of Rayleigh scattering, fuel Raman scattering, and OH planar LIF in turbulent diffusion flames. The objects are 1, Nd:YAG laser, 170 mJ/pulse at 532 nm; 2, harmonic generator for Nd:YAG laser; 3, tunable dye laser at 566 nm, 40 mJ/pulse; 4, flash-lamp-pumped dye laser, 1.5 J/pulse at 532 nm; 5, fuel Raman intensified CCD camera; 6, Rayleigh scattering intensified CCD camera; 7, OH LIF intensified CCD camera; 8, f/1.2, 55-mm camera lens; 9, f/1.4, 85-mm camera lens; 10, paired f/4.4, 220-mm fused-silica, plano–convex lenses; 11, f/5, 200-mm meniscus lens; 12, f/4.4, 220-mm fused-silica, plano–convex lens; 13, 300-mm cylindrical fused-silica focusing lens; 14, 632- or 690-nm interference filter; 15, 314-nm interference filter; 16, 150-mm radius, 532-nm cylindrical laser mirror; 17, 300-nm dichroic beam splitter; 18, 200-mm cylindrical fused-silica focusing lens; 19, UV mirrors; 20, iris; 21, 532-nm fused-silica beam combiner; 22, 532-nm laser mirror; 23, 45-deg fused-silica beam-steering prism; 24, KDP frequency-doubling crystal; 25, 532-nm dichroic beam splitter; 26, UV laser beam; 27, 532-nm laser beam; 28, combined 532- and 283-nm laser beams; 29, 283-nm laser intensity monitoring beam; 30, wind tunnel; 31, piloted diffusion flame.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Methane–air laminar flames. (a) True and approximated correction factors for nonlinear effects of OH LIF as a function of the mixture fraction with OH concentrations superimposed for a series of strain rates. (b) Expected maximum errors in OH concentrations owing to the difference between true and approximated correction factors for a series of strain rates.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Hydrogen–carbon dioxide laminar flames. (a) True and approximated correction factors for nonlinear effects of OH LIF as a function of the mixture fraction and temperature with OH concentrations superimposed for a series of strain rates. (b) Expected maximum errors in OH concentrations owing to the difference between true approximated correction factors for a series of strain rates.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scatterplots of OH concentrations in turbulent flames with calculated laminar flame profiles superimposed (a) in a methane–air flame at x/D = 20 and U j/U bo = 75%; solid curve, a = 5/s; broken curve, a = 400/s; (b) in a hydrogen–carbon dioxide flame at x/D = 10 and U j/U bo = 85%; solid curve, a = 500/s; broken curve, a = 4000/s.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Images in turbulent nonpremixed methane–air flames at x/D = 20. From the top down in each set: mixture fraction scaled from 0 (black) to 1.1 (white), scalar dissipation rate scaled from 0 (black) to 200/s (white), temperature scaled from 0 (black) to 2500 K (white), and OH concentrations from 0 (black) to 7.8 × 1016 molecules/cc (white). (a) U j/U bo = 50%, (b)U j/U bo = 75%, (c) U j/U bo = 95%.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Line sections of mixture fraction, scalar dissipation rate, temperature, and OH concentration taken in methane–air flames. The sections are taken through the center of the images presented in Fig. 5. (a) U j/U bo = 50%, (b)U j/U bo = 75%, (c) U j/U bo = 95%.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Images in turbulent nonpremixed hydrogen–carbon dioxide flames at x/D = 10. From the top down in each set: mixture fraction scaled from 0 (black) to 1.1 (white), scalar dissipation rate scaled from 0 (black) to 1000/s (white), temperature scaled from 0 (black) to 2500 K (white), and OH concentrations from 0 (black) to 3.4 × 1016 molecules/cc (white). (a) U j/U bo = 50%, (b)U j/U bo = 85%, (c) U j/U bo = 95%.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Line sections of mixture fraction, scalar dissipation rate, temperature, and OH concentration taken in hydrogen–carbon dioxide flames. The sections are taken through the center of the images presented in Fig. 7. (a) U j/U bo = 50%, (b)U j/U bo = 85%, (c) U j/U bo = 95%.

Equations (9)

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β=Yfu+cpT/Q,
ξ=β-β2/β1-β2=Yfu+cpT-T2/Q/Yfu,1+cp,1T1-T2/Q,
ξ=C1atRm/WRa+C2cpat/Ra-T2,
OH=kCqCgfluorescence/laser energy,
Cq=Qf/Qref,
Q=cXiTMi-0.5σiT,
Cg=Gref/Gf,
OH=kCξ, Tfluorescence/laser energy,
ΔOH=OHlf-OHc=OHlf1-Cξ, t/CqCg,

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