Abstract

We demonstrate and analyze an upconversion blue fiber laser pumped by two wavelengths. Lasing at 0.48 µm with very low pump threshold power is obtained from a Tm-doped fluorozirconate fiber that is counterpropagating pumped by 1.21- and 0.649-µm light. We employed a rate-equation analysis using parameters obtained by fitting to the experimental data to predict the 0.48-µm output characteristics as a function of fiber length and output reflectivity.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, “Room temperature CW tunable green upconversion holmium fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 26, 261–263 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. J. Whitley, C. A. Millar, R. Wyatt, M. C. Brierley, D. Szebesta, “Upconversion pumped green lasing in erbium doped fluorozirconate fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1785–1786 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, “Blue upconversion fluorozirconate fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 26, 166–168 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, W. F. Humer, “CW room-temperature blue upconversion fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1243–1244 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Sanders, R. G. Waarts, D. G. Mehuys, D. F. Welch, “106 mW blue upconversion fiber laser pumped by laser diodes,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995).
  6. G. Tohmon, J. Ohya, H. Sato, “Increased efficiency and decreased threshold in Tm:ZBLAN blue fiber laser co-pumped by 1.1 µm and 0.68 µm light,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 742–744 (1995).
  7. M. P. Le Flohic, J. Y. Allain, G. M. Stepan, G. Maze, “Room-temperature continuous-wave upconversion at 455 nm in a Tm3+ fluorozirconate fiber,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1982–1984 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. S. Funk, J. W. Carlson, J. G. Eden, “Ultraviolet (381 nm), room temperature laser in neodymium-doped fluorozirconate fibre,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1859–1860 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, D. Szebesta, “CW room temperature upconversion lasing at blue, green, and red wavelengths in infrared-pumped Pr+3 doped flouride fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1307–1309 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Tohmon, J. Ohya, H. Sato, T. Uno, “Low-threshold operation of upconversion Tm:ZBLAN fiber blue laser by using a novel pumping scheme,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995).
  11. F. Duclos, R. Urquhart, “Thulium-doped ZBLAN blue upconversion fiber laser: theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 12, 709–717 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. C. Tropper, J. N. Carter, R. D. T. Lauder, D. C. Hanna, “Analysis of blue and red laser performance of the infrared-pumped praseodymium-doped flouride fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 886–893 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Sanz, R. Cases, R. Alcala, “Optical properties of Tm3+ in fluorozirconate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 93, 377–386 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. R. Giles, “Modeling erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 271–283 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. F. Krupke, “Induced-emission cross sections in neodymium laser glasses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-10, 450–457 (1974).
    [CrossRef]

1995

G. Tohmon, J. Ohya, H. Sato, “Increased efficiency and decreased threshold in Tm:ZBLAN blue fiber laser co-pumped by 1.1 µm and 0.68 µm light,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 742–744 (1995).

F. Duclos, R. Urquhart, “Thulium-doped ZBLAN blue upconversion fiber laser: theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 12, 709–717 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

1992

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, W. F. Humer, “CW room-temperature blue upconversion fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1243–1244 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

T. J. Whitley, C. A. Millar, R. Wyatt, M. C. Brierley, D. Szebesta, “Upconversion pumped green lasing in erbium doped fluorozirconate fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1785–1786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, D. Szebesta, “CW room temperature upconversion lasing at blue, green, and red wavelengths in infrared-pumped Pr+3 doped flouride fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1307–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Giles, “Modeling erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 271–283 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, “Blue upconversion fluorozirconate fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 26, 166–168 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, “Room temperature CW tunable green upconversion holmium fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 26, 261–263 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987

J. Sanz, R. Cases, R. Alcala, “Optical properties of Tm3+ in fluorozirconate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 93, 377–386 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1974

W. F. Krupke, “Induced-emission cross sections in neodymium laser glasses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-10, 450–457 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Alcala, R.

J. Sanz, R. Cases, R. Alcala, “Optical properties of Tm3+ in fluorozirconate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 93, 377–386 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Allain, J. Y.

M. P. Le Flohic, J. Y. Allain, G. M. Stepan, G. Maze, “Room-temperature continuous-wave upconversion at 455 nm in a Tm3+ fluorozirconate fiber,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1982–1984 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, “Blue upconversion fluorozirconate fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 26, 166–168 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, “Room temperature CW tunable green upconversion holmium fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 26, 261–263 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, K. W.

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, W. F. Humer, “CW room-temperature blue upconversion fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1243–1244 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brierley, M. C.

T. J. Whitley, C. A. Millar, R. Wyatt, M. C. Brierley, D. Szebesta, “Upconversion pumped green lasing in erbium doped fluorozirconate fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1785–1786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cannon, R. S.

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, W. F. Humer, “CW room-temperature blue upconversion fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1243–1244 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Carlson, J. W.

D. S. Funk, J. W. Carlson, J. G. Eden, “Ultraviolet (381 nm), room temperature laser in neodymium-doped fluorozirconate fibre,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1859–1860 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Carter, J. N.

Carter, S. F.

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, D. Szebesta, “CW room temperature upconversion lasing at blue, green, and red wavelengths in infrared-pumped Pr+3 doped flouride fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1307–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cases, R.

J. Sanz, R. Cases, R. Alcala, “Optical properties of Tm3+ in fluorozirconate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 93, 377–386 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Davey, S. T.

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, D. Szebesta, “CW room temperature upconversion lasing at blue, green, and red wavelengths in infrared-pumped Pr+3 doped flouride fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1307–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Duclos, F.

F. Duclos, R. Urquhart, “Thulium-doped ZBLAN blue upconversion fiber laser: theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 12, 709–717 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Eden, J. G.

D. S. Funk, J. W. Carlson, J. G. Eden, “Ultraviolet (381 nm), room temperature laser in neodymium-doped fluorozirconate fibre,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1859–1860 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Funk, D. S.

D. S. Funk, J. W. Carlson, J. G. Eden, “Ultraviolet (381 nm), room temperature laser in neodymium-doped fluorozirconate fibre,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1859–1860 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Giles, C. R.

C. R. Giles, “Modeling erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 271–283 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Grubb, S. G.

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, W. F. Humer, “CW room-temperature blue upconversion fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1243–1244 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

A. C. Tropper, J. N. Carter, R. D. T. Lauder, D. C. Hanna, “Analysis of blue and red laser performance of the infrared-pumped praseodymium-doped flouride fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 886–893 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, D. Szebesta, “CW room temperature upconversion lasing at blue, green, and red wavelengths in infrared-pumped Pr+3 doped flouride fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1307–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Humer, W. F.

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, W. F. Humer, “CW room-temperature blue upconversion fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1243–1244 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Krupke, W. F.

W. F. Krupke, “Induced-emission cross sections in neodymium laser glasses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-10, 450–457 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Lauder, R. D. T.

Le Flohic, M. P.

Maze, G.

Mehuys, D. G.

S. Sanders, R. G. Waarts, D. G. Mehuys, D. F. Welch, “106 mW blue upconversion fiber laser pumped by laser diodes,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Millar, C. A.

T. J. Whitley, C. A. Millar, R. Wyatt, M. C. Brierley, D. Szebesta, “Upconversion pumped green lasing in erbium doped fluorozirconate fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1785–1786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Monerie, M.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, “Room temperature CW tunable green upconversion holmium fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 26, 261–263 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, “Blue upconversion fluorozirconate fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 26, 166–168 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ohya, J.

G. Tohmon, J. Ohya, H. Sato, “Increased efficiency and decreased threshold in Tm:ZBLAN blue fiber laser co-pumped by 1.1 µm and 0.68 µm light,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 742–744 (1995).

G. Tohmon, J. Ohya, H. Sato, T. Uno, “Low-threshold operation of upconversion Tm:ZBLAN fiber blue laser by using a novel pumping scheme,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Poignant, H.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, “Blue upconversion fluorozirconate fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 26, 166–168 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, “Room temperature CW tunable green upconversion holmium fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 26, 261–263 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, S.

S. Sanders, R. G. Waarts, D. G. Mehuys, D. F. Welch, “106 mW blue upconversion fiber laser pumped by laser diodes,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Sanz, J.

J. Sanz, R. Cases, R. Alcala, “Optical properties of Tm3+ in fluorozirconate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 93, 377–386 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sato, H.

G. Tohmon, J. Ohya, H. Sato, “Increased efficiency and decreased threshold in Tm:ZBLAN blue fiber laser co-pumped by 1.1 µm and 0.68 µm light,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 742–744 (1995).

G. Tohmon, J. Ohya, H. Sato, T. Uno, “Low-threshold operation of upconversion Tm:ZBLAN fiber blue laser by using a novel pumping scheme,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Smart, R. G.

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, D. Szebesta, “CW room temperature upconversion lasing at blue, green, and red wavelengths in infrared-pumped Pr+3 doped flouride fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1307–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stepan, G. M.

Szebesta, D.

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, D. Szebesta, “CW room temperature upconversion lasing at blue, green, and red wavelengths in infrared-pumped Pr+3 doped flouride fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1307–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Whitley, C. A. Millar, R. Wyatt, M. C. Brierley, D. Szebesta, “Upconversion pumped green lasing in erbium doped fluorozirconate fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1785–1786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tohmon, G.

G. Tohmon, J. Ohya, H. Sato, “Increased efficiency and decreased threshold in Tm:ZBLAN blue fiber laser co-pumped by 1.1 µm and 0.68 µm light,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 742–744 (1995).

G. Tohmon, J. Ohya, H. Sato, T. Uno, “Low-threshold operation of upconversion Tm:ZBLAN fiber blue laser by using a novel pumping scheme,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Tropper, A. C.

A. C. Tropper, J. N. Carter, R. D. T. Lauder, D. C. Hanna, “Analysis of blue and red laser performance of the infrared-pumped praseodymium-doped flouride fiber laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 886–893 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, D. Szebesta, “CW room temperature upconversion lasing at blue, green, and red wavelengths in infrared-pumped Pr+3 doped flouride fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1307–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Uno, T.

G. Tohmon, J. Ohya, H. Sato, T. Uno, “Low-threshold operation of upconversion Tm:ZBLAN fiber blue laser by using a novel pumping scheme,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Urquhart, R.

F. Duclos, R. Urquhart, “Thulium-doped ZBLAN blue upconversion fiber laser: theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 12, 709–717 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Waarts, R. G.

S. Sanders, R. G. Waarts, D. G. Mehuys, D. F. Welch, “106 mW blue upconversion fiber laser pumped by laser diodes,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Welch, D. F.

S. Sanders, R. G. Waarts, D. G. Mehuys, D. F. Welch, “106 mW blue upconversion fiber laser pumped by laser diodes,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995).

Whitley, T. J.

T. J. Whitley, C. A. Millar, R. Wyatt, M. C. Brierley, D. Szebesta, “Upconversion pumped green lasing in erbium doped fluorozirconate fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1785–1786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wyatt, R.

T. J. Whitley, C. A. Millar, R. Wyatt, M. C. Brierley, D. Szebesta, “Upconversion pumped green lasing in erbium doped fluorozirconate fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1785–1786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, “Room temperature CW tunable green upconversion holmium fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 26, 261–263 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Whitley, C. A. Millar, R. Wyatt, M. C. Brierley, D. Szebesta, “Upconversion pumped green lasing in erbium doped fluorozirconate fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1785–1786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, H. Poignant, “Blue upconversion fluorozirconate fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 26, 166–168 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Grubb, K. W. Bennett, R. S. Cannon, W. F. Humer, “CW room-temperature blue upconversion fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1243–1244 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Funk, J. W. Carlson, J. G. Eden, “Ultraviolet (381 nm), room temperature laser in neodymium-doped fluorozirconate fibre,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1859–1860 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Smart, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, S. T. Davey, S. F. Carter, D. Szebesta, “CW room temperature upconversion lasing at blue, green, and red wavelengths in infrared-pumped Pr+3 doped flouride fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1307–1309 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron

W. F. Krupke, “Induced-emission cross sections in neodymium laser glasses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-10, 450–457 (1974).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

G. Tohmon, J. Ohya, H. Sato, “Increased efficiency and decreased threshold in Tm:ZBLAN blue fiber laser co-pumped by 1.1 µm and 0.68 µm light,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 742–744 (1995).

J. Lightwave Technol.

C. R. Giles, “Modeling erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 271–283 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

J. Sanz, R. Cases, R. Alcala, “Optical properties of Tm3+ in fluorozirconate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 93, 377–386 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.

F. Duclos, R. Urquhart, “Thulium-doped ZBLAN blue upconversion fiber laser: theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 12, 709–717 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

G. Tohmon, J. Ohya, H. Sato, T. Uno, “Low-threshold operation of upconversion Tm:ZBLAN fiber blue laser by using a novel pumping scheme,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995).

S. Sanders, R. G. Waarts, D. G. Mehuys, D. F. Welch, “106 mW blue upconversion fiber laser pumped by laser diodes,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the energy levels of Tm ion. The bold lines show the major transitions, the other lines represent lesser contributions, and the dotted lines show multiphonon relaxation. The numbers to the right of the energy level correspond to the levels used in the equations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the experimental setup for blue fiber lasing.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized blue output power as a function of the ESA pump wavelength. The input pump power at 1.21-µm (GSA) was 11 mW, and the pump power for the red (ESA) was 40 mW. Maximum power was obtained for the ESA wavelength of 0.649 µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Threshold pump power of the ESA pump as a function of wavelength. The minimum threshold power was obtained for the ESA wavelength of 0.648 µm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Blue output power as a function of the GSA wavelength at 1.21 µm for various powers of 0.649-µm pump input.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Threshold characteristics of the blue fiber laser as a function of both pump input powers for various lengths of fiber.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Absorption cross section of GSA. The output spectrum of the laser diode is also shown.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Blue output power as a function of the 1.21-µm pump light for a 1-m fiber length. The open symbols represent the measured values and the curves represent the calculated results.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Output blue power as a function of the fiber length for (a) various reflectivities and (b) reflectivity for various lengths.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Calculated threshold values for various lengths of fiber for output reflectivity of 95%.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Calculated photon flux distribution in the fiber. Although the pump flux distribution is different, the signal flux is nearly the same for copropagating and counterpropagating pumps.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Modeling Parameters

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dN6dt=N1-N6σ16ϕ2+N3-N6σ36ϕ1-N6σ60-N0σ06ϕs-A6N6,
dN4dt=N0-N4σ04ϕ2+N1-N4σ14ϕ1+γ64A6N6-A4N4,
dN3dt=N6-N3σ36ϕ1+A4N4+γ63A6N6-A3N3,
dN2dt=N0-N2σ02ϕ1+γ62A6N6+γ32A3N3-A2N2,
dN1dt=N6-N1σ16ϕ2+γ61A6N6+γ31A3N3+γ21A2N2-A1N1,
N0=Ntotal-N6-N3-N2-N1.
dϕ1dz=N2-N0σ02ϕ1+N6-N3σ36ϕ1-α1ϕ1.
dϕ2dz=N6-N1σ16ϕ2+N4-N0σ04ϕ2-α2ϕ2.
ϕs=ϕs++ϕs-,
dϕs+dz=N6-N0σ60ϕs+-αsϕs+,
dϕs-dz=N6-N0σ60ϕs--αsϕs-,
ϕs+0=ϕs-0Rinput,
ϕs-L=ϕs+LRoutput,
Pout=ϕs+Lhc/λAeffToutput,
σaλ=λa,peak4Iaλ8πcn2τ  Iadλ,

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