Abstract

Flash-lamp-pumped, room-temperature Ho:Tm:Cr:YAG and Ho:Tm:Er:YLF are compared for single but long pulse operation, with pulse lengths of approximately 1.0 µs. Under similar operating conditions in normal-mode operation, a slope efficiency of 0.0331 was observed for Ho:Tm:Er:YLF compared with 0.0047 for Ho:Tm:Cr:YAG. For Q-switched operation, Ho:Tm:Er:YLF yielded a slope efficiency of 0.0075. In comparison, a slope efficiency of 0.0012 was obtained for Ho:Tm:Cr:YAG. Two methods of producing long pulse lengths are compared: pulse selection of normal-mode relaxation oscillations and Q-switching in a long resonator. Theoretical models developed in a companion paper for normal-mode relaxation oscillations and Q-switching in quasi-four-level solid-state lasers are in agreement with the experimental results.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm,Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 924–933 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. P. Barnes, E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, C. J. Lee, “Ho:Tm:Lasers. I. Modelling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 92–103 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. P. Chicklis, C. S. Naiman, R. C. Folweiler, J. C. Doherty, “Stimulated emission in multiply doped Ho3+: YLF and YAG: a comparison,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 225–230 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. W. Duczyanski, G. Huber, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “CW double pumping of the 5I7–5I8 laser transition in Ho3+ garnets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1562–1563 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. V. Zharikov, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, V. G. Ostroumov, Z. S. Saldov, “Chromium doped scandium gallium garnet crystals as active media of lasers utilizing Ho3+ and Tm3+ infrared transitions,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 145–147 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. E. Storm, “Laser characteristics of a Q-switched Ho:Tm:Cr:YAG,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4170–4172 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. J. Quarles, A. Rosenbaum, C. L. Marquardt, L. Esterowitz, “High efficiency 2.09 µm flashlamp pumped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1062–1064 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. R. Bowman, M. J. Winnings, R. C. Y. Auyeung, J. E. Tucker, S. K. Searles, B. J. Feldman, “Laser and spectral properties of Cr,Tm,Ho:YAG at 2.1 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2142–2149 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. P. Barnes, D. J. Gettemy, N. J. Levinos, J. E. Griggs, “TEM00 mode Ho:YLF laser,” in Los Alamos Conference on Optics ’79, D. H. Liebenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE190, 297–304 (1979).
  10. S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2629 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, N. P. Barnes, B. E. Walsh, “YLF isomorphs for Ho and Tm laser applications,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 20 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 335–337.
  12. J. Harrison, G. A. Rines, P. F. Moulton, “Stable relaxation oscillation Nd lasers for long pulse generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 1181–1187 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. P. Barnes, K. E. Murray, M. G. Jani, “Flash-lamp-pumped Ho:Tm:Cr:YAG and Ho:Tm:Er:YLF lasers: modeling of a single, long pulse length comparison,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3363–3374 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. W. A. Clarkson, A. B. Nelson, D. C. Hanna, “Explanation of the mechanism for acousto-optically induced unidirectional operation of a ring laser,” Opt. Lett. 17, 601–603 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

N. P. Barnes, E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, C. J. Lee, “Ho:Tm:Lasers. I. Modelling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 92–103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

W. A. Clarkson, A. B. Nelson, D. C. Hanna, “Explanation of the mechanism for acousto-optically induced unidirectional operation of a ring laser,” Opt. Lett. 17, 601–603 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2629 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

S. R. Bowman, M. J. Winnings, R. C. Y. Auyeung, J. E. Tucker, S. K. Searles, B. J. Feldman, “Laser and spectral properties of Cr,Tm,Ho:YAG at 2.1 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2142–2149 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

G. J. Quarles, A. Rosenbaum, C. L. Marquardt, L. Esterowitz, “High efficiency 2.09 µm flashlamp pumped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1062–1064 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (3)

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm,Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 924–933 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Storm, “Laser characteristics of a Q-switched Ho:Tm:Cr:YAG,” Appl. Opt. 27, 4170–4172 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Harrison, G. A. Rines, P. F. Moulton, “Stable relaxation oscillation Nd lasers for long pulse generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 1181–1187 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

E. W. Duczyanski, G. Huber, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “CW double pumping of the 5I7–5I8 laser transition in Ho3+ garnets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1562–1563 (1986).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Zharikov, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, V. G. Ostroumov, Z. S. Saldov, “Chromium doped scandium gallium garnet crystals as active media of lasers utilizing Ho3+ and Tm3+ infrared transitions,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 145–147 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

E. P. Chicklis, C. S. Naiman, R. C. Folweiler, J. C. Doherty, “Stimulated emission in multiply doped Ho3+: YLF and YAG: a comparison,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 225–230 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Auyeung, R. C. Y.

S. R. Bowman, M. J. Winnings, R. C. Y. Auyeung, J. E. Tucker, S. K. Searles, B. J. Feldman, “Laser and spectral properties of Cr,Tm,Ho:YAG at 2.1 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2142–2149 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, N. P.

N. P. Barnes, K. E. Murray, M. G. Jani, “Flash-lamp-pumped Ho:Tm:Cr:YAG and Ho:Tm:Er:YLF lasers: modeling of a single, long pulse length comparison,” Appl. Opt. 36, 3363–3374 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. P. Barnes, E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, C. J. Lee, “Ho:Tm:Lasers. I. Modelling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 92–103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Barnes, D. J. Gettemy, N. J. Levinos, J. E. Griggs, “TEM00 mode Ho:YLF laser,” in Los Alamos Conference on Optics ’79, D. H. Liebenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE190, 297–304 (1979).

E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, N. P. Barnes, B. E. Walsh, “YLF isomorphs for Ho and Tm laser applications,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 20 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 335–337.

Bowman, S. R.

S. R. Bowman, M. J. Winnings, R. C. Y. Auyeung, J. E. Tucker, S. K. Searles, B. J. Feldman, “Laser and spectral properties of Cr,Tm,Ho:YAG at 2.1 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2142–2149 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm,Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 924–933 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chase, L. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2629 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chicklis, E. P.

E. P. Chicklis, C. S. Naiman, R. C. Folweiler, J. C. Doherty, “Stimulated emission in multiply doped Ho3+: YLF and YAG: a comparison,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 225–230 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Clarkson, W. A.

Doherty, J. C.

E. P. Chicklis, C. S. Naiman, R. C. Folweiler, J. C. Doherty, “Stimulated emission in multiply doped Ho3+: YLF and YAG: a comparison,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 225–230 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Duczyanski, E. W.

E. W. Duczyanski, G. Huber, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “CW double pumping of the 5I7–5I8 laser transition in Ho3+ garnets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1562–1563 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Esterowitz, L.

G. J. Quarles, A. Rosenbaum, C. L. Marquardt, L. Esterowitz, “High efficiency 2.09 µm flashlamp pumped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1062–1064 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fan, T. Y.

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm,Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 924–933 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, B. J.

S. R. Bowman, M. J. Winnings, R. C. Y. Auyeung, J. E. Tucker, S. K. Searles, B. J. Feldman, “Laser and spectral properties of Cr,Tm,Ho:YAG at 2.1 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2142–2149 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Filer, E. D.

N. P. Barnes, E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, C. J. Lee, “Ho:Tm:Lasers. I. Modelling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 92–103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, N. P. Barnes, B. E. Walsh, “YLF isomorphs for Ho and Tm laser applications,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 20 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 335–337.

Folweiler, R. C.

E. P. Chicklis, C. S. Naiman, R. C. Folweiler, J. C. Doherty, “Stimulated emission in multiply doped Ho3+: YLF and YAG: a comparison,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 225–230 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Gettemy, D. J.

N. P. Barnes, D. J. Gettemy, N. J. Levinos, J. E. Griggs, “TEM00 mode Ho:YLF laser,” in Los Alamos Conference on Optics ’79, D. H. Liebenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE190, 297–304 (1979).

Griggs, J. E.

N. P. Barnes, D. J. Gettemy, N. J. Levinos, J. E. Griggs, “TEM00 mode Ho:YLF laser,” in Los Alamos Conference on Optics ’79, D. H. Liebenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE190, 297–304 (1979).

Hanna, D. C.

Harrison, J.

J. Harrison, G. A. Rines, P. F. Moulton, “Stable relaxation oscillation Nd lasers for long pulse generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 1181–1187 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm,Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 924–933 (1988).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Duczyanski, G. Huber, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “CW double pumping of the 5I7–5I8 laser transition in Ho3+ garnets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1562–1563 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jani, M. G.

Kalitin, S. P.

E. V. Zharikov, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, V. G. Ostroumov, Z. S. Saldov, “Chromium doped scandium gallium garnet crystals as active media of lasers utilizing Ho3+ and Tm3+ infrared transitions,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 145–147 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Krupke, W. F.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2629 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kway, W. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2629 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Laptev, V. V.

E. V. Zharikov, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, V. G. Ostroumov, Z. S. Saldov, “Chromium doped scandium gallium garnet crystals as active media of lasers utilizing Ho3+ and Tm3+ infrared transitions,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 145–147 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. J.

N. P. Barnes, E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, C. J. Lee, “Ho:Tm:Lasers. I. Modelling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 92–103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Levinos, N. J.

N. P. Barnes, D. J. Gettemy, N. J. Levinos, J. E. Griggs, “TEM00 mode Ho:YLF laser,” in Los Alamos Conference on Optics ’79, D. H. Liebenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE190, 297–304 (1979).

Marquardt, C. L.

G. J. Quarles, A. Rosenbaum, C. L. Marquardt, L. Esterowitz, “High efficiency 2.09 µm flashlamp pumped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1062–1064 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mitzscherlich, P.

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm,Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 924–933 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, C. A.

N. P. Barnes, E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, C. J. Lee, “Ho:Tm:Lasers. I. Modelling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 92–103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, N. P. Barnes, B. E. Walsh, “YLF isomorphs for Ho and Tm laser applications,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 20 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 335–337.

Moulton, P. F.

J. Harrison, G. A. Rines, P. F. Moulton, “Stable relaxation oscillation Nd lasers for long pulse generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 1181–1187 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Murray, K. E.

Naiman, C. S.

E. P. Chicklis, C. S. Naiman, R. C. Folweiler, J. C. Doherty, “Stimulated emission in multiply doped Ho3+: YLF and YAG: a comparison,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 225–230 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, A. B.

Ostroumov, V. G.

E. V. Zharikov, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, V. G. Ostroumov, Z. S. Saldov, “Chromium doped scandium gallium garnet crystals as active media of lasers utilizing Ho3+ and Tm3+ infrared transitions,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 145–147 (1986).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Duczyanski, G. Huber, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “CW double pumping of the 5I7–5I8 laser transition in Ho3+ garnets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1562–1563 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S. A.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2629 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Quarles, G. J.

G. J. Quarles, A. Rosenbaum, C. L. Marquardt, L. Esterowitz, “High efficiency 2.09 µm flashlamp pumped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1062–1064 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rines, G. A.

J. Harrison, G. A. Rines, P. F. Moulton, “Stable relaxation oscillation Nd lasers for long pulse generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 1181–1187 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rosenbaum, A.

G. J. Quarles, A. Rosenbaum, C. L. Marquardt, L. Esterowitz, “High efficiency 2.09 µm flashlamp pumped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1062–1064 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Saldov, Z. S.

E. V. Zharikov, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, V. G. Ostroumov, Z. S. Saldov, “Chromium doped scandium gallium garnet crystals as active media of lasers utilizing Ho3+ and Tm3+ infrared transitions,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 145–147 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Searles, S. K.

S. R. Bowman, M. J. Winnings, R. C. Y. Auyeung, J. E. Tucker, S. K. Searles, B. J. Feldman, “Laser and spectral properties of Cr,Tm,Ho:YAG at 2.1 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2142–2149 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shcherbakov, I. A.

E. W. Duczyanski, G. Huber, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “CW double pumping of the 5I7–5I8 laser transition in Ho3+ garnets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1562–1563 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Smith, L. K.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2629 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Storm, M. E.

Tucker, J. E.

S. R. Bowman, M. J. Winnings, R. C. Y. Auyeung, J. E. Tucker, S. K. Searles, B. J. Feldman, “Laser and spectral properties of Cr,Tm,Ho:YAG at 2.1 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2142–2149 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, B. E.

E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, N. P. Barnes, B. E. Walsh, “YLF isomorphs for Ho and Tm laser applications,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 20 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 335–337.

Winnings, M. J.

S. R. Bowman, M. J. Winnings, R. C. Y. Auyeung, J. E. Tucker, S. K. Searles, B. J. Feldman, “Laser and spectral properties of Cr,Tm,Ho:YAG at 2.1 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2142–2149 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zharikov, E. V.

E. V. Zharikov, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, V. G. Ostroumov, Z. S. Saldov, “Chromium doped scandium gallium garnet crystals as active media of lasers utilizing Ho3+ and Tm3+ infrared transitions,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 145–147 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

G. J. Quarles, A. Rosenbaum, C. L. Marquardt, L. Esterowitz, “High efficiency 2.09 µm flashlamp pumped laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1062–1064 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Duczyanski, G. Huber, V. G. Ostroumov, I. A. Shcherbakov, “CW double pumping of the 5I7–5I8 laser transition in Ho3+ garnets,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1562–1563 (1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (6)

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm,Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 924–933 (1988).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Barnes, E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, C. J. Lee, “Ho:Tm:Lasers. I. Modelling,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 92–103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Chicklis, C. S. Naiman, R. C. Folweiler, J. C. Doherty, “Stimulated emission in multiply doped Ho3+: YLF and YAG: a comparison,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 225–230 (1972).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Bowman, M. J. Winnings, R. C. Y. Auyeung, J. E. Tucker, S. K. Searles, B. J. Feldman, “Laser and spectral properties of Cr,Tm,Ho:YAG at 2.1 µm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2142–2149 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2629 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Harrison, G. A. Rines, P. F. Moulton, “Stable relaxation oscillation Nd lasers for long pulse generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 1181–1187 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. V. Zharikov, S. P. Kalitin, V. V. Laptev, V. G. Ostroumov, Z. S. Saldov, “Chromium doped scandium gallium garnet crystals as active media of lasers utilizing Ho3+ and Tm3+ infrared transitions,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 145–147 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

N. P. Barnes, D. J. Gettemy, N. J. Levinos, J. E. Griggs, “TEM00 mode Ho:YLF laser,” in Los Alamos Conference on Optics ’79, D. H. Liebenberg, ed., Proc. SPIE190, 297–304 (1979).

E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison, N. P. Barnes, B. E. Walsh, “YLF isomorphs for Ho and Tm laser applications,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, Vol. 20 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 335–337.

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